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Scheduling Fundamentals
Planning and Control
Ver.05 (50 Procedures)
Prepared by:
Engr. Mohamed Maged, MBA, PMP, ACIArb
Profile:
https://luqmanacademy.com/profile/8
Mohamed Maged, MBA, PMP, ACIArb (Prof. Planner)
PgMO - Project Control Manager, MBA, B.Sc. of Civil engineering, with
experience in MENA region of (construction, infrastructure, and roads) Mega
projects, in professions of Contract administration, Procurement, Tender estimating,
Cost control, Planning & Claim analysis.
Certificates & Memberships:
MBA, PMP, ACIArb, AIA Fellow, SCE-PE, SFC & FIDIC Contracts Consultant
M.M. Organized three Annual Conferences of Planning and Project Management (Anniversary of
Facebook Page: Prof.Planner)- American University in Cairo, Aug. 2014, 2015 & Online Sep. 2017.
SlideShare: www.slideshare.net/MohamedMaged8/
YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/ArabPlanners.
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Prof.Planner/
(related groups: Best Advice for Planners/ Cost/ Contract – Public groups)
Scheduling Fundamentals
Interview Tips
Planning (23 Qts)
• Scope and Activities (7 Qts)
• Durations & Relationships (7
Qts)
• Schedule Submittal (9 Qts)
Schedule Update (4 Qts)
Control (22 Qts)
• Analysis and Reporting (6 Qts)
• Delays and Mitigation (8 Qts)
• EOT Claims (8 Qts)
Professional Certificates (1 Qt)
50
Qts
Training Courses:
Planning Interview Questions
Q1 to 23 – Schedule Submittal
Schedule Planning & Control
Q24 to 50 – Update, Reporting, and
EOT Claim … With Samples
May 6, 2019
I2
Section 01
Tips before the
Interview
-Know the company
earlier to make a
connection.
-Look for the stability as
well as the salary.
-Be ready for the
general HR questions
like talk about yourself
..etc.
May 6, 2019
Q&P
1-Initial Time
Schedule Phases
2-Management
Team Engagement
3- Project Lifecycle
and Construction
4- WBS Levels
5- Activities
Decomposition
7- Calendars Identification
6- Long Lead Items
Identification
(Section 03 - Duration & Relationships)
8- Activity Duration
Estimation
9- Productivity
Estimation
10- Relationships Determination
11- Lag Application
12- Milestones Identification
13- LOE Activities Usage
(Section 04 - Schedule Submittal)
14- Critical Path Calculation
15- Open End Activities Check
16- Constraints
Application
17- Floats
Calculation
18- Resource
Loading/
Allocation
19- Resource
Leveling
21- Cash Flow
Considerations
22- Time Schedule Submittal
23- Time Schedule Checks
20- Expenses
Assignment
Control Fundamentals
(Section 06 - Analysis & Reporting)
28- Earned Value
Analysis
29- Forecasting
using EVM
30- Trend Analysis
31- Levels of Reporting
32- BIM and 4D Scheduling
33- Progress Control & Closing
(Section 07 - Delays & Mitigation)
34- Negative Total
Float Cases
35- Float
Ownership Debate
36- Project Delay Reasons
37- Schedule
Compression
Techniques
38- Productivity
Enhancement
39- Prolongation
Cost Eligibility
40- Changes
Implications
41- Revised Schedule Cases
(Section 08 - EOT Claims)
42- Claims and
Disputes
43- EOT Claim
Submittal
44- Concurrent
Delay
45- Time at
Large
46- Delay Analysis
Approaches
47- Delay Analysis
Documents
48- Types of
Contracts
49- Contract
and EOTSection 09: 50- Professional Certificates
Section 01 - Interview Tips
Tentative Schedule
and Methodology
WBS
Activity List
Durations
Calculation Sheet
Milestone List
Network Diagram
and Bar chart
Resource
Histograms
Cash Flow
Project Calendars
Scheduling Fundamentals
(Section 05 - Schedule Update)
24- Time
Schedule
Update
25- Activity %
Complete
Determination
26- Scheduling Approaches
27- Line of Balance
Schedule Update &
progress layout
As-built Schedule
and Close out
report
Monitoring Reports
Cost Control Reports
Delay Analysis
EOT Claim/s
Revised Schedule or
Recovery
Action Plan
Delayed Paths
Deliverables:
Approved Baseline Schedule
……………… Section 10: Samples
Planning Fundamentals
(Section 02 – Scope & Activities)
Planning Fundamentals
(Section 02 - Scope and Activities)
• Initial Time Schedule Phases
• Management Team
Engagement
• Project Lifecycle and
Construction
• WBS Levels
• Activities Decomposition
• Long Lead Items Identification
• Calendars Identification
8
P1
Stakeholders (PM, CM, PM team) develop
the execution methodology and sequence
The planning team uses the methodology
and scope statement to develop the WBS
(P4) and a high level/ tentative schedule
The client/ employer and consultant review
the priorities, requirements, specs. and
contract compliance
The contractor develops a detailed time
schedule (P2) based on the final level 2
approved schedule
The consultant reviews the schedule and the
approved version will be the Baseline
Schedule or the Programme
1- Initial Time Schedule Phases
P2
The management team develops the
construction methodology and decides how to
engage the resources required (make or buy)
The construction methodology and sequence
lead to a level 2 schedule (parametric
estimate) with estimated productivity
The planning team generates detailed
schedule with resources histograms and cash
flow then reviews the leveling and budgeting
The schedule narrative normally includes all the
aforementioned items with the critical path
and calendars
The project management team should review
all these items with the planning team before
submission
2- Management Team Engagement
P3
The project starts by a
need and an idea
The client makes feasibility
study to the idea
Conceptual design confirms
the requirements
Then the detailed design
development
The bidding /tendering to
select constructor
After Construction, project
starts its operation phase
3- Project Lifecycle and Construction
Construction starts with
mobilization and planning
Engineering works include the shop-
drawings and other preparation
Permits are normally required
before execution
The procurement cares about
delivering the required materials
Execution phase takes the
most time and resources
Testing &commissioning are the last
activities for taking over and closing
P4
The work breakdown structure decomposes
the scope of work to manageable levels
The highest level is the overall project or
project phases
The second level of detail goes deeper to
the locations or buildings and work types
The third level of details decompose to the
work elements or floors
The fourth level presents the trades and work
disciplines then the activities take place
4- WBS Levels
P5
The activity list is the next step after the WBS
decomposition to start schedule development
The activity list shall be different from the BOQ
items as the activities should be decomposed
time wise not cost wise
Activities should be divided based on the type
of work, location, and time of execution
The activity list should cover the work scope
even if items are in scope but not stated in the
BOQ. It may be developed more as the project
moves on (Rolling wave planning)
5- Activities Decomposition
Site Preparation
Equipment Base
Equipment
Delivery
Equipment
Installation
P6
The customized or special order materials are
normally critical for construction and should be
ordered early considering its lead time
The procurement team sends inquiries to get
prices and negotiate the best offers along with
the delivery schedule and the payment
method
The management team shall monitor the
manufacturing and shipment of such materials
until the delivery to site
The materials inventory and handling should be
considered if it need special requirements or
just in time until the installation or application
6- Long-Lead Items Identification
P7
Each resource may work different days/ hours
with different holidays which makes the working
days different from the calendar days
The calendars should be defined to be
assigned later for the relevant activities and
resources
The scheduling program (e.g. Primavera) uses
the calendars to derive the activities start and
finish dates based on the duration and
relationships
The right working days and hours lead to
proper calculation of the project duration and
planned dates
7- Calendars Identification
Planning Fundamentals
(Section 03 - Duration & Relationships)
• Activity Duration Estimation
• Productivity Estimation
• Relationships Determination
• Lag Application
• Milestones Identification
• LOE Activities Usage
• Critical Path Calculation
16
P8
The activities types should be determined
based on its dependency considering the
forecasted changes
The fixed duration types fit the task dependent
activities. The other unit related types fit the
resource dependent activities
The activities duration will be calculated due to
the quantity of work, estimated productivity
(P9) of the driving resource, and resources
assigned
Activity duration = quantity / (productivity of
crew * no of crews)
8- Activity Duration Estimation
P9
The productivity dilemma should be
responded using references or the
execution team experience
The execution and management team can
agree about the expected productivity
considering the project conditions
The parametric method will be the basic
concept while the three point can be used
to achieve the most likely productivity
The project duration and productivity will
determine the activities duration and the
required resources
The resources requirements can be revised
according to the reality and learning curves
9- Productivity Estimation
P10
Each activity has stat “S” and finish “F”. These
points are used to link the activities with
relationships
The relationships can be SS, FF, FS, and SF. The
most used is FS: finish to start; where successor
activity starts after the finish of its predecessor
The relationship can be soft or hard logic. The
hard logic is the mandatory, and the soft logic
depends on the execution team discretionary
Two activities can be linked using more than
one link like SS & FF in the same time
The loop of relationships should be avoided
because it prevents the logic application
10- Relationships Determination
P11
Some relationships need waiting (lag) or
overlapping (lead) period
The duration which should be
embedded in the relationship should be
defined based on the logic
The waiting period is positive lag and
the overlap is lead or negative lag
The use of such dependency should be
limited and used only when needed like
the curing duration or similar cases
11- Lag Application
P12
The contractual and important dates
or events should be determined at
the beginning of the project
These events will be defined as
Milestones on the time schedule
The dates or events defined will get
the appropriate type as start or finish
The milestones will be added to the
schedule in a separate WBS and
linked to its logic relationships
12- Milestones Identification
P13
The planning team identifies the activities
which will run with other activities as
indirect or accompany activity
These activities will be added with its cost
per time to accumulate the right total
cost
These activities will be linked with the
related group of activities as SS to the first
ones and FF to the last ones
These activities duration may change with
the update as the start or finish of the
related activities change
13- LOE Activities Usage
P14
The activities durations (P8) and
relationships (P10) drive the project
paths and total duration
The early and late calculations of
activities’ dates lead to the critical
paths and critical activities
The longest path is the critical path
and it can be several paths with
some sub-paths
The critical activities have zero total
float and any delay to it will delay
the project consequently
14- Critical Path Calculation
Planning Fundamentals
(Section 04 - Schedule Submittal)
• Open End Activities Check
• Constraints Application
• Floats Calculation
• Resource Loading/ Allocation
• Resource Leveling
• Expenses Assignment
• Cash Flow Considerations
• Time Schedule Submittal
• Time Schedule Checks
24
P15
All activities should be linked from
start and from finish as well
The sequence can go by linking
successors for all activities then
review any missing logical link
The Primavera log shows the open
end activities while scheduling
These activities should be revisited
to link with the most appropriate
relationship
15- Open End Activities Check
P16
Some dates may be constrained which are
related to external activities or contractual
obligations
These dates can’t be derived from the logical
relationships and constrains may be applied
The type of activity and the constraint type
should be determined and applied
The application of constrains should be limited
and due to necessary needs only, otherwise
the regular logic should be applied
16- Constraints Application
P17
The duration and relationships are used to
calculate the activities start and finish
The forward calculation provides the early
dates and the backward calculation provides
the late dates
The difference between the late and early is
the total float where the activity can delay
without delaying the project
The total float is related to the path not only
the activities and the longest path will have
Total Float (TF)=0 as per (P7)
There are different types of float such as the
free float when the activity can delay without
influencing the immediate successors
17- Floats Calculation
C0
P18
The usage of resources for each activity can
be calculated based on the quantity and
production rate
The resources (3M: Manpower/ labor,
material & Machinery/ equipment) will be
loaded on the activities
The program distributes them equally or as
per the resource curve if used and each
resource can have a price or rate/unit
The program aggregates the resources per
type to get the total resource units required
The resources histograms can be presented
in total or by resource type in intervals daily,
weekly, monthly or otherwise
18- Resource Loading/ Allocation
P19
The max applicable units of each resource
may have limitation therefore this needs to be
considered
The leveling apply the resource limits to avoid
overloading by shifting or extending activity
durations
The sorting should be used to identify the
priorities of the activities in case of changes
due to exceeding the limits cases
If leveling affected the project negatively, then
alternatives may be adopted such as
subcontracting or raising the limits if applicable
19- Resource Leveling
P20
The unrelated costs to direct resources can
be added to the activities in P6 using the
expenses
The expenses may be administrate expenses
or similar costs which will be spent normally
from the petty cash
The total budget cost of the project will
include the expenses as well as the cost of
resources (quantity assigned * unit rate)
The expenses can be added in the budget
while developing the schedule as well as to
be added to the actual while updating
20- Expenses Assignment
P21
The cash or money is the contractor bargain
against the project construction and the
contract normally regulates the payments
which is the employer cash out
The contractor cash out consists of direct and
indirect costs including the head office
overhead then the profit will be added to
reach the prices
The contractor cash in comes from the invoices
and it takes time to be paid with some
deductions and retentions until the taking over
and performance certificate
The gap between the expenditures and cash in
consists the funding gap. The advance
payment helps to overcome this
21- Cash Flow Considerations
May 6, 2019
C1
Cash Flow
Time factor (PV): Inflation & interest
‫اعتماد‬ ‫فتح‬ LC: letter of credit ‫ضمان‬ ‫خطاب‬
Losses: cost or budget overrun
Contractor Cash In = Client Cash Out
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Month01
Month02
Month03
Month04
Month05
Month06
Month07
Month08
Month09
Month10
Month11
Month12
Month13
Month14
Month15
Month16
Month17
Month18
Month19
Month20
PAC
FAC
Cash in Received net
advance added
Cash out
Cash in Invoice gross
P22
The planning team consolidates the time schedule
documents and reviews them with the
management team (P2) to submit for approval
The supporting particulars normally include
narrative of methodology, phasing layout, WBS,
calendars, summary with milestones, CP, resources
histograms with productivity, and cash flow
The approved or consented schedule will be
called the baseline schedule or as per the case
and it will be used for monitoring the progress and
in case of EOT claims
In case of scope/ sequence change or schedule
variance, a revised schedule should be submitted
to be used as a new baseline or it can be called
revised baseline schedule
22- Time Schedule Submittal
P23
Review of a time schedule needs to consider
different checks from the practicability,
contractual and technical perspectives
The time schedule should be consistent with the
contractual dates, values, and obligation. The
schedule probability can be checked using
quantitative schedule risk analysis techniques
The level of details, activity decomposition,
duration, links should be based on proper resource
loading with logic productivity which are
appropriate for monitoring and control purposes
The critical path and total float should be
checked to be logic as well as the near critical
paths. The DCMA 14-Point Assessment Checks can
help in such checks
23- Time Schedule Checks
May 6, 2019
C2
Schedule Planning and Control
Interview Tips
Planning (23 Qts)
• Scope and Activities (7 Qts)
• Durations & Relationships (7
Qts)
• Schedule Submittal (9 Qts)
Schedule Update (4 Qts)
Control (22 Qts)
• Analysis and Reporting (6 Qts)
• Delays and Mitigation (8 Qts)
• EOT Claims (8 Qts)
Professional Certificates (1 Qt)
Deliverables Samples
Planning & Control Deliverables
24-50
Qts
Scheduling Fundamentals
(Section 05 - Schedule Update)
• Time Schedule Update
• Activity % Complete
Determination
• Scheduling Approaches
• Line of Balance
38
P24
At regular intervals, weekly or monthly, the site
team provides the actual data to the planning
team to update the time schedule
The data date is the date of the actual status
collected. The update and reporting may be
done later but considering the right data date
The activities actual data is normally the actual
start date, % completion, the actual finish if 100%
completed. Suspension can be added if any
The actual resources and costs can be added
also or the program will calculate based on the
progress updated
The reaming duration can be entered manually or
as expected finish. Otherwise, The planning
software calculates the remaining duration/ units
24- Time Schedule Update
P25
Progress and remaining calculations are based
on the assigned activity % complete type
The default type is the duration % complete
where the reaming duration will be calculated
with proportional to the remaining percentage
The physical % complete can be used with
steps weight and manual entry for the
remaining or exp. finish
The third type is the unit % complete which can
be used when the schedule is resource driven
25- Activity % Complete Determination
P26
The scheduling options are whether retained
logic (preferred for hard logic domination) or
progress override (preferred for soft logic
domination)
The retained logic method is conservative. It
keeps the predecessors links applicable for the
remaining of any started activity which means
activities can be Interruptible
One the other hand, the progress override
method breaks the predecessors for any
started activity and keep them proceed
continuously until finish
The update methodology can be submitted to
be consented initially or later on including
duration type, percentage type, scheduling
approach, logic change justification and so on
26- Scheduling Approaches
Progress Override Retained Logic
P27
The line of balance approach can be
applicable for planning and monitoring the
linear projects or projects with repetitive
activities
Each activity production rate draws its curve
slope which can be different from the previous
and subsequent activities
The start date can be lagged or the resource
can be changed to balance between these
activities and keeping continuous progress
The resources can be also changed to
balance the productivity and getting one type
of activities in a suitable rate or slope
27- Line of Balance
Control Fundamentals
(Section 06 - Analysis & Reporting)
• Earned Value Analysis
• Forecasting using EVM
• Trend Analysis
• Levels of Reporting
• BIM and 4D Scheduling
• Progress Control & Closing
43
P28
The earned value is a theoretical value create to
control cost and schedule by comparing apple to
apple. EV (earned value) is the budget cost of
work performed (BCWP)
The cost factors are the CV and CPI:
CV = EV – AC, CPI = EV / AC where: AC (actual
cost) is the actual cost of work performed (ACWP)
The schedule factors are the SV and SPI:
SV = EV – PV, SPI = EV / PV where: PV (planned
value) is the budget cost of work scheduled
(BCWS)
All equations begin with EV. The schedule factors
may conflict with the TF indicator (P34) due to the
noncritical and out of sequence activities
28- Earned Value Analysis
P29
The percentages of planned (scheduled) and
performance (actual/ progress) in EVM are
measured with reference to the budget at
completion (BAC) value
The forecasting estimates the estimate at
completion (EAC) with different methods as well
as the EV techniques
The estimate to complete ETC equals the estimate
at completion minus the actual cost as follows:
ETC = EAC - AC
The earned value also can be used to calculate
“to complete performance index (TCPI) showing is
it easier or harder to complete
29- Forecasting using EVM
C3
(Forecast & TCPI)
P30
The slope of progress curve with time is the
trend of the curve which can be used to
expect the completion date if extended
The trend analysis forecasting may conflict with
the schedule update completion date or other
schedule forecasting methods
Hence, the trend analysis method can be
practicable if the remaining work has similar
nature to the current and previous works and
the same resources are continuing
This kind of prediction doesn’t consider the
regular lazy start and lazy finish of the progress
s-curve which can be manually considered
and adjusted if required
30- Trend Analysis
P31
The reporting can be in numerous levels similar to
WBS but to hierarchal like it. There are main four
reporting levels
Executive level reports represent almost monthly
the project status and the forecasting at a glance,
and the summary level digs deeper to the major
trades and areas of concern
The third level can be useful for management by
presenting the work sequence in detail sufficient
to plan and monitor weekly activities and ‘look
ahead programmes’
The site daily level presents logs or tick-sheets,
which are developed and maintained by each
department, section, or trade
31- Levels of Reporting
P32
Building information modeling (BIM) is a
technology of building a 3D intelligent model
for all disciplines (architectural, structural, MEP)
It coordinates and manages the potential
clashes and it can be used to calculate the
materials used quantities
The time dimension can be also added that’s
why it is call 4D scheduling. Other dimensions
can be added such as the cost estimate,
sustainability … etc.
The 4D scheduling presents the planned and
actual on the 3D model by linking the
scheduling software with it
32- BIM and 4D Scheduling
P33
The planning team updates the schedule
and prepare the appropriate reports to
compare the planned and actual
The full scope and critical activities should
be monitored to propose action plans in
case of delays or prepare EOT claims
The time impact of changes should be
analyzed because the sequence or
construction methodology can be affected
The variance should be regularly
investigated with studying the risks and their
potential impacts
The updating remains until reaching the
completion and as built schedule with
participation in the close out report
33- Progress Control & Closing
C4
Control Fundamentals
(Section 07 - Delays & Mitigation)
• Negative Total Float Cases
• Float Ownership Debate
• Project Delay Reasons
• Schedule Compression
Techniques
• Productivity Enhancement
• Prolongation Cost Eligibility
• Changes Implications
• Revised Schedule Cases
52
P34
If the project completion date is imposed or
any other constraints are applied, the delay will
appear as negative total float
The negative total float will show the project
delay or the delayed paths behind the applied
constraints
The amount of delay will equal the value of the
–ve total float. This delay should be recovered if
it is because of the contractor or delay
damages will be applied
The negative total float can appear in the
stage of time schedule development but it will
not be acceptable. Then it presents the delay if
appeared in the time schedule updates
34- Negative Total Float Cases
Constraint
P35
The total float for each activity is the duration
which the activity can be delayed without
delaying the project
The delay of any activity deducts from the total
float of the successor activities on the same
path
The debate is that who can delay activities
within their total float without blame or
negative consequences. Is this a right of the
contractor or of the employer?
Some contracts define the float owner but
otherwise we can use a concept of first come,
first served
35- Float Ownership Debate
P36
The contractor may cause a delay due to
contractor risk event (CRE). In some cases the
employer ERE may cause delays
Exceptional unforeseen events may cause
delays which can be considered as neutral
events. Depending on the case or contract,
this can be excusable non-compensable event
If a delay happens due to CRE, the contractor
shall recover to get relieved from the delay
damages. Otherwise, the contractor will
become entitled to extension of time (EOT)
If the delay happens only due to ERE, the
contractor will become entitled to
prolongation cost (P39) which is the cost
occurred because of the EOT
36- Project Delay Reasons
C5
P37
In case of exceeding the contractual finish
date, the planning team applies the
compression techniques
The activities duration can be decreased by
increasing the resources as practicable
according to law of diminishing returns. This is
called crashing/ crunching
The second technique is called fast tracking by
overlapping the activities which cause a risk of
potential rework
The delay mitigation is a duty of the contractor
but without extra cost. If the employer
requested acceleration with extra cost. The
cost should be agreed or as the case may be
37- Schedule Compression Techniques
P38
The productivity of labors can be enhanced
when required with the same crews using
different methods
The extended hours can be an option as well
as making two shorter shifts day and night if
applicable, but this can’t continue for long
time
The incentives can be a good solution , it builds
competition but the quality should be strictly
controlled. Likewise, assigning the optimum
supervision team enhances the productivity
The training and knowledge transfer from the
skilled productive labors to others can also help
or using smart tools and equipment
38- Productivity Enhancement
C6
P39
The contractor incurs additional time related
costs as a result of the completion of the works
being delayed
If the delay is by an event that is not the
contractor’s responsibility. The contactor
usually becomes eligible for prolongation cost
The compensation should be reasonable to the
damages and additional costs. The contract
can help if the calculation criteria is defined
The prolongation cost consists mainly from the
indirect costs of the superintendence staff,
facilities, offices, … etc.
39- Prolongation Cost Eligibility
P40
The change can be initiated due to
instruction or proposal. The reasons can be
design error, missing data, value
engineering, additional work, or change in
design
The implications may include cost impact
or/ and time impact. The time schedule
will be revised in all cases even if no
impact but there is a change in scope
The impacts should be agreed or
determined. The case can cause a claim
for payment or/and EOT. Otherwise the
case will become a dispute
40- Changes Implications
P41
In some cases, the contractor will revise the
schedule if there is a change/ variation, delay
beyond a threshold, disruption … etc.
The new revision will be applied on the
schedule update. It can be recovery schedule
by to recoup contractor delays to the
contractual completion date
The second case is a revised schedule with/
without new completion date as the case may
be if there is variation with time impact or EOT
The revised schedule will be subject to
approval to become the revised baseline or
the (revised) Programme
41- Revised Schedule Cases
Control Fundamentals
(Section 08 - EOT Claims)
• Claims and Disputes
• EOT Claim Submittal
• Concurrent Delay
• Time at Large
• Delay Analysis Approaches
• Delay Analysis Documents
• Types of Contracts
• Contract and EOT
63
P42
Events may happen and cause delay or cost to
the contractor. If an event is not because of the
contractor and out of his control, it may cause a
contractor claim
The contractor may raise a claim of EOT and/ or
payment what contractor considers himself
entitled to. The employer may claim for payment
by deducting from invoices or for DNP extension
The claims can be agreed, determined, or
decided according to the contract. If the parties
are not dissatisfied it can become final and
binding
If either party is dissatisfied, it may become a
dispute which can be resolved by negotiation,
arbitration or litigation as the case may be
42- Claims and Disputes
P43
The extension of time claim normally consists of
contract particulars, narrative, impacted time
schedule, statement of the claim, and
substantiation documents
The events should be defined with the liability
then the narrative states the cause and effect
with reference to the attached substantiation
documents
The contractual dates and relevant clauses
can be mentioned. It is preferred that the
statement of the claim defines the new
contractual completion date if the EOT agreed
The main purpose of the EOT claim is relieving
the contractor from the delay damages which
the contract stipulates with intervals (daily) and
maximum percentage
43- EOT Claim Submittal
P44
If more than an event delayed the project at the
same time. For example, the contractor is delayed
and the employer caused a delay
The true concurrent delay occurs when the events
happen at the same time but normally the time of
events are different but the effect is concurrent
The contractor will be entitled for EOT for the
excusable delay which is not the responsibility of
the contractor
It will be non-compensable if the CRE exceeds the
ERE. In case of contractor is delayed beyond the
completion date and ERE happened, the period
in between will be in-excusable
44- Concurrent Delay
P45
If there is a protracted delay out of the
contractor’s control and no mechanism to
determine a new contractual completion date
The project may be considered as time at
large
The contractor will be responsible to complete
the project within reasonable time
45- Time at Large
P46
Delays can be analyzed by forward looking which
is called prospective analysis such as: impacted
as-planned, predictive modeling, and 'time
impact analysis‘
On the other hand, after the fact analysis is called
retrospective analysis such as: 'collapsed as-built',
as-built modeling, and windows analysis with
snapshots for every interval
Another classification is based on the general
approach applied such as ‘additive’, ‘subtractive,
and analytical' like 'as-planned versus as-built‘ in
case of Global delay claim (total time claim)
If a delay is protractive, the contractor submits
interim claims with incremental review. The both
prospective and retrospective methods can be
used to determine the likely effect of the delay
46- Delay Analysis Approaches
P47
SCL issued Society of Construction Law Delay and
Disruption Protocol in 2002 and reviewed in 2017. It
consists of 22 core principles
The purpose of the protocol is to resolve these
matters and avoid unnecessary disputes. Don’t
‘wait and see’ regarding impact of delay events
(contemporaneous analysis)
SCL protocol defined the requires for each delay
analysis method such as logic linked baseline,
delay events selection, update programme or
progress information, as-built data
The protocol also includes disruption analysis
methods such as productivity-based methods and
cost-base methods
47- Delay Analysis Documents - SCL
C7
P48
Awareness of contract management is important
for planning teams as well as cost management.
The clients select the contract type based on the
project size, complexity, scope and expected risks
The contracts can be classifies based on cost to
the following types: unit price/ re-measure, fixed
price/ Lump Sum, and Cost Reimbursable/ Cost
plus
The contract delivery systems include Engineering-
Procurement-Construction (EPC), likewise: DESIGN-
BUILD and Turnkey contracts
There is another type has been used by many
governments around the world which is Build-
Operate-Transfer (BOT). According to its parties it’s
also called Public Private Partnership (PPP)
48- Types of Contracts
P49
Contracts help in risk sharing, trust building, and
power control. The most common standard
forms are FIDIC forms, there are other types
such as NEC and JCT
The contracts and especially standard forms
regulate the parties obligations including the
Programme, EOT and claims
In FIDIC 1987 red book for CONSTRUCTION, the
Programme was Sub-Clause 14.1, and in 1999
and 2017 it becomes Sub-Clause 8.3
The FIDIC 2017 Sub-Clause of EOT is the Sub-
Clause no. 8.5 and the Claims Clause is the
Clause no. 20
49- Contract and EOT
P50
The professional certificates are a proof of that
the credential holder has passed the exam, has
a good knowledge, and practice
The most common scheduling certificate is PMI-
SP from US project management institute (PMI)
and PSP from AACE as well
These entities have other professional
certificates such as EVP, CCP, CFCC, and RMP.
There is also the project management
professional certificate (PMP)
The project management professional
certificate (PMP) divides the project
management to 10 knowledge areas consists
of 49 processes from initiating to closing
50- Professional Certificates
PSP EVP CCP CFCC
Schedule Planning & Control
Numerous Samples are included
such as WBS, Reports, EOT Claim,
and Delay Analysis Report
Section 10
Deliverables Samples
Thank You
Don’t Hesitate to contact….
M.Maged
magedkom@gmail.com
mobile : 00966-580264968

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50 Planning Fundamentals V5.0 - procedures only

  • 1. Scheduling Fundamentals Planning and Control Ver.05 (50 Procedures) Prepared by: Engr. Mohamed Maged, MBA, PMP, ACIArb Profile: https://luqmanacademy.com/profile/8
  • 2. Mohamed Maged, MBA, PMP, ACIArb (Prof. Planner) PgMO - Project Control Manager, MBA, B.Sc. of Civil engineering, with experience in MENA region of (construction, infrastructure, and roads) Mega projects, in professions of Contract administration, Procurement, Tender estimating, Cost control, Planning & Claim analysis. Certificates & Memberships: MBA, PMP, ACIArb, AIA Fellow, SCE-PE, SFC & FIDIC Contracts Consultant M.M. Organized three Annual Conferences of Planning and Project Management (Anniversary of Facebook Page: Prof.Planner)- American University in Cairo, Aug. 2014, 2015 & Online Sep. 2017. SlideShare: www.slideshare.net/MohamedMaged8/ YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/ArabPlanners. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Prof.Planner/ (related groups: Best Advice for Planners/ Cost/ Contract – Public groups)
  • 3. Scheduling Fundamentals Interview Tips Planning (23 Qts) • Scope and Activities (7 Qts) • Durations & Relationships (7 Qts) • Schedule Submittal (9 Qts) Schedule Update (4 Qts) Control (22 Qts) • Analysis and Reporting (6 Qts) • Delays and Mitigation (8 Qts) • EOT Claims (8 Qts) Professional Certificates (1 Qt) 50 Qts
  • 4. Training Courses: Planning Interview Questions Q1 to 23 – Schedule Submittal Schedule Planning & Control Q24 to 50 – Update, Reporting, and EOT Claim … With Samples
  • 5. May 6, 2019 I2 Section 01 Tips before the Interview -Know the company earlier to make a connection. -Look for the stability as well as the salary. -Be ready for the general HR questions like talk about yourself ..etc.
  • 7. 1-Initial Time Schedule Phases 2-Management Team Engagement 3- Project Lifecycle and Construction 4- WBS Levels 5- Activities Decomposition 7- Calendars Identification 6- Long Lead Items Identification (Section 03 - Duration & Relationships) 8- Activity Duration Estimation 9- Productivity Estimation 10- Relationships Determination 11- Lag Application 12- Milestones Identification 13- LOE Activities Usage (Section 04 - Schedule Submittal) 14- Critical Path Calculation 15- Open End Activities Check 16- Constraints Application 17- Floats Calculation 18- Resource Loading/ Allocation 19- Resource Leveling 21- Cash Flow Considerations 22- Time Schedule Submittal 23- Time Schedule Checks 20- Expenses Assignment Control Fundamentals (Section 06 - Analysis & Reporting) 28- Earned Value Analysis 29- Forecasting using EVM 30- Trend Analysis 31- Levels of Reporting 32- BIM and 4D Scheduling 33- Progress Control & Closing (Section 07 - Delays & Mitigation) 34- Negative Total Float Cases 35- Float Ownership Debate 36- Project Delay Reasons 37- Schedule Compression Techniques 38- Productivity Enhancement 39- Prolongation Cost Eligibility 40- Changes Implications 41- Revised Schedule Cases (Section 08 - EOT Claims) 42- Claims and Disputes 43- EOT Claim Submittal 44- Concurrent Delay 45- Time at Large 46- Delay Analysis Approaches 47- Delay Analysis Documents 48- Types of Contracts 49- Contract and EOTSection 09: 50- Professional Certificates Section 01 - Interview Tips Tentative Schedule and Methodology WBS Activity List Durations Calculation Sheet Milestone List Network Diagram and Bar chart Resource Histograms Cash Flow Project Calendars Scheduling Fundamentals (Section 05 - Schedule Update) 24- Time Schedule Update 25- Activity % Complete Determination 26- Scheduling Approaches 27- Line of Balance Schedule Update & progress layout As-built Schedule and Close out report Monitoring Reports Cost Control Reports Delay Analysis EOT Claim/s Revised Schedule or Recovery Action Plan Delayed Paths Deliverables: Approved Baseline Schedule ……………… Section 10: Samples Planning Fundamentals (Section 02 – Scope & Activities)
  • 8. Planning Fundamentals (Section 02 - Scope and Activities) • Initial Time Schedule Phases • Management Team Engagement • Project Lifecycle and Construction • WBS Levels • Activities Decomposition • Long Lead Items Identification • Calendars Identification 8
  • 9. P1 Stakeholders (PM, CM, PM team) develop the execution methodology and sequence The planning team uses the methodology and scope statement to develop the WBS (P4) and a high level/ tentative schedule The client/ employer and consultant review the priorities, requirements, specs. and contract compliance The contractor develops a detailed time schedule (P2) based on the final level 2 approved schedule The consultant reviews the schedule and the approved version will be the Baseline Schedule or the Programme 1- Initial Time Schedule Phases
  • 10. P2 The management team develops the construction methodology and decides how to engage the resources required (make or buy) The construction methodology and sequence lead to a level 2 schedule (parametric estimate) with estimated productivity The planning team generates detailed schedule with resources histograms and cash flow then reviews the leveling and budgeting The schedule narrative normally includes all the aforementioned items with the critical path and calendars The project management team should review all these items with the planning team before submission 2- Management Team Engagement
  • 11. P3 The project starts by a need and an idea The client makes feasibility study to the idea Conceptual design confirms the requirements Then the detailed design development The bidding /tendering to select constructor After Construction, project starts its operation phase 3- Project Lifecycle and Construction Construction starts with mobilization and planning Engineering works include the shop- drawings and other preparation Permits are normally required before execution The procurement cares about delivering the required materials Execution phase takes the most time and resources Testing &commissioning are the last activities for taking over and closing
  • 12. P4 The work breakdown structure decomposes the scope of work to manageable levels The highest level is the overall project or project phases The second level of detail goes deeper to the locations or buildings and work types The third level of details decompose to the work elements or floors The fourth level presents the trades and work disciplines then the activities take place 4- WBS Levels
  • 13. P5 The activity list is the next step after the WBS decomposition to start schedule development The activity list shall be different from the BOQ items as the activities should be decomposed time wise not cost wise Activities should be divided based on the type of work, location, and time of execution The activity list should cover the work scope even if items are in scope but not stated in the BOQ. It may be developed more as the project moves on (Rolling wave planning) 5- Activities Decomposition Site Preparation Equipment Base Equipment Delivery Equipment Installation
  • 14. P6 The customized or special order materials are normally critical for construction and should be ordered early considering its lead time The procurement team sends inquiries to get prices and negotiate the best offers along with the delivery schedule and the payment method The management team shall monitor the manufacturing and shipment of such materials until the delivery to site The materials inventory and handling should be considered if it need special requirements or just in time until the installation or application 6- Long-Lead Items Identification
  • 15. P7 Each resource may work different days/ hours with different holidays which makes the working days different from the calendar days The calendars should be defined to be assigned later for the relevant activities and resources The scheduling program (e.g. Primavera) uses the calendars to derive the activities start and finish dates based on the duration and relationships The right working days and hours lead to proper calculation of the project duration and planned dates 7- Calendars Identification
  • 16. Planning Fundamentals (Section 03 - Duration & Relationships) • Activity Duration Estimation • Productivity Estimation • Relationships Determination • Lag Application • Milestones Identification • LOE Activities Usage • Critical Path Calculation 16
  • 17. P8 The activities types should be determined based on its dependency considering the forecasted changes The fixed duration types fit the task dependent activities. The other unit related types fit the resource dependent activities The activities duration will be calculated due to the quantity of work, estimated productivity (P9) of the driving resource, and resources assigned Activity duration = quantity / (productivity of crew * no of crews) 8- Activity Duration Estimation
  • 18. P9 The productivity dilemma should be responded using references or the execution team experience The execution and management team can agree about the expected productivity considering the project conditions The parametric method will be the basic concept while the three point can be used to achieve the most likely productivity The project duration and productivity will determine the activities duration and the required resources The resources requirements can be revised according to the reality and learning curves 9- Productivity Estimation
  • 19. P10 Each activity has stat “S” and finish “F”. These points are used to link the activities with relationships The relationships can be SS, FF, FS, and SF. The most used is FS: finish to start; where successor activity starts after the finish of its predecessor The relationship can be soft or hard logic. The hard logic is the mandatory, and the soft logic depends on the execution team discretionary Two activities can be linked using more than one link like SS & FF in the same time The loop of relationships should be avoided because it prevents the logic application 10- Relationships Determination
  • 20. P11 Some relationships need waiting (lag) or overlapping (lead) period The duration which should be embedded in the relationship should be defined based on the logic The waiting period is positive lag and the overlap is lead or negative lag The use of such dependency should be limited and used only when needed like the curing duration or similar cases 11- Lag Application
  • 21. P12 The contractual and important dates or events should be determined at the beginning of the project These events will be defined as Milestones on the time schedule The dates or events defined will get the appropriate type as start or finish The milestones will be added to the schedule in a separate WBS and linked to its logic relationships 12- Milestones Identification
  • 22. P13 The planning team identifies the activities which will run with other activities as indirect or accompany activity These activities will be added with its cost per time to accumulate the right total cost These activities will be linked with the related group of activities as SS to the first ones and FF to the last ones These activities duration may change with the update as the start or finish of the related activities change 13- LOE Activities Usage
  • 23. P14 The activities durations (P8) and relationships (P10) drive the project paths and total duration The early and late calculations of activities’ dates lead to the critical paths and critical activities The longest path is the critical path and it can be several paths with some sub-paths The critical activities have zero total float and any delay to it will delay the project consequently 14- Critical Path Calculation
  • 24. Planning Fundamentals (Section 04 - Schedule Submittal) • Open End Activities Check • Constraints Application • Floats Calculation • Resource Loading/ Allocation • Resource Leveling • Expenses Assignment • Cash Flow Considerations • Time Schedule Submittal • Time Schedule Checks 24
  • 25. P15 All activities should be linked from start and from finish as well The sequence can go by linking successors for all activities then review any missing logical link The Primavera log shows the open end activities while scheduling These activities should be revisited to link with the most appropriate relationship 15- Open End Activities Check
  • 26. P16 Some dates may be constrained which are related to external activities or contractual obligations These dates can’t be derived from the logical relationships and constrains may be applied The type of activity and the constraint type should be determined and applied The application of constrains should be limited and due to necessary needs only, otherwise the regular logic should be applied 16- Constraints Application
  • 27. P17 The duration and relationships are used to calculate the activities start and finish The forward calculation provides the early dates and the backward calculation provides the late dates The difference between the late and early is the total float where the activity can delay without delaying the project The total float is related to the path not only the activities and the longest path will have Total Float (TF)=0 as per (P7) There are different types of float such as the free float when the activity can delay without influencing the immediate successors 17- Floats Calculation
  • 28. C0
  • 29. P18 The usage of resources for each activity can be calculated based on the quantity and production rate The resources (3M: Manpower/ labor, material & Machinery/ equipment) will be loaded on the activities The program distributes them equally or as per the resource curve if used and each resource can have a price or rate/unit The program aggregates the resources per type to get the total resource units required The resources histograms can be presented in total or by resource type in intervals daily, weekly, monthly or otherwise 18- Resource Loading/ Allocation
  • 30. P19 The max applicable units of each resource may have limitation therefore this needs to be considered The leveling apply the resource limits to avoid overloading by shifting or extending activity durations The sorting should be used to identify the priorities of the activities in case of changes due to exceeding the limits cases If leveling affected the project negatively, then alternatives may be adopted such as subcontracting or raising the limits if applicable 19- Resource Leveling
  • 31. P20 The unrelated costs to direct resources can be added to the activities in P6 using the expenses The expenses may be administrate expenses or similar costs which will be spent normally from the petty cash The total budget cost of the project will include the expenses as well as the cost of resources (quantity assigned * unit rate) The expenses can be added in the budget while developing the schedule as well as to be added to the actual while updating 20- Expenses Assignment
  • 32. P21 The cash or money is the contractor bargain against the project construction and the contract normally regulates the payments which is the employer cash out The contractor cash out consists of direct and indirect costs including the head office overhead then the profit will be added to reach the prices The contractor cash in comes from the invoices and it takes time to be paid with some deductions and retentions until the taking over and performance certificate The gap between the expenditures and cash in consists the funding gap. The advance payment helps to overcome this 21- Cash Flow Considerations
  • 33. May 6, 2019 C1 Cash Flow Time factor (PV): Inflation & interest ‫اعتماد‬ ‫فتح‬ LC: letter of credit ‫ضمان‬ ‫خطاب‬ Losses: cost or budget overrun Contractor Cash In = Client Cash Out 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Month01 Month02 Month03 Month04 Month05 Month06 Month07 Month08 Month09 Month10 Month11 Month12 Month13 Month14 Month15 Month16 Month17 Month18 Month19 Month20 PAC FAC Cash in Received net advance added Cash out Cash in Invoice gross
  • 34. P22 The planning team consolidates the time schedule documents and reviews them with the management team (P2) to submit for approval The supporting particulars normally include narrative of methodology, phasing layout, WBS, calendars, summary with milestones, CP, resources histograms with productivity, and cash flow The approved or consented schedule will be called the baseline schedule or as per the case and it will be used for monitoring the progress and in case of EOT claims In case of scope/ sequence change or schedule variance, a revised schedule should be submitted to be used as a new baseline or it can be called revised baseline schedule 22- Time Schedule Submittal
  • 35. P23 Review of a time schedule needs to consider different checks from the practicability, contractual and technical perspectives The time schedule should be consistent with the contractual dates, values, and obligation. The schedule probability can be checked using quantitative schedule risk analysis techniques The level of details, activity decomposition, duration, links should be based on proper resource loading with logic productivity which are appropriate for monitoring and control purposes The critical path and total float should be checked to be logic as well as the near critical paths. The DCMA 14-Point Assessment Checks can help in such checks 23- Time Schedule Checks
  • 37. Schedule Planning and Control Interview Tips Planning (23 Qts) • Scope and Activities (7 Qts) • Durations & Relationships (7 Qts) • Schedule Submittal (9 Qts) Schedule Update (4 Qts) Control (22 Qts) • Analysis and Reporting (6 Qts) • Delays and Mitigation (8 Qts) • EOT Claims (8 Qts) Professional Certificates (1 Qt) Deliverables Samples Planning & Control Deliverables 24-50 Qts
  • 38. Scheduling Fundamentals (Section 05 - Schedule Update) • Time Schedule Update • Activity % Complete Determination • Scheduling Approaches • Line of Balance 38
  • 39. P24 At regular intervals, weekly or monthly, the site team provides the actual data to the planning team to update the time schedule The data date is the date of the actual status collected. The update and reporting may be done later but considering the right data date The activities actual data is normally the actual start date, % completion, the actual finish if 100% completed. Suspension can be added if any The actual resources and costs can be added also or the program will calculate based on the progress updated The reaming duration can be entered manually or as expected finish. Otherwise, The planning software calculates the remaining duration/ units 24- Time Schedule Update
  • 40. P25 Progress and remaining calculations are based on the assigned activity % complete type The default type is the duration % complete where the reaming duration will be calculated with proportional to the remaining percentage The physical % complete can be used with steps weight and manual entry for the remaining or exp. finish The third type is the unit % complete which can be used when the schedule is resource driven 25- Activity % Complete Determination
  • 41. P26 The scheduling options are whether retained logic (preferred for hard logic domination) or progress override (preferred for soft logic domination) The retained logic method is conservative. It keeps the predecessors links applicable for the remaining of any started activity which means activities can be Interruptible One the other hand, the progress override method breaks the predecessors for any started activity and keep them proceed continuously until finish The update methodology can be submitted to be consented initially or later on including duration type, percentage type, scheduling approach, logic change justification and so on 26- Scheduling Approaches Progress Override Retained Logic
  • 42. P27 The line of balance approach can be applicable for planning and monitoring the linear projects or projects with repetitive activities Each activity production rate draws its curve slope which can be different from the previous and subsequent activities The start date can be lagged or the resource can be changed to balance between these activities and keeping continuous progress The resources can be also changed to balance the productivity and getting one type of activities in a suitable rate or slope 27- Line of Balance
  • 43. Control Fundamentals (Section 06 - Analysis & Reporting) • Earned Value Analysis • Forecasting using EVM • Trend Analysis • Levels of Reporting • BIM and 4D Scheduling • Progress Control & Closing 43
  • 44. P28 The earned value is a theoretical value create to control cost and schedule by comparing apple to apple. EV (earned value) is the budget cost of work performed (BCWP) The cost factors are the CV and CPI: CV = EV – AC, CPI = EV / AC where: AC (actual cost) is the actual cost of work performed (ACWP) The schedule factors are the SV and SPI: SV = EV – PV, SPI = EV / PV where: PV (planned value) is the budget cost of work scheduled (BCWS) All equations begin with EV. The schedule factors may conflict with the TF indicator (P34) due to the noncritical and out of sequence activities 28- Earned Value Analysis
  • 45. P29 The percentages of planned (scheduled) and performance (actual/ progress) in EVM are measured with reference to the budget at completion (BAC) value The forecasting estimates the estimate at completion (EAC) with different methods as well as the EV techniques The estimate to complete ETC equals the estimate at completion minus the actual cost as follows: ETC = EAC - AC The earned value also can be used to calculate “to complete performance index (TCPI) showing is it easier or harder to complete 29- Forecasting using EVM
  • 47. P30 The slope of progress curve with time is the trend of the curve which can be used to expect the completion date if extended The trend analysis forecasting may conflict with the schedule update completion date or other schedule forecasting methods Hence, the trend analysis method can be practicable if the remaining work has similar nature to the current and previous works and the same resources are continuing This kind of prediction doesn’t consider the regular lazy start and lazy finish of the progress s-curve which can be manually considered and adjusted if required 30- Trend Analysis
  • 48. P31 The reporting can be in numerous levels similar to WBS but to hierarchal like it. There are main four reporting levels Executive level reports represent almost monthly the project status and the forecasting at a glance, and the summary level digs deeper to the major trades and areas of concern The third level can be useful for management by presenting the work sequence in detail sufficient to plan and monitor weekly activities and ‘look ahead programmes’ The site daily level presents logs or tick-sheets, which are developed and maintained by each department, section, or trade 31- Levels of Reporting
  • 49. P32 Building information modeling (BIM) is a technology of building a 3D intelligent model for all disciplines (architectural, structural, MEP) It coordinates and manages the potential clashes and it can be used to calculate the materials used quantities The time dimension can be also added that’s why it is call 4D scheduling. Other dimensions can be added such as the cost estimate, sustainability … etc. The 4D scheduling presents the planned and actual on the 3D model by linking the scheduling software with it 32- BIM and 4D Scheduling
  • 50. P33 The planning team updates the schedule and prepare the appropriate reports to compare the planned and actual The full scope and critical activities should be monitored to propose action plans in case of delays or prepare EOT claims The time impact of changes should be analyzed because the sequence or construction methodology can be affected The variance should be regularly investigated with studying the risks and their potential impacts The updating remains until reaching the completion and as built schedule with participation in the close out report 33- Progress Control & Closing
  • 51. C4
  • 52. Control Fundamentals (Section 07 - Delays & Mitigation) • Negative Total Float Cases • Float Ownership Debate • Project Delay Reasons • Schedule Compression Techniques • Productivity Enhancement • Prolongation Cost Eligibility • Changes Implications • Revised Schedule Cases 52
  • 53. P34 If the project completion date is imposed or any other constraints are applied, the delay will appear as negative total float The negative total float will show the project delay or the delayed paths behind the applied constraints The amount of delay will equal the value of the –ve total float. This delay should be recovered if it is because of the contractor or delay damages will be applied The negative total float can appear in the stage of time schedule development but it will not be acceptable. Then it presents the delay if appeared in the time schedule updates 34- Negative Total Float Cases Constraint
  • 54. P35 The total float for each activity is the duration which the activity can be delayed without delaying the project The delay of any activity deducts from the total float of the successor activities on the same path The debate is that who can delay activities within their total float without blame or negative consequences. Is this a right of the contractor or of the employer? Some contracts define the float owner but otherwise we can use a concept of first come, first served 35- Float Ownership Debate
  • 55. P36 The contractor may cause a delay due to contractor risk event (CRE). In some cases the employer ERE may cause delays Exceptional unforeseen events may cause delays which can be considered as neutral events. Depending on the case or contract, this can be excusable non-compensable event If a delay happens due to CRE, the contractor shall recover to get relieved from the delay damages. Otherwise, the contractor will become entitled to extension of time (EOT) If the delay happens only due to ERE, the contractor will become entitled to prolongation cost (P39) which is the cost occurred because of the EOT 36- Project Delay Reasons
  • 56. C5
  • 57. P37 In case of exceeding the contractual finish date, the planning team applies the compression techniques The activities duration can be decreased by increasing the resources as practicable according to law of diminishing returns. This is called crashing/ crunching The second technique is called fast tracking by overlapping the activities which cause a risk of potential rework The delay mitigation is a duty of the contractor but without extra cost. If the employer requested acceleration with extra cost. The cost should be agreed or as the case may be 37- Schedule Compression Techniques
  • 58. P38 The productivity of labors can be enhanced when required with the same crews using different methods The extended hours can be an option as well as making two shorter shifts day and night if applicable, but this can’t continue for long time The incentives can be a good solution , it builds competition but the quality should be strictly controlled. Likewise, assigning the optimum supervision team enhances the productivity The training and knowledge transfer from the skilled productive labors to others can also help or using smart tools and equipment 38- Productivity Enhancement
  • 59. C6
  • 60. P39 The contractor incurs additional time related costs as a result of the completion of the works being delayed If the delay is by an event that is not the contractor’s responsibility. The contactor usually becomes eligible for prolongation cost The compensation should be reasonable to the damages and additional costs. The contract can help if the calculation criteria is defined The prolongation cost consists mainly from the indirect costs of the superintendence staff, facilities, offices, … etc. 39- Prolongation Cost Eligibility
  • 61. P40 The change can be initiated due to instruction or proposal. The reasons can be design error, missing data, value engineering, additional work, or change in design The implications may include cost impact or/ and time impact. The time schedule will be revised in all cases even if no impact but there is a change in scope The impacts should be agreed or determined. The case can cause a claim for payment or/and EOT. Otherwise the case will become a dispute 40- Changes Implications
  • 62. P41 In some cases, the contractor will revise the schedule if there is a change/ variation, delay beyond a threshold, disruption … etc. The new revision will be applied on the schedule update. It can be recovery schedule by to recoup contractor delays to the contractual completion date The second case is a revised schedule with/ without new completion date as the case may be if there is variation with time impact or EOT The revised schedule will be subject to approval to become the revised baseline or the (revised) Programme 41- Revised Schedule Cases
  • 63. Control Fundamentals (Section 08 - EOT Claims) • Claims and Disputes • EOT Claim Submittal • Concurrent Delay • Time at Large • Delay Analysis Approaches • Delay Analysis Documents • Types of Contracts • Contract and EOT 63
  • 64. P42 Events may happen and cause delay or cost to the contractor. If an event is not because of the contractor and out of his control, it may cause a contractor claim The contractor may raise a claim of EOT and/ or payment what contractor considers himself entitled to. The employer may claim for payment by deducting from invoices or for DNP extension The claims can be agreed, determined, or decided according to the contract. If the parties are not dissatisfied it can become final and binding If either party is dissatisfied, it may become a dispute which can be resolved by negotiation, arbitration or litigation as the case may be 42- Claims and Disputes
  • 65. P43 The extension of time claim normally consists of contract particulars, narrative, impacted time schedule, statement of the claim, and substantiation documents The events should be defined with the liability then the narrative states the cause and effect with reference to the attached substantiation documents The contractual dates and relevant clauses can be mentioned. It is preferred that the statement of the claim defines the new contractual completion date if the EOT agreed The main purpose of the EOT claim is relieving the contractor from the delay damages which the contract stipulates with intervals (daily) and maximum percentage 43- EOT Claim Submittal
  • 66. P44 If more than an event delayed the project at the same time. For example, the contractor is delayed and the employer caused a delay The true concurrent delay occurs when the events happen at the same time but normally the time of events are different but the effect is concurrent The contractor will be entitled for EOT for the excusable delay which is not the responsibility of the contractor It will be non-compensable if the CRE exceeds the ERE. In case of contractor is delayed beyond the completion date and ERE happened, the period in between will be in-excusable 44- Concurrent Delay
  • 67. P45 If there is a protracted delay out of the contractor’s control and no mechanism to determine a new contractual completion date The project may be considered as time at large The contractor will be responsible to complete the project within reasonable time 45- Time at Large
  • 68. P46 Delays can be analyzed by forward looking which is called prospective analysis such as: impacted as-planned, predictive modeling, and 'time impact analysis‘ On the other hand, after the fact analysis is called retrospective analysis such as: 'collapsed as-built', as-built modeling, and windows analysis with snapshots for every interval Another classification is based on the general approach applied such as ‘additive’, ‘subtractive, and analytical' like 'as-planned versus as-built‘ in case of Global delay claim (total time claim) If a delay is protractive, the contractor submits interim claims with incremental review. The both prospective and retrospective methods can be used to determine the likely effect of the delay 46- Delay Analysis Approaches
  • 69. P47 SCL issued Society of Construction Law Delay and Disruption Protocol in 2002 and reviewed in 2017. It consists of 22 core principles The purpose of the protocol is to resolve these matters and avoid unnecessary disputes. Don’t ‘wait and see’ regarding impact of delay events (contemporaneous analysis) SCL protocol defined the requires for each delay analysis method such as logic linked baseline, delay events selection, update programme or progress information, as-built data The protocol also includes disruption analysis methods such as productivity-based methods and cost-base methods 47- Delay Analysis Documents - SCL
  • 70. C7
  • 71. P48 Awareness of contract management is important for planning teams as well as cost management. The clients select the contract type based on the project size, complexity, scope and expected risks The contracts can be classifies based on cost to the following types: unit price/ re-measure, fixed price/ Lump Sum, and Cost Reimbursable/ Cost plus The contract delivery systems include Engineering- Procurement-Construction (EPC), likewise: DESIGN- BUILD and Turnkey contracts There is another type has been used by many governments around the world which is Build- Operate-Transfer (BOT). According to its parties it’s also called Public Private Partnership (PPP) 48- Types of Contracts
  • 72. P49 Contracts help in risk sharing, trust building, and power control. The most common standard forms are FIDIC forms, there are other types such as NEC and JCT The contracts and especially standard forms regulate the parties obligations including the Programme, EOT and claims In FIDIC 1987 red book for CONSTRUCTION, the Programme was Sub-Clause 14.1, and in 1999 and 2017 it becomes Sub-Clause 8.3 The FIDIC 2017 Sub-Clause of EOT is the Sub- Clause no. 8.5 and the Claims Clause is the Clause no. 20 49- Contract and EOT
  • 73. P50 The professional certificates are a proof of that the credential holder has passed the exam, has a good knowledge, and practice The most common scheduling certificate is PMI- SP from US project management institute (PMI) and PSP from AACE as well These entities have other professional certificates such as EVP, CCP, CFCC, and RMP. There is also the project management professional certificate (PMP) The project management professional certificate (PMP) divides the project management to 10 knowledge areas consists of 49 processes from initiating to closing 50- Professional Certificates PSP EVP CCP CFCC
  • 74. Schedule Planning & Control Numerous Samples are included such as WBS, Reports, EOT Claim, and Delay Analysis Report Section 10 Deliverables Samples
  • 75. Thank You Don’t Hesitate to contact…. M.Maged magedkom@gmail.com mobile : 00966-580264968