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1
Prof. DR.Rashid Mahmood
Review of Neurophysiology
(Sensory System)
2
Introductory Lecture
Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Abid Hussain,
Vice Principal,
Northwest School of Medicine ,
Peshawar
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
NeurophysiologyNeurophysiology
What is Neurophysiology?What is Neurophysiology?
Neurophysiology is the study of
nervous system function
Control of body functionsControl of body functions
 Nervous systemNervous system
 HormonesHormones
Skeletal muscles
Visceral functions
Somatic NS
Autonom
ic NS
Organization of
Nervous System
6
A system that controls all of the
activities of the body.
The nervous system is made of:
The brain The spinal cord
The nerves The senses
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
7
The Central Nervous System is made
of the brain and the spinal cord.
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
CNSCNS
 Spinal CordSpinal Cord
 Brain StemBrain Stem
 Medulla, pons, and midbrainMedulla, pons, and midbrain
 CerebellumCerebellum
 DiencephalonDiencephalon
 Thalamus and hypothalamusThalamus and hypothalamus
 Cerebral HemispheresCerebral Hemispheres
 Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, andCerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and
amygdalaamygdala
9
An organ that controls your
emotions, your thoughts, and every
movement you make.
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
10
* The brain controls everything in the
body.
* The brain is made of more than 10
billion nerves!
* The brain is divided into three
parts and is protected by the skull.
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
Brain Stem
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 12
Major Levels of Central Nervous
System Function
(1) the spinal cord level,
(2) the lower brain or subcortical level:
medulla,
pons,
mesencephalon,
hypothalamus,
thalamus,
cerebellum, and
basal ganglia
(3) the higher brain or cortical level
Prof..Rashid Mahmood 13
14
* The Cerebrum is the largest part of
the brain. It controls:
1. thinking.
2. memory.
3. speaking.
4. movements
5. Receives/ identifies /processes sensory information
and integrates motor functions
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
Cerebral Hemispheres
• 3 deep nuclei within hemispheres:
• Basal Ganglia
– Receives input from cerebral cortex and project
to frontal cortex
– Regulates movement
• Hippocampus
– Involved in memory
• Amygdala
– Involved with emotions
16Prof..Rashid Mahmood
Functions of Different
Areas of brain
CerebellumCerebellum
18
* The cerebellum is below and to the
back of the cerebrum.
1. controls balance.
2. controls posture.
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
19
* The spinal cord sends messages to the
brain.
* The spinal cord is the part of the
nervous system that connects the brain
to the rest of the nervous system.Prof..Rashid Mahmood
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
20
8
12
5
5
1
Spinal
Segments
Spinal Nerves
(Contain both sensory
and motor nerves)
Spinal Cord
• Ascending pathways
– Carry sensory info from periphery to higher levels of
CNS
• Descending pathways
– Carry motor info from higher levels to motor nerves
that innervate periphery
22
* The outer nervous system is made of
the nerves and the sense organs.
Ear
Eye
Skin
Nerves
Tongue
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
It carries messages between the central
nervous system and the rest of the body
Nose
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 23
Peripheral Nervous System
• Two subdivisions
– Sensory or afferent
– Motor or efferent
• Divisions
• Somatic nervous system
• Autonomic nervous
system (ANS)
» Sympathetic
» Parasympathetic
» Enteric
Sensory Pathway
Motor Pathway
Interneuron
(Integration)
CNSPNS
Receptors
Effector
Tissue
1. Sensory Neuron
3. Motor Neuron
2.Interneuron
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 25
Functional classification
of Neurons
– Sensory or afferent: Action potentials
toward
CNS
– Motor or efferent: Action potentials
away from CNS
– Interneuron : Within CNS from one
neuron to another
Other Classifications of Neurons
• Based on Myelin Sheath
1. Myelinated
2. Unmyelinated
• Based on Structure Self-Study
1. Unipolar
2. Multipolar,
3. Bipolar,
4. Pseudo-unipolar
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 26
27
* An automatic reaction that
happens without thinking about it.
* A reflex happens quickly in
less than a second.
Prof..Rashid Mahmood
28Prof..Rashid Mahmood
Prof..Rashid Mahmood 29
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 30
The Synapse
• Junctional point
between two neurons
that
transmits impulse
from first to the
second Neuron.
(Junction between muscle+
neuron=
Synapse?)
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 31
Classification of Synapses
• Anatomical Classification
• (on the Basis of Communication )
– 1. Axo-Dendritic
– 2. Axo-Somatic
– 3. Axo-Axonic
– 4. Dendro-dendritic (amacrine cells in Eye)
PHYSIOLOGICAL Classification: (According to Nature)
1. Electrical
2. Chemical
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 32
1. Axo-
Dendritic
2. Axo-Somatic
3. Axo-Axonic
4. Dendro-
dendritic
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 33
Electrical Synapse
Gap Junctions in
Cardiac & Smooth
Muscle
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 34
Chemical Synapses
Dr. Rashid Mahmood 35
Properties of Synapses
1. One Way Conduction
2. Synaptic Delay
3. Excitation (EPSP)
4. Inhibition
1. Presynaptic Inhibition
2. Postsynaptic Inhibition
3. Reciprocal Inhibition
5. Synaptic fatigue
6. Summation
1. Spatial summation
2. Temporal summation
7. Facilitation
8. Occlusion& Subliminal
Fringe
9. Convergence
10. Divergence
11. Recruitment
12. Afterdischarge
13. Posttetanic Potentiation
14. Habituation
15. Effect of Acidosis &
Alkalosis
16. Effect of Hypoxia on
Synaptic Transmission
17. Effect of Drugs on Synaptic
Transmission
Classification of Senses
Conscious
– Somatic senses
• Touch / pressure
• Temperature
• Pain
• Proprioception
– Special senses
• Vision
• Hearing
• Taste
• Smell
• Equilibrium
Subconscious
– Somatic stimuli
– Muscle length and
tension
– Visceral stimuli
– Blood pressure
– pH / oxygen content in
blood
– pH of cerebrospinal fluid
– Lung inflation / Deflation
– Osmolarity of body fluids
– Blood glucose level
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 36
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 37
Receptors
• Receptors are transducers which detect the
Change in the environment (stimulus)& converts
it into Propagated action Potential ( impulse).
• The complexity of sensory receptors ranges
from
free nerve endings to
specialized nerve endings
and receptor organ.
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 38
Classification of Receptors
5 types of classification
1. On the basis of Modality of sensations Carried by Receptors
( Five Major Groups )
I. .Mechanoreceptors – ( Mechanical Change )
i. skin tactile – Free Nerve Endings, Hair end organs etc
ii. Deep tissues - ( Pacinian Corpuscles )
iii. Muscles / Tendons (Muscle spindles & Golgi tendons Organs
iv. Hearing - ( Organ of Corti )
v. Equilibrium – ( Vestibular apparatus)
vi. B.P. ( Baroreceptors )
II. Thermoreceptors - Cold & Warm Receptors
III. Nociceptors (pain) - Free Nerve Endings
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 39
Classification of Receptors- contd
• IV. Electromagnetic Receptors (Vision)- Rods &
Cones.
• V. CHEMORECPTORS;
- Taste- Taste Buds
- Smell – Olfactory Epithelium.
- Arterial PO2- Aortic & Carotid Bodies
- PCO2 - Central Chemoreceptors
- Osmolality - Neurons in Supraoptic Nucleus of
Hypothalamus, and
- Blood Glucose, A.A & F.A- Receptors in
Hypothalamus
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 40
Classification of Receptors…contd
2. On the Basis of Distribution in the Body i.e
Somatic (Somesthetic) &
Special Senses
3. On the basis of Origin of Stimuli:
Interoceptors
Proprioceptors
Exteroceptors
4. Structural Classification
Non Encapsulated
Encapsulated
5. On the Basis of Adaptation:
Phasic ( Rapidly Adapting)- Pacinian Corpuscles
Tonic ( Slowly Adapting)- Pain (free Nerve endings)
Classification of Somatic Senses
Somatic Senses
• Mechanoreceptive
Somatic Sensations
– Tactile
– Position
• Thermoreceptive Senses
– Heat
– Cold
• Pain Senses
Special senses
• Vision
• Hearing
• Smell
• Taste
• Equilibrium
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 41
Based on Modality of sensation
Classification of Somatic Senses
• Exteroceptive Sensations
• Interoceptive sensations
– Proprioceptive sensations
• Position
• Muscle, tendon
– Visceral sensations
• Viscera
– Deep sensations
• Bone, fasciae
Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 42
Based on Origin of sensation
Functions of Thalamus
1. Relay center for somatic sensory information to
cerebral cortex
2. Perception of group tactile sensations
3. Perception of Pain sensation
4. Perception of temperature sensation
5. Center for integration & modification of sensory signals
6. Capacity to determine whether a sensation is pleasant
or unpleasant and agreeable or disagreeable
7. Center for sexual sensation
8. Arousal and alertness reaction (connection with
reticular nuclei)
9. Center for reflex activities
10. Center for integration of motor function (cerebellum +
Basal ganglia)
44
Sensory
Pathways
45
Transmission of Somatic Sensations
• All sensory information enter the spinal cord through
dorsal route (Bell Magendie Law) from where they are
carried through any of the following
Ascending Pathways:
1. Dorsal column-medial Laminiscal System.
1. Fasciculus Gracilus (Medial)
2. Fasciculus Cuneatus (Lateral)
2. Antero-lateral system (Spino-thalamic).
1. Anterior Spinothalamic Tract
2. Lateral Spinothalamic tract
1. Spinocerebellar tracts
1. Dorsal
2. ventral
4. Spinotectal, Spino olivary, Spino Vestibular
46
Dorsal Column-Medial
Laminiscal system
• Ist Order N. From Receptor Enter the
spinal cord & divide into Lateral & Medial
Branches.
- The medial Branch goes to the Medulla
(Gracile or Cuneate Nucleus).
- The lateral branch divide & relay in the
Ventral horn to serve as:
1. Local spinal Reflex action
2. for formation of Spino-Cerebellar Tract
3. May accompany dorsal column Tract
• 2nd. Order N. From Gracile or Cuneate N
in the Medulla to the VPL nucleus of the
Thalamus (Ventrobasal Complex)
47
Antero-Lateral
Path
2nd
Order N. From Laminae I,IV,V & VI
Cross to opposite side obliquely,
Ascend up & relay in Anterior & Lat.
White columns of the spinal cord
1. Reticular formation of Brain stem.
2. VPL N & Intralaminar Nuclei of the
Thalamus
3rd
Order N. From Thalamus – Pass
through Internal capsule to the
Primary Sensory Cortex
48 Figure 15.8a, b
Dorsal Column & Anterolateral
49
Somatosensory Cortex I & II
I II
50
Representation of different areas of the Body
in the Somatosensory Cortex-I
Humunculous
Prof..RashidProf..Rashid
MahmoodMahmood 5151
Recommended BooksRecommended Books
TextbooksTextbooks::
1.1. Textbook of MedicalTextbook of Medical
Physiology,Physiology, GuytonGuyton
& Hall, 13& Hall, 13thth
EditionEdition
2.2. Ganong’sGanong’s Review ofReview of
Medical Physiology,Medical Physiology,
2424thth
EditionEdition
3.3. Neurophysiology byNeurophysiology by
Prof. Dr. MasoodProf. Dr. Masood (3(3rdrd
InternationalInternational
Edition)Edition)
4.4. Lecture Notes ofLecture Notes of
NeurophysiologyNeurophysiology byby
Prof. Dr. M. TariqProf. Dr. M. Tariq
(2(2ndnd
Edition)Edition)
Reference booksReference books
 SherwoodSherwood HumanHuman
Physiology from cells to systemsPhysiology from cells to systems
8th edition8th edition
 SherwoodSherwood Principals ofPrincipals of
Human Physiology 9th editionHuman Physiology 9th edition

K.K. SembulingamSembulingam
Essentials of Medical PhysiologyEssentials of Medical Physiology
6th Edition6th Edition
 StuartStuart IraIra FoxFox HumanHuman
PhysiologyPhysiology 13th Edition13th Edition
 Vander,sVander,s Human PhysiologyHuman Physiology
(The Mechanism of Body(The Mechanism of Body
function) 11th Editionfunction) 11th Edition
 Guyton & Hall PhysiologyGuyton & Hall Physiology
ReviewReview (2nd Edition)(2nd Edition)
52
The End
Thank You

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Review of neurophysiology (sensory system) 2016

  • 2. Review of Neurophysiology (Sensory System) 2 Introductory Lecture Courtesy: Prof. Dr. Abid Hussain, Vice Principal, Northwest School of Medicine , Peshawar Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 3. NeurophysiologyNeurophysiology What is Neurophysiology?What is Neurophysiology? Neurophysiology is the study of nervous system function
  • 4. Control of body functionsControl of body functions  Nervous systemNervous system  HormonesHormones Skeletal muscles Visceral functions Somatic NS Autonom ic NS
  • 6. 6 A system that controls all of the activities of the body. The nervous system is made of: The brain The spinal cord The nerves The senses Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 7. 7 The Central Nervous System is made of the brain and the spinal cord. Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 8. CNSCNS  Spinal CordSpinal Cord  Brain StemBrain Stem  Medulla, pons, and midbrainMedulla, pons, and midbrain  CerebellumCerebellum  DiencephalonDiencephalon  Thalamus and hypothalamusThalamus and hypothalamus  Cerebral HemispheresCerebral Hemispheres  Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, andCerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and amygdalaamygdala
  • 9. 9 An organ that controls your emotions, your thoughts, and every movement you make. Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 10. 10 * The brain controls everything in the body. * The brain is made of more than 10 billion nerves! * The brain is divided into three parts and is protected by the skull. Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 12. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 12 Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function (1) the spinal cord level, (2) the lower brain or subcortical level: medulla, pons, mesencephalon, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia (3) the higher brain or cortical level
  • 14. 14 * The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It controls: 1. thinking. 2. memory. 3. speaking. 4. movements 5. Receives/ identifies /processes sensory information and integrates motor functions Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 15. Cerebral Hemispheres • 3 deep nuclei within hemispheres: • Basal Ganglia – Receives input from cerebral cortex and project to frontal cortex – Regulates movement • Hippocampus – Involved in memory • Amygdala – Involved with emotions
  • 16. 16Prof..Rashid Mahmood Functions of Different Areas of brain
  • 18. 18 * The cerebellum is below and to the back of the cerebrum. 1. controls balance. 2. controls posture. Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 19. 19 * The spinal cord sends messages to the brain. * The spinal cord is the part of the nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system.Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 21. Spinal Cord • Ascending pathways – Carry sensory info from periphery to higher levels of CNS • Descending pathways – Carry motor info from higher levels to motor nerves that innervate periphery
  • 22. 22 * The outer nervous system is made of the nerves and the sense organs. Ear Eye Skin Nerves Tongue Prof..Rashid Mahmood It carries messages between the central nervous system and the rest of the body Nose
  • 23. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 23 Peripheral Nervous System • Two subdivisions – Sensory or afferent – Motor or efferent • Divisions • Somatic nervous system • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) » Sympathetic » Parasympathetic » Enteric
  • 25. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 25 Functional classification of Neurons – Sensory or afferent: Action potentials toward CNS – Motor or efferent: Action potentials away from CNS – Interneuron : Within CNS from one neuron to another
  • 26. Other Classifications of Neurons • Based on Myelin Sheath 1. Myelinated 2. Unmyelinated • Based on Structure Self-Study 1. Unipolar 2. Multipolar, 3. Bipolar, 4. Pseudo-unipolar Dr. Rashid Mahmood 26
  • 27. 27 * An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it. * A reflex happens quickly in less than a second. Prof..Rashid Mahmood
  • 30. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 30 The Synapse • Junctional point between two neurons that transmits impulse from first to the second Neuron. (Junction between muscle+ neuron= Synapse?)
  • 31. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 31 Classification of Synapses • Anatomical Classification • (on the Basis of Communication ) – 1. Axo-Dendritic – 2. Axo-Somatic – 3. Axo-Axonic – 4. Dendro-dendritic (amacrine cells in Eye) PHYSIOLOGICAL Classification: (According to Nature) 1. Electrical 2. Chemical
  • 32. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 32 1. Axo- Dendritic 2. Axo-Somatic 3. Axo-Axonic 4. Dendro- dendritic
  • 33. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 33 Electrical Synapse Gap Junctions in Cardiac & Smooth Muscle
  • 34. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 34 Chemical Synapses
  • 35. Dr. Rashid Mahmood 35 Properties of Synapses 1. One Way Conduction 2. Synaptic Delay 3. Excitation (EPSP) 4. Inhibition 1. Presynaptic Inhibition 2. Postsynaptic Inhibition 3. Reciprocal Inhibition 5. Synaptic fatigue 6. Summation 1. Spatial summation 2. Temporal summation 7. Facilitation 8. Occlusion& Subliminal Fringe 9. Convergence 10. Divergence 11. Recruitment 12. Afterdischarge 13. Posttetanic Potentiation 14. Habituation 15. Effect of Acidosis & Alkalosis 16. Effect of Hypoxia on Synaptic Transmission 17. Effect of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission
  • 36. Classification of Senses Conscious – Somatic senses • Touch / pressure • Temperature • Pain • Proprioception – Special senses • Vision • Hearing • Taste • Smell • Equilibrium Subconscious – Somatic stimuli – Muscle length and tension – Visceral stimuli – Blood pressure – pH / oxygen content in blood – pH of cerebrospinal fluid – Lung inflation / Deflation – Osmolarity of body fluids – Blood glucose level Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 36
  • 37. Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 37 Receptors • Receptors are transducers which detect the Change in the environment (stimulus)& converts it into Propagated action Potential ( impulse). • The complexity of sensory receptors ranges from free nerve endings to specialized nerve endings and receptor organ.
  • 38. Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 38 Classification of Receptors 5 types of classification 1. On the basis of Modality of sensations Carried by Receptors ( Five Major Groups ) I. .Mechanoreceptors – ( Mechanical Change ) i. skin tactile – Free Nerve Endings, Hair end organs etc ii. Deep tissues - ( Pacinian Corpuscles ) iii. Muscles / Tendons (Muscle spindles & Golgi tendons Organs iv. Hearing - ( Organ of Corti ) v. Equilibrium – ( Vestibular apparatus) vi. B.P. ( Baroreceptors ) II. Thermoreceptors - Cold & Warm Receptors III. Nociceptors (pain) - Free Nerve Endings
  • 39. Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 39 Classification of Receptors- contd • IV. Electromagnetic Receptors (Vision)- Rods & Cones. • V. CHEMORECPTORS; - Taste- Taste Buds - Smell – Olfactory Epithelium. - Arterial PO2- Aortic & Carotid Bodies - PCO2 - Central Chemoreceptors - Osmolality - Neurons in Supraoptic Nucleus of Hypothalamus, and - Blood Glucose, A.A & F.A- Receptors in Hypothalamus
  • 40. Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 40 Classification of Receptors…contd 2. On the Basis of Distribution in the Body i.e Somatic (Somesthetic) & Special Senses 3. On the basis of Origin of Stimuli: Interoceptors Proprioceptors Exteroceptors 4. Structural Classification Non Encapsulated Encapsulated 5. On the Basis of Adaptation: Phasic ( Rapidly Adapting)- Pacinian Corpuscles Tonic ( Slowly Adapting)- Pain (free Nerve endings)
  • 41. Classification of Somatic Senses Somatic Senses • Mechanoreceptive Somatic Sensations – Tactile – Position • Thermoreceptive Senses – Heat – Cold • Pain Senses Special senses • Vision • Hearing • Smell • Taste • Equilibrium Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 41 Based on Modality of sensation
  • 42. Classification of Somatic Senses • Exteroceptive Sensations • Interoceptive sensations – Proprioceptive sensations • Position • Muscle, tendon – Visceral sensations • Viscera – Deep sensations • Bone, fasciae Dec 10, 2016 Dr. Rashid Mahmood 42 Based on Origin of sensation
  • 43. Functions of Thalamus 1. Relay center for somatic sensory information to cerebral cortex 2. Perception of group tactile sensations 3. Perception of Pain sensation 4. Perception of temperature sensation 5. Center for integration & modification of sensory signals 6. Capacity to determine whether a sensation is pleasant or unpleasant and agreeable or disagreeable 7. Center for sexual sensation 8. Arousal and alertness reaction (connection with reticular nuclei) 9. Center for reflex activities 10. Center for integration of motor function (cerebellum + Basal ganglia)
  • 45. 45 Transmission of Somatic Sensations • All sensory information enter the spinal cord through dorsal route (Bell Magendie Law) from where they are carried through any of the following Ascending Pathways: 1. Dorsal column-medial Laminiscal System. 1. Fasciculus Gracilus (Medial) 2. Fasciculus Cuneatus (Lateral) 2. Antero-lateral system (Spino-thalamic). 1. Anterior Spinothalamic Tract 2. Lateral Spinothalamic tract 1. Spinocerebellar tracts 1. Dorsal 2. ventral 4. Spinotectal, Spino olivary, Spino Vestibular
  • 46. 46 Dorsal Column-Medial Laminiscal system • Ist Order N. From Receptor Enter the spinal cord & divide into Lateral & Medial Branches. - The medial Branch goes to the Medulla (Gracile or Cuneate Nucleus). - The lateral branch divide & relay in the Ventral horn to serve as: 1. Local spinal Reflex action 2. for formation of Spino-Cerebellar Tract 3. May accompany dorsal column Tract • 2nd. Order N. From Gracile or Cuneate N in the Medulla to the VPL nucleus of the Thalamus (Ventrobasal Complex)
  • 47. 47 Antero-Lateral Path 2nd Order N. From Laminae I,IV,V & VI Cross to opposite side obliquely, Ascend up & relay in Anterior & Lat. White columns of the spinal cord 1. Reticular formation of Brain stem. 2. VPL N & Intralaminar Nuclei of the Thalamus 3rd Order N. From Thalamus – Pass through Internal capsule to the Primary Sensory Cortex
  • 48. 48 Figure 15.8a, b Dorsal Column & Anterolateral
  • 50. 50 Representation of different areas of the Body in the Somatosensory Cortex-I Humunculous
  • 51. Prof..RashidProf..Rashid MahmoodMahmood 5151 Recommended BooksRecommended Books TextbooksTextbooks:: 1.1. Textbook of MedicalTextbook of Medical Physiology,Physiology, GuytonGuyton & Hall, 13& Hall, 13thth EditionEdition 2.2. Ganong’sGanong’s Review ofReview of Medical Physiology,Medical Physiology, 2424thth EditionEdition 3.3. Neurophysiology byNeurophysiology by Prof. Dr. MasoodProf. Dr. Masood (3(3rdrd InternationalInternational Edition)Edition) 4.4. Lecture Notes ofLecture Notes of NeurophysiologyNeurophysiology byby Prof. Dr. M. TariqProf. Dr. M. Tariq (2(2ndnd Edition)Edition) Reference booksReference books  SherwoodSherwood HumanHuman Physiology from cells to systemsPhysiology from cells to systems 8th edition8th edition  SherwoodSherwood Principals ofPrincipals of Human Physiology 9th editionHuman Physiology 9th edition  K.K. SembulingamSembulingam Essentials of Medical PhysiologyEssentials of Medical Physiology 6th Edition6th Edition  StuartStuart IraIra FoxFox HumanHuman PhysiologyPhysiology 13th Edition13th Edition  Vander,sVander,s Human PhysiologyHuman Physiology (The Mechanism of Body(The Mechanism of Body function) 11th Editionfunction) 11th Edition  Guyton & Hall PhysiologyGuyton & Hall Physiology ReviewReview (2nd Edition)(2nd Edition)

Editor's Notes

  1. Slide 3: Brain regions and neuronal pathways Certain parts of the brain govern specific functions. Point to areas such as the sensory (orange), motor (blue) and visual cortex (yellow) to highlight their specific functions. Point to the cerebellum (pink) for coordination and to the hippocampus (green) for memory. Indicate that nerve cells or neurons connect one area to another via pathways to send and integrate information. The distances that neurons extend can be short or long. For example; point to the reward pathway (orange). Explain that this pathway is activated when a person receives positive reinforcement for certain behaviors ("reward"). Indicate that you will explain how this happens when a person takes an addictive drug. As another example, point to the thalamus (magenta). This structure receives information about pain coming from the body (magenta line within the spinal cord), and passes the information up to the cortex. Tell the audience that you can look at this in more detail.
  2. Slide 4: Pathway for sensation of pain and reaction to pain This is a long pathway, in which neurons make connections in both the brain and the spinal cord. Explain what happens when one slams a door on one's finger. First, nerve endings in the finger sense the injury to the finger (sensory neurons) and they send impulses along axons to the spinal cord (magenta pathway). Point to each part of the pathway as you explain the flow of information. The incoming axons form a synapse with neurons that project up to the brain. The neurons that travel up the spinal cord then form synapses with neurons in the thalamus, which is a part of the midbrain (magenta circle). The thalamus organizes this information and sends it to the sensory cortex (blue), which interprets the information as pain and directs the nearby motor cortex (orange) to send information back to the thalamus (green pathway). Again, the thalamus organizes this incoming information and sends signals down the spinal cord, which direct motor neurons to the finger and other parts of the body to react to the pain (e.g., shaking the finger or screaming "ouch!").