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Promoting Wellbeing
Applied Social Psychology By M.S. Ahluwalia
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Let’s Start…
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
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Contents
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Wellbeing
A state of human existence in which a
person’s basic needs are adequately met
and satisfied.
11
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Wellbeing
A positive state of human being which
consists of pleasure or happiness and
lies in the actualization of human
potentials.
12
Wellbeing is a broad concept with many aspects…
13
What
is
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
Self-
confidence
Adjustment
Self-esteem
Level of
Aspiration
Self-
concept
Sat-Chit-Ananda – The ‘Indian’ Perspective
• Indian philosophical thought endorses the assumption that the
natural state of the human being is positive - “Sat-Chit-Ananda”
- meaning real internal bliss.
• The striving of a human being is towards actualization and sustenance of this state.
• Thus, the state of a human being is understood to be positive naturally.
14
What
is
Wellbeing
How does one lose Sat-Chit-Ananda?
If the natural human state is Wellbeing, then why and how does one lose it?
• Most of us are born healthy, and made sick as a result of personal misbehaviour and environmental conditions.
• As per the behavioural perspective, the abilities of an individual are optimally manifested only when there is appropriate
action and interaction with a congenial environment.
• Actions, in turn are initiated and directed by:
• Internal factors related to the individual’s personality and
• External factors such as reinforcements.
• Thus, the degree of Wellbeing in an individual is the consequence of the synergy between the personality and
environmental factors.
• Wellbeing is a natural state in human beings while variation of this state is only of degree. This basic assumption of
‘wellness’ as the natural state is the very cause for neglect of the ‘study of wellness’ for long.
15
What
is
Wellbeing
Wellbeing is a Complex Construct
Just as positive affect is not the opposite of negative affect, Wellbeing is not the absence of
mental illness (Ryan & Deci, 2001).
16
What
is
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
Life
Satisfaction
Presence of
Positive
Mood
Absence of
Negative
Mood
These two are not
mutually exclusive.
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
Super-Notes
17
c
Contents
Next >>
Aspects of Wellbeing
18
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
1
Psychological
2
Social and
Emotional
3
Physical
4
Cognitive
What comprises Psychological Wellbeing?
19
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Self-acceptance Personal growth Purpose in life
Environmental
mastery
Autonomy
Positive relations
with others
Social acceptance Social actualization
Social contribution Social coherence Social integration
The elements of Psychological Wellbeing
1. Self-Acceptance
20
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Have a positive attitude towards the self
Accept the multiple aspects of self
Feel positive about life
2. Personal Growth
21
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Have a feeling of continuous development/increasing potential
Feel open to new experience
Feel increasingly knowledgeable and effective
3. Purpose in Life
22
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Have goals
Have a sense of direction in life
Hold beliefs that give purpose to life
4. Mastery of the Environment
23
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Feel competent and able to manage a complex environment
Choose or create personally suitable contexts
5. Autonomy
24
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Be self-determining, independent and regulate behaviours-internally
Resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways
Evaluate self by personal standards.
6. Positive Relations with Others
25
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Have warm, satisfying, trusting relationships and are concerned about others’
welfare
Have strong empathy, affection and intimacy
Understand give and take in human relationships
7. Social Acceptance
26
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Have a positive attitude towards people
Acknowledge others and generally accept people, despite others’ sometimes
complex and perplexing behaviour
8. Social Actualisation
27
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Care about the society
Believe society is positive and think society has potential to grow positively.
It includes the personality traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence
that are each essential for Wellbeing.
9. Social Contribution
28
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Feel they have something valuable to give to society
Think their daily activities are valued by their community
10. Social Coherence
29
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
See a social world that is intelligible, logical and predictable
Care about and are interested in society and community
11. Social Integration
30
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Psychological
Wellbeing
Feel part of community
Think they belong and feel supported
Share commonalities with community
Next >>
Aspects of Wellbeing
31
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
1
Psychological
2
Social and
Emotional
3
Physical
4
Cognitive
What comprises Social and Emotional Wellbeing?
The elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing
32
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Social
and
Emotional
Wellbeing
Development of emotional
understanding and
regulation
Ability to cope with stressors
Development of autonomy
and trust
Development of self-system,
including identity,
self-concept, and self-esteem
Development of empathy
and sympathy
Formation of positive social
relationships with parents,
siblings, and peers.
The elements influence each other…
The elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing influence each other. Each can
be promoted by the others.
Example:
• On the one hand, how well a child’s can regulate his/her emotional reactions
determines the quality of relationships with parents, siblings, and peers.
• On the other hand, loving and supportive relationships with parents, siblings
and peers help to increase feelings of security and happiness and reduce
prevalence of psychological problems and behavioural issues.
33
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Social
and
Emotional
Wellbeing
The elements influence other domains…
• Elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing can promote and be promoted
by the core elements of both the cognitive and physical domain.
Example:
• Warm and responsive parenting styles promote development of trust and
autonomy in the infant
• This fosters feelings of security within the infant
• Which in turn lead to increased exploration of his or her physical
environment.
34
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Social
and
Emotional
Wellbeing
Development and Promotion
• Context plays an important role in the development of the elements of social
emotional Wellbeing.
• Each of the elements in the socio-emotional domain can be promoted through
various interventions.
• Social and emotional Wellbeing can be promoted by:
• Individual characteristics,
• Interpersonal relationships, and
• Environmental factors.
35
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Social
and
Emotional
Wellbeing
Next >>
Aspects of Wellbeing
36
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
1
Psychological
2
Social and
Emotional
3
Physical
4
Cognitive
What comprises Physical Wellbeing?
Key Components of Physical Wellbeing
These elements of physical Wellbeing also contribute to both the socio-emotional development
and the cognitive development.
37
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Physical
Wellbeing
Good nutrition
Preventive health
care
Physical activity
Safety and security
Substance abuse
prevention
Factors Affecting an Individual’s Physical Wellbeing
Physical Wellbeing is affected by the contexts in which people live.
We must consider the entire context in which an individual lives to ensure
that their physical Wellbeing is supported and nurtured.
38
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Physical
Wellbeing
Family’s and societal
system’s values
Community security
Availability and
accessibility of a
public health system
Institutional
practices
Environmental
quality
Accessibility of basic
services
Economic
considerations
Next >>
Aspects of Wellbeing
39
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
1
Psychological
2
Social and
Emotional
3
Physical
4
Cognitive
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Cognition
The processes of perceiving,
remembering, conceiving, judging,
and reasoning in order to obtain and
use knowledge.
40
Communication Skills
• Communication: skills that permit the exchange of thoughts, wishes, and
feelings so necessary to developing and maintaining social relationships with
others (Bornstein, 2003).
• These skills are essential for:
• Adaptation to one’s environment,
• Maintenance of health,
• Participation in productive activities that will improve social and environmental interaction.
41
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Wellbeing
Importance of Cognitive Wellbeing
• As cognitive elements develop and improve, overall Wellbeing will also
improve.
• So, cognitive elements are dependent upon and can be positively impacted
by the external influences to which an individual is exposed.
• To determine cognitive wellbeing it is important to pay attention to both:
• Objective measures of cognitive skills and
• Subjective evaluations of those same skills (Bornstein, 2003).
42
Aspects
of
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Wellbeing
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
Super-Notes
43
c
Contents
Factors Affecting Wellbeing
44
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
Wellbeing
1
Life Stages
2
Personality
Factors
3
Individual
Differences
4
Stress
5
Healthy Values
and Goal
Attainment
1. Life Stages
• Today’s society is driven by competition leading to a lot of pressure on the
people.
• As a result individuals of all ages experience stress from one or the other
source.
• There are certain crucial stages in life which are more prone to
vulnerability. Example: late adolescence and young adulthood.
• Youth, especially students, require counselling for promoting Wellbeing, apart
from career guidance.
45
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
2. Personality Factors
• Research suggests that the level of Wellbeing is determined by stable
individual characteristics called personality traits.
• Cloninger (2006): personality traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-
transcendence are each essential for Wellbeing.
• (Sharma, Sharma and Yadav, 2004): level of Wellbeing is determined by stable self-esteem
and general mental health.
• Hariharan (1995) listed three personality factors that affect Wellbeing:
• General disposition to anticipate
• Flexible coping style
• Judicious use of social support
46
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
3. Individual Differences
• Any activity can not help every person become happier.
• People have varying values, interests, strength and indications which
predispose them to benefit more from some activities than others.
• An act that makes one individual very happy and promotes Wellbeing might
not do so for another. This indicates the role of person-activity fit.
47
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
4. Stress (1/2)
• Environmental difficulties and stress are present universally.
• However, humans are not passive respondents to environmental stimuli so
Wellbeing is not determined solely by environmental factors such as
opportunities and reward.
• Coping and attainment of Wellbeing is dependant on an individual’s
appraisal of the situation vis-à-vis his/her autonomy, competence and
relatedness to handle the environment appropriately so as to restore the
homeostasis and sustain the state of Wellbeing.
48
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
4. Stress (2/2): The Vulnerable and Invulnerable
Invulnerable or resilient:
those who sustain and
promote wellbeing by
functioning optimally
despite multiple
environmental adversities.
Vulnerable: those who
become dysfunctional or
manifest inadequate
functioning owing to the
disadvantaged
environmental conditions.
49
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
Advantaged Laidback
Invulnerable/
Resilient
Vulnerable
Positive Environment Conditions
Adverse/Negative Environment Conditions
Wellness
Present
Wellness
Absent
Some interesting outcomes
that interest researchers
include:
- Presence of Wellbeing in
negative environmental
conditions, where the
invulnerable are located.
- Absence of Wellbeing
despite positive
environmental conditions
i.e., Laidback.
5. Healthy Values and Goal Attainment
• Values, motives and goals are inherently associated with wellbeing and can
have a negative or positive impact.
• There are two kinds of motives:
50
Factors
Affecting
Wellbeing
Wellbeing also results from psychological need satisfaction.
Intrinsic Motives
• Originate from basic psychological
needs satisfaction
• Reflect psychological growth
• Essential to wellbeing
Extrinsic Motives
• Originate from the need to obtain
other people’s approval, admiration,
and praise.
• Reflect the need to avoid social
punishment
• Do not promote wellbeing
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
Super-Notes
51
c
Contents
Assessment of Wellbeing
• Usually done using self-report surveys. Respondent him/herself judges and
reports about:
• his/her life satisfaction and
• frequency of his/her pleasant/unpleasant emotions
• Commonly used surveys include:
• SUBI - Subjective Wellbeing Inventory
• SWLS - Satisfaction With Life Scale
52
Assessment
of
Wellbeing
Subjective Wellbeing Inventory - SUBI
• By Sell and Nagpal, 1992
• Contains 40 items
• Standardized on adult Indian population.
• Assesses subjective Wellbeing of the respondents on 11 factorial
dimensions apart from General Wellbeing. These 11 factors include:
53
Assessment
of
Wellbeing
Positive Affect
[GWB-PA]
Expectation-
Achievement
Congruence
[EAC]
Confidence in
Coping
[CC]
Transcendence
[Trans]
Family Group
Support
[FGS]
Social Support
[SS]
Primary Group
Concern
[PGC]
Inadequate mental
mastery
[IMM]
Perceived Ill-
Health [PIH]
Deficiency in
Social Contacts
[DSC]
General Wellbeing
- Negative Affect
[GWB-NA]
Satisfaction With Life Scale - SWLS
• Assesses life satisfaction of the subjects
• By Diener, Emmons, Larson and Griffin, 1985
• This scale is originally in English language
• Contains five items requiring a general evaluation of the respondent’s life as
whole on a 7-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
• Total score may range from 5 to 35.
• Can be interpreted in terms of absolute as well as relative life satisfaction.
• Score of 20 represents the neutral point on the scale: point at which the respondent is almost equally
satisfied and dissatisfied.
54
Assessment
of
Wellbeing
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
Super-Notes
55
c
Contents
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
56
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
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Cognitive Restructuring
A technique in CBT with the goal of
identifying irrational or unhealthy thoughts
and modifying them to present a more
accurate view of the situation.
57
Cognitive Distortion requires Cognitive Restructuring
58
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Stress leads to
Cognitive Distortion
• All kinds of stressors
exist in the
environment.
• However, it is not the
circumstances per se
but their
interpretation that
leads to stress.
• When the
interpretation of the
stress is severely
exaggerated, it is called
Cognitive Distortion.
Cognitive Restructuring
leads to Wellbeing
• Cognitive
restructuring changes
a perception from
negative to neutral or
positive, thus, making
it less stressful.
• By altering how we
look at the problem we
can feel better.
Promoting Wellbeing using Cognitive Restructuring
How can Wellbeing be promoted?
• Assume responsibility for your own
thoughts
• Face the reality of the situation
• Resolve the causes of stress
• Create/adopt a positive frame of mind
• Fine tune your expectations
• Handle the toxic/negative thoughts
• Use positive affirmations
• Look at the positive aspects of situations
59
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Focus of Cognitive Restructuring
1. Positive self-talk
2. Coping Skills
3. Learned Optimism Training
4. Creative Problem Solving Skills
5. Hope Therapy
6. Communication Skills
1. Positive Self-Talk
• Much of what an individual feels is caused by what
the individual says to himself/ herself.
• 80% or more of the internal dialogue which goes on
within ourselves all day long is with little awareness.
(Davidson, 1988)
• This is because self-talk is automatic and is carried out repeatedly.
• An individual however can make conscious efforts to focus on
positive self-talk.
60
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Self-Talk A coping technique that involves consciously replacing negative self-talk with positive statements.
To promote wellbeing, one must
focus on positive statements
during self-talk:
- I am capable
- I am doing my best
- I can achieve my goal
- I choose to be happy.
2. Coping Skills
• Confrontive Coping is a technique that leads to greater
Wellbeing.
• The strategy calls for:
• Perseverance
• Conviction
• Continued Apprehension of Adversities
• Preparedness to face them
61
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Coping
Coping involves cognitive and behavioural flexibility in the face of environmental demands that
cause stress to the internal and external resources of the individual
Confrontive
Coping
A technique where the individual tries to face the problem squarely – by addressing the crux of
the problem - by winning the situation through logical arguments, aggressive encounters or
convincing methods.
Effective Coping may involve
coping through:
- Passive appraisal
- Reframing
- Spiritual and Religious support
- Social or formal support
3. Learned Optimism Training
62
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
• Learned optimism training is designed to transform negative thinking into
positive cognitive processes that promote flexible thought and resiliency.
• In learned optimism, intervention processes:
• Have three components of explanatory style:
• Permanence
• Pervasiveness
• Personalization
• Are modified with cognitive techniques so that people may respond in a healthier manner to both
positive and negative outcomes of daily events. (Seligman, 1999)
4. Cognitive Problem Solving Skills
63
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
• Finding innovative ways to handle everyday life can promote wellbeing.
Steps of
Problem Solving:
1. Describe the problem
2. Generate ideas
3. Select and Refine Ideas
4. Implement the Selected Idea
5. Evaluate and analyse the action plan
5. Hope Therapy
• A system developed by Lopez, Ulven & Snyder, 2000.
• It is based on the:
• prerequisite skills necessary to produce well conceptualized goal thoughts, along with
• requisite associated pathway and agency thoughts.
64
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Wellbeing is promoted by:
- Helping clients to conceptualize clearer goals
- Producing numerous pathways to attainment of goal
- Summoning the mental energy to maintain pursuit, and
- Reframing insurmountable obstacles as challenges to be
overcome.
6. Communication Skills Training
Good communication skills promote Wellbeing. Communication skills can be
improved by using the following strategies:
• Speak with precision and directness
• Enhance your vocabulary
• Use language appropriate for your listening audience
• Attack issues not people
• Avoid putting others on the defensive
• Avoid asking someone else to pass on your thoughts and feelings to a third
party
• Avoid information overload
• Validate your assumptions
• Resolve problems when they arise
65
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Cognitive
Restructuring
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
66
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
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Behaviour Modification
A treatment approach, based on the principles
of operant conditioning, that
replaces undesirable behaviours with
more desirable ones
through positive or negative reinforcement.
67
Promoting Wellbeing using Behaviour Modification
Steps to Modify Behaviour and Improve Wellbeing:
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Behaviour
Modification
1
Select behaviour
to add or change
2
Establish level of
motivation to
change this
behaviour.
3
Identify changes
in perceptions
and attitudes
desired along with
behaviour change
4
Specify the
new/changed
behaviour to be
adopted.
5
Evaluate
effectiveness of
new behaviour.
6
Evaluate the new
attitude and
decide how
beneficial it was.
68
Promoting Wellbeing using Assertiveness
Assertiveness is an important part of promoting wellbeing. To promote
Wellbeing, one must be assertive.
So, how can you be assertive?
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Behaviour
Modification
69
Assertiveness
The ability to be comfortably strong-willed about one’s thoughts, feelings and actions and be
neither inhibited nor aggressive in actions for the betterment of oneself in the surrounding
environment.
How does Assertiveness reflect in one’s behaviour? How to
be Assertive?
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Behaviour
Modification
70
To say no and not
feel guilty
Take your time to
form responses to
comments or
questions
Ask for assistance
with instructions or
directions
Ask for what you
want
Experience and
express your
feelings
Feel positive about
yourself under any
condition
Make mistakes
without feeling
embarrassed or
guilty
Form your own
opinions and
convictions
Protest unfair
treatment or
criticism
Be recognized for
your achievements
and contributions
Focus on problem,
not on belittling self
or others
Recognize your and
others’ rights -
stand up to protect
them
Overcome feeling
of fear
Handle feeling of
anger
diplomatically
Avoid
manipulation
Disagree
peacefully
Use assertive body
language
Use eye contact
Learn to use ‘I’
statements
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
71
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Yoga
• Yoga is an age-old indigenous technique as well as an art of
healthy living.
• To promote Wellbeing, yoga should be practised regularly
and systematically.
• Awareness of the effects of the various techniques on the
body as well as the psyche is important.
• Studies indicate that people who practice yoga tend to have:
• Positive Self-image
• Greater Self-esteem
• Higher degrees of Self-efficacy
72
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Relaxation
Exercises
Yoga
Meditation
Mental/Visual
Imagery
Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Meditation
• Meditation is:
• considered the oldest form of relaxation.
• a powerful method of coping with stress and promoting Wellbeing.
• simply the process of cleansing or emptying the mind.
• focused concentration and increased awareness of one’s being, at a deeper level.
• a practical, systematic method which enables an individual to gain relaxation, peace and happiness.
• When the mind is emptied of conscious thought, unconscious thoughts can enter consciousness
and bring enlightenment to our lives.
• Bhamgara (1997) considers meditation to be of far greater importance than medication for
whatever afflicts humankind today.
• There are numerous forms of meditation. Common to all of them is a stimulus on which the
one who medicates will focus his/her attention. Example: one’s own breath, a candle flame,
flower, etc. Focusing on such stimuli enables the individual to gain relaxation and achieve
mental Wellbeing.
73
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Relaxation
Exercises
Yoga
Meditation
Mental/Visual
Imagery
Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Imagery
Steps to Initiate Mental Imagery
74
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Relaxation
Exercises
Yoga
Meditation
Mental/Visual
Imagery
Choose a comfortable
setting
• Mental Imagery can be
done anywhere.
• However, you need to get
into a comfortable
position.
• Concentration and
Attitude: Mental imagery
requires sound
concentration, like other
relaxation techniques.
Choose a Visual Theme
• First, decide the purpose of
your visualization.
Example: a healthier
lifestyle.
• Now, from the unlimited
set of mental images you
need to choose a visual
theme to concentrate on.
• Individuals can be asked to
visualize their future in
terms of positive mental
imagery.
• Example: seeing
themselves as getting a
high rank in exams etc.
Take Action
• Once the theme is selected
the individual is guided
through the process of
imagery by the counsellor.
• After the session, they are
asked to channelise their
efforts to make this mental
imagery a reality.
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
75
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Social Support
• Performing an activity as a group or with the support of a close, with
others, it is likely to promote greater and more sustained Wellbeing than
doing the activities alone.
• Wellbeing can be promoted by (Henderson & Brown, 1988) :
• Building a good social-support network
• Nurturing relationships
• Judicious use of social support network
• But, how does Social Support promote individual wellbeing?
76
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Social
Support
How does Social Support promote wellbeing?
Social support promotes Wellbeing as it (Parasuraman et al, 1992):
• satisfies the individual’s need for affiliation
• enhances self-esteem and self-efficacy
• reduces environmental demand or pressure that generate stress
• enhances recipients’ cognitive and behavioural coping strategies.
Instead of having direct effects on stress or health, social support modifies the
relationship between stress and health and protects the individual from
negative consequences of stress (Williams & House, 1985).
77
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Social
Support
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
78
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Time Management
Effective time management techniques like the following can promote wellbeing:
79
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Time
Management
• Create a list of all current responsibilities and tasks.
• Rank these responsibilities and tasks in their order of importance.
Prioritization
• Assign the letters A, B, C, to various responsibilities:
• A for the highest priority activities - Must do immediately
• B for second-priority activities - anything that is not A or C but should do soon
• C for low-priority tasks or things you would like to do - can wait to do
ABC rank-order method
• Assign tasks as urgent - need to be done immediately vs. those that are important and can be done after the urgent tasks.
Important-versus-urgent method
• Allocate time for prioritized responsibilities - match specific tasks/ responsibilities with time periods to complete them.
Scheduling
• Implement the schedule
• Execute responsibilities in a systemic progression of steps ensuring satisfactory completion of each task.
Execution
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
80
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Art
Art promotes Wellbeing by building on the individual’s inner strength and
enhancing an individual’s positive image. It can promote Wellbeing by exercises like:
81
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Art
•A symbol of yourself, a picture of something you identify yourself with or something that gives you inner
strength.
Draw something that represents you
-Any two animals that come to mind, even those that do not exist
-Describe the animals you have drawn in a few words (about three adjectives).
Draw two fantasy animals
-An area that you feel is perhaps a target of stress, one that shows signs of excessive wear and tear, or that does
not feel completely whole.
Healing Images - Draw a picture of a part of
your body you feel needs special attention
-An image that makes you feel relaxed just by thinking about it.
-Example: a place you have never been to but have always wanted to go to.
Draw a peaceful image
-The emotion(s) you are feeling now - Anger, fear, guilt, worry, love, joy, peace. What does it look like to you?
-Try to visualize your emotions on paper.
Draw how you feel now
-Try to include whatever fragments of a particular dream you can recall.
Draw a dream image
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
82
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Journal Writing
How it promotes wellbeing?
• Allows expression of worry.
• Allows emotional catharsis by getting out on paper the
toxic thoughts roaming through one’s mind.
• Helps in self-exploration
• Nurtures self-awareness process and honest
expression.
• Acts as a vehicle for meditation.
• Helps in creative problem solving.
83
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Journal
Writing
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
1. Try to identify the concerns and
problems that cause tension.
2. Ask yourself what emotions are
elicited when these stressors as
encountered.
3. Allow the writing process to
augment your creative process
further.
Journal Writing writing personal events, thoughts, feelings, memories and perceptions in a journal.
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
84
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Humour
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
85
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Humour
• Take your work seriously, take yourself lightly. You are more than your work. A bad day at work,
shouldn’t affect your self-esteem.
• You are a whole person with many aspects and talents, not just a spouse or a professional.
Learn not to take life too seriously
• Humorous events are all around us. Life is full of ironies, incongruencies and just plain funny stuff.
• One’s frame of mind is either receptive to these, or simply dismisses them.
Find one humorous thing a day
• Creativity and humour are virtually inseparable.
• Play with children. Kids have wonderful imaginations. Get inspired!
Work to improve your imagination and creativity
• Buy a notebook and fill it with anything that puts a smile on your face and makes you feel good inside -
cartoons, favourite jokes, letters, funny photographs with your captions attached, love poems, and
personal items (birthday cards, postcards, photographs, etc.).
Start a tickler notebook
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
86
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Music
Key Points to Consider
• Musical selection: Music that is most conducive to relaxation and helps
return to homeostasis should be selected.
• The music should preferably have a slow tempo.
• The selection should be enjoyable rather that disturbing.
• Listening environment: should be comfortable.
• Postures and cognition: Recline in a comfortable position with eyes closed to
minimize distractions.
Not just listening, even making your own music helps.
87
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Music
Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths.
88
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
1
Cognitive
Restructuring
2
Behaviour
Modification
3
Relaxation Exercises
4
Social Support
5
Time Management
6
Art
7
Journal Writing
8
Humour
9
Music
10
Exercise and Nutrition
Next
Promoting Wellbeing using Exercise
The psychological benefits of regular exercise, and the intuitive holistic link between
physical exercise and well-being, are well documented:
• Evidence supports existence of a strong relationship between physical activity and
well-being. Physical activity impacts well-being by:
• preventing mental health problems and
• improving the quality of life for people with mental health problems. (Fox, Boutcher, Faulkner, & Biddle, 2000).
• Any exercise has a de-stressing ability because it burns up the extra energy.
• Exercise increases blood circulation and this improved flow of blood to the brain provides additional supplies
of oxygen and sugars which are essential in helping the individual function properly when stressed.
• Even techniques are walking and simple aerobics are highly desirable.
89
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Exercise
and
Nutrition
Promoting Wellbeing using Nutrition
Well-being is promoted by:
• Eating a well-balanced diet.
• Eating a good breakfast
• Spacing meals evenly throughout the day.
• Avoiding or minimizing the consumption of caffeine and sugar.
• Eating a diet that provides adequate levels of vitamins and minerals.
90
Strategies
to
Promote
Wellbeing
>>
Exercise
and
Nutrition
1. What is Wellbeing
2. Aspects of Wellbeing
3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing
4. Assessment of Wellbeing
5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing
6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations
Promoting
Wellbeing
–
Super-Notes
91
c
Contents
Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus
of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different.
92
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
Different populations, different approaches
Different
Populations
1
Children and
Adolescents
2
Working Population
3
Special Population
4
Elderly
Next
Role of Parents in Promoting Child & Adolescent Wellbeing
• Parents are important influences on children. Compared to the west, parental role
in the life of the Indian adolescent is much greater and the influence exerted on the
wards even stronger.
• Apart from the developmental changes that occur at an accelerating speed, the academic pressures exerted on
them by their parents beset adolescents to even greater pressure.
• Though parental pressure can be positive, most adolescents perceive it as negative. The adolescent perceives this
pressure both as highly threatening and challenging, thereby experiencing intolerable stress.
• They thus, face additional adjustment problems as well.
• Unable to cope with such stressful situations, the adolescent may get frustrated and irritated.
• Parents play a crucial role in promoting well-being in their children : help the child
focus on positive expectations and believe that their efforts would bring them great
success, as negative expectations would increase anxiety and stress.
93
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Children
and
Adolescents
Role of Teachers in Promoting Child & Adolescent Wellbeing
• Positive beliefs about our self are important to promote and sustain
wellbeing.
• For some children it may be essential to reinforce feelings of self-worth externally.
• This, may induce and strengthen positive feelings. This helps temporarily laidback children.
• Some children may have restricted social network. Teachers can expose
them to a wider variety of interaction with varied groups in a secure
environment, where they would enjoy the interaction and, thereby, develop a
more positive sense of self.
• Planning and designing games demanding high alertness and actions of reflex
and swift-solving skills may help in enhancing their state of anticipation of
adversity and preparedness of encountering the same.
94
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Children
and
Adolescents
Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus
of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different.
95
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
Different populations, different approaches
Different
Populations
1
Children and
Adolescents
2
Working Population
3
Special Population
4
Elderly
Next
Work Environment and Wellbeing
• Baldry et al (1997) argued that the social processes which generate
occupational ill-heath can be understood through examining the degree
of ‘fit’ between three interrelated components of any work system:
• Mismatch of these components may result in strain which may be experienced by the worker as
physical discomfort or actual ill-health.
• A fit between all the interrelated components of the work system would promote well-being.
96
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Working
Population
Social
Environment
Work
organization,
managerial
control
Proximate
Environment
Work station
design
Ambient
Environment
Lighting, air
quality
Work
Environment
Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus
of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different.
97
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
Different populations, different approaches
Different
Populations
1
Children and
Adolescents
2
Working Population
3
Special Population
4
Elderly
Next
Need for Need-Based Intervention
• ‘Need-based’ measures are essential for:
• promoting psychological well-being among families of people with special needs
• family intervention model to be effective.
• To strengthen the family, counsellor must identify and meet the individual needs
of family members.
• Strategies that include family members as an integral part of the rehabilitation
process may be particularly effective (Moore, 1989); moreover, these approaches
may be couched within cognitive-behavioural frameworks and delivered in
innovative, home-based programmes (e.g. Roberts et al, 1995).
98
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Special
Population
Counselling and Therapy
• Counselling family members
to handle emotional
reactions
• Communicating diagnosis
and assessment results
• Behaviour modification
programme for the child
• Counselling family to
identify sources of income to
meet long-term expenditure
• Greater acceptance of
disability. Demonstrating a
sense of meaning in their
circumstances.
Social & Systemic Support
• Connecting with other
similar parents
• Facilitating parent-teacher
connection
• Facilitating parent
participation in parent-
support group
• Helping build informal/
formal social security
support for the child
• Helping them avail
government benefits and
concessions
Knowledge and Skill Building
• Providing information
material to build awareness
• Helping parents understand
assets and limitations of
the disabled person
• Training parents in time
management skills
Need-based Interventions may include…
99
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Special
Population
Need-based Interventions may specifically include…
• Programmes such as interpersonal and social-skills training and innovative
interventions such as aerobic exercise training: they have been found to lead
to an increase in sense of well-being, and acceptance of disabilities among
persons with physical disabilities.
• Cognitive-behavioural interventions designed to enhance coping
effectiveness: they may have beneficial effects on people’s ability to
positively reappraise their situations and to increase their sense of hope,
with corresponding improvements in psychological adjustment (King &
Kennet, 1999).
100
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Special
Population
Professional Help to promote Psychological Wellbeing
Psychologists, psychiatrists, trained counsellors, family therapists, and social workers are
the professionals who can help families of disabled children resolve their problems. They help:
• in understanding their problem and finding a proper solution to the problem
• initiate interaction between interested parents by bringing them together at a neutral place
for contact.
• provide support depending upon the further need of a particular parent group:
• identifying needs of the group
• facilitating parent group meetings
• fostering mutual concern among parents
• helping develop policies and programmes to be undertaken
• providing technical guidance
• motivating parents to mobilize resources and
• activities which could help parents in helping themselves.
101
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Special
Population
Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus
of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different.
102
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
Different populations, different approaches
Different
Populations
1
Children and
Adolescents
2
Working Population
3
Special Population
4
Elderly
Next
Lives are longer, but are they well lived?
• The life span of older people has increased because of:
• Improvement in standard of living and prosperity
• Availability of advanced healthcare services and practices
• Though lives are becoming longer, they are not necessarily well lived.
• The aspiration is to - live long and live well.
So how can we promote wellbeing amongst the elderly?
103
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Elderly
Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (1/3)
1. Physical Wellbeing:
• Incorporate healthy lifestyle:
• Eat hygienic and nutritious food
• Exercise/walk/jog regularly
• Adopt constructive, good habits
• Seek medical advice and follow prescriptions systematically
• Control stress through coping mechanisms
• Time management
• Clean & Safe Living conditions: live in non-polluting environment with proper
ventilation and hygienic living conditions including use of safe water.
• Support Services: Awareness and availability of support services.
104
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Elderly
Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (2/3)
2. Psychological wellbeing:
• Independence and autonomy:
• Control over one’s own financial affairs: plan for secure future, supplementary
income, dealing with financial crises and property management.
• Independence: have freedom to move about, doing things for oneself, choose one’s
own clothes etc.
• Degree of autonomy: Greater autonomy leads to greater happiness.
• Life study management: Advise elderly people on how to manage major life events.
• Positive attitude: have and develop a positive attitude - tackle new challenges with
enthusiasm.
• Self-concept: Develop positive self-concept (through optimizing view, self-confidence etc.)
• Recreational activities: Get involved and participate in recreational and sports activities.
• Creativity: Participate in arts and music activities.
105
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Elderly
Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (3/3)
3. Social and emotional wellbeing:
• Social contacts: Elderly people will be happier if they have opportunities for social contact
with outsiders, than if their contacts are limited to the family members.
• Emotional adjustments: Express negative emotions with less intensity and express
positive emotions, explicitly (laughter and humour clubs are abundant).
4. Spiritual and religious wellbeing:
• Spiritual Practices: Spirituality has always been important in Indian culture.
• Yoga: Yoga and meditation help to promote well-being systematically. One should practice
yoga and meditation regularly.
• Religious Practices: Studies have shown that increase in frequency of religious practices
has beneficial effects on the well-being of older people. Prayer helps to reduce anxiety.
106
Promoting
Wellbeing
in
Different
Populations
>>
Elderly
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Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes

  • 1. Promoting Wellbeing Applied Social Psychology By M.S. Ahluwalia Psychology Super-Notes 1
  • 2. How to use this document? Psychology Super-Notes 2 Use this as a Reference Book Take a Printout or Save on your PC/phone Study while preparing & Revise before the exam.
  • 3. © 2024, PsychoTech Services Trademarks ‘Super-Notes’, ‘All About’, ‘Psychology Learners’, ‘PsyLearners’, ‘M S Ahluwalia’, ‘PsychoTech Services’, ‘Real Happiness Center’, ‘FREE IGNOU Help Center’, ‘FIHC’ and the msa logo, the PsyLearners logo, FIHC logo, Star and Starji logos for Real Happiness Center and PsychoTech Services logo are trademarks of M S Ahluwalia in India and other countries, and may not be used without explicit written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. PsychoTech Services and the owners thereof, are not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Limit of liability/disclaimer of warranty The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. This book should not be used as a replacement of expert opinion. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that internet websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. This document was prepared with the intent of helping students. Students are advised to be careful while using this. There may be errors in the analysis/document considering it has not undergone peer review. In case you notice any errors or have any suggestions for the improvement of this document, you can leave a detailed comment on the respective page on our site or other channel from where you got access to the document. For general information on our other publications or for any kind of support or further information, you may visit our website. Disclaimer 3 Psychology Super-Notes
  • 5. Click here to Access Now! Click here to Access Now! A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to: Learn better, faster! Super-Notes A proprietary approach developed by bringing together the best of learning theories from Psychology, design principles from the world of visualization, and pedagogical methods from over a decade of training experience, that enables you to: Learn better, faster! Super-Notes 5
  • 6. Psychology made easy and interesting… 6 Psychology Super-Notes PsyConcepts PsyQuotes PsyTemplates Memes that help you understand and remember complicated concepts. PsyConcepts Quotes complete with contextual explanations to help understand the real meaning PsyQuotes Checklists and templates for a professional look, that also reduce errors PsyTemplates
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  • 8. We are here to help you! If you are a faculty or student of psychology, this document may be just what you need! Universities often have a vast syllabus, and there is limited support from the faculty and university. But, the exams are tough. Unfortunately, students often don’t get sufficient support for their exams. We at PsychoTech Services have launched several efforts to help psychology students – if you haven’t visited our site yet, now might be the right time – Click Here! Look for PsyConcepts, PsyQuotes, guidance for solving the assignments, practicals, projects, and internships, our highly accurate ‘Exam Question Pattern Analysis’, and PsyTemplates - to make your submissions look more professional and high quality. Also, remember, your exams will test both your knowledge and your ability to present the answers well. So work on both these aspects – read this for some very useful tips on How to Score More in your Exams! We hope that all the resources we have created for you will help you to complete your course requirements successfully! Good Luck!!! 8 Psychology Super-Notes
  • 9. Super-Notes Super-Notes ychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center 9 Let’s Start…
  • 10. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 10 c Contents
  • 11. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Wellbeing A state of human existence in which a person’s basic needs are adequately met and satisfied. 11
  • 12. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Wellbeing A positive state of human being which consists of pleasure or happiness and lies in the actualization of human potentials. 12
  • 13. Wellbeing is a broad concept with many aspects… 13 What is Wellbeing Wellbeing Self- confidence Adjustment Self-esteem Level of Aspiration Self- concept
  • 14. Sat-Chit-Ananda – The ‘Indian’ Perspective • Indian philosophical thought endorses the assumption that the natural state of the human being is positive - “Sat-Chit-Ananda” - meaning real internal bliss. • The striving of a human being is towards actualization and sustenance of this state. • Thus, the state of a human being is understood to be positive naturally. 14 What is Wellbeing
  • 15. How does one lose Sat-Chit-Ananda? If the natural human state is Wellbeing, then why and how does one lose it? • Most of us are born healthy, and made sick as a result of personal misbehaviour and environmental conditions. • As per the behavioural perspective, the abilities of an individual are optimally manifested only when there is appropriate action and interaction with a congenial environment. • Actions, in turn are initiated and directed by: • Internal factors related to the individual’s personality and • External factors such as reinforcements. • Thus, the degree of Wellbeing in an individual is the consequence of the synergy between the personality and environmental factors. • Wellbeing is a natural state in human beings while variation of this state is only of degree. This basic assumption of ‘wellness’ as the natural state is the very cause for neglect of the ‘study of wellness’ for long. 15 What is Wellbeing
  • 16. Wellbeing is a Complex Construct Just as positive affect is not the opposite of negative affect, Wellbeing is not the absence of mental illness (Ryan & Deci, 2001). 16 What is Wellbeing Wellbeing Life Satisfaction Presence of Positive Mood Absence of Negative Mood These two are not mutually exclusive.
  • 17. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 17 c Contents
  • 18. Next >> Aspects of Wellbeing 18 Aspects of Wellbeing Wellbeing 1 Psychological 2 Social and Emotional 3 Physical 4 Cognitive
  • 19. What comprises Psychological Wellbeing? 19 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Self-acceptance Personal growth Purpose in life Environmental mastery Autonomy Positive relations with others Social acceptance Social actualization Social contribution Social coherence Social integration The elements of Psychological Wellbeing
  • 20. 1. Self-Acceptance 20 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Have a positive attitude towards the self Accept the multiple aspects of self Feel positive about life
  • 21. 2. Personal Growth 21 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Have a feeling of continuous development/increasing potential Feel open to new experience Feel increasingly knowledgeable and effective
  • 22. 3. Purpose in Life 22 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Have goals Have a sense of direction in life Hold beliefs that give purpose to life
  • 23. 4. Mastery of the Environment 23 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Feel competent and able to manage a complex environment Choose or create personally suitable contexts
  • 24. 5. Autonomy 24 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Be self-determining, independent and regulate behaviours-internally Resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways Evaluate self by personal standards.
  • 25. 6. Positive Relations with Others 25 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Have warm, satisfying, trusting relationships and are concerned about others’ welfare Have strong empathy, affection and intimacy Understand give and take in human relationships
  • 26. 7. Social Acceptance 26 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Have a positive attitude towards people Acknowledge others and generally accept people, despite others’ sometimes complex and perplexing behaviour
  • 27. 8. Social Actualisation 27 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Care about the society Believe society is positive and think society has potential to grow positively. It includes the personality traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence that are each essential for Wellbeing.
  • 28. 9. Social Contribution 28 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Feel they have something valuable to give to society Think their daily activities are valued by their community
  • 29. 10. Social Coherence 29 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing See a social world that is intelligible, logical and predictable Care about and are interested in society and community
  • 30. 11. Social Integration 30 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Psychological Wellbeing Feel part of community Think they belong and feel supported Share commonalities with community
  • 31. Next >> Aspects of Wellbeing 31 Aspects of Wellbeing Wellbeing 1 Psychological 2 Social and Emotional 3 Physical 4 Cognitive
  • 32. What comprises Social and Emotional Wellbeing? The elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing 32 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Social and Emotional Wellbeing Development of emotional understanding and regulation Ability to cope with stressors Development of autonomy and trust Development of self-system, including identity, self-concept, and self-esteem Development of empathy and sympathy Formation of positive social relationships with parents, siblings, and peers.
  • 33. The elements influence each other… The elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing influence each other. Each can be promoted by the others. Example: • On the one hand, how well a child’s can regulate his/her emotional reactions determines the quality of relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. • On the other hand, loving and supportive relationships with parents, siblings and peers help to increase feelings of security and happiness and reduce prevalence of psychological problems and behavioural issues. 33 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Social and Emotional Wellbeing
  • 34. The elements influence other domains… • Elements of Social and Emotional Wellbeing can promote and be promoted by the core elements of both the cognitive and physical domain. Example: • Warm and responsive parenting styles promote development of trust and autonomy in the infant • This fosters feelings of security within the infant • Which in turn lead to increased exploration of his or her physical environment. 34 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Social and Emotional Wellbeing
  • 35. Development and Promotion • Context plays an important role in the development of the elements of social emotional Wellbeing. • Each of the elements in the socio-emotional domain can be promoted through various interventions. • Social and emotional Wellbeing can be promoted by: • Individual characteristics, • Interpersonal relationships, and • Environmental factors. 35 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Social and Emotional Wellbeing
  • 36. Next >> Aspects of Wellbeing 36 Aspects of Wellbeing Wellbeing 1 Psychological 2 Social and Emotional 3 Physical 4 Cognitive
  • 37. What comprises Physical Wellbeing? Key Components of Physical Wellbeing These elements of physical Wellbeing also contribute to both the socio-emotional development and the cognitive development. 37 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Physical Wellbeing Good nutrition Preventive health care Physical activity Safety and security Substance abuse prevention
  • 38. Factors Affecting an Individual’s Physical Wellbeing Physical Wellbeing is affected by the contexts in which people live. We must consider the entire context in which an individual lives to ensure that their physical Wellbeing is supported and nurtured. 38 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Physical Wellbeing Family’s and societal system’s values Community security Availability and accessibility of a public health system Institutional practices Environmental quality Accessibility of basic services Economic considerations
  • 39. Next >> Aspects of Wellbeing 39 Aspects of Wellbeing Wellbeing 1 Psychological 2 Social and Emotional 3 Physical 4 Cognitive
  • 40. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Cognition The processes of perceiving, remembering, conceiving, judging, and reasoning in order to obtain and use knowledge. 40
  • 41. Communication Skills • Communication: skills that permit the exchange of thoughts, wishes, and feelings so necessary to developing and maintaining social relationships with others (Bornstein, 2003). • These skills are essential for: • Adaptation to one’s environment, • Maintenance of health, • Participation in productive activities that will improve social and environmental interaction. 41 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Cognitive Wellbeing
  • 42. Importance of Cognitive Wellbeing • As cognitive elements develop and improve, overall Wellbeing will also improve. • So, cognitive elements are dependent upon and can be positively impacted by the external influences to which an individual is exposed. • To determine cognitive wellbeing it is important to pay attention to both: • Objective measures of cognitive skills and • Subjective evaluations of those same skills (Bornstein, 2003). 42 Aspects of Wellbeing >> Cognitive Wellbeing
  • 43. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 43 c Contents
  • 44. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 44 Factors Affecting Wellbeing Wellbeing 1 Life Stages 2 Personality Factors 3 Individual Differences 4 Stress 5 Healthy Values and Goal Attainment
  • 45. 1. Life Stages • Today’s society is driven by competition leading to a lot of pressure on the people. • As a result individuals of all ages experience stress from one or the other source. • There are certain crucial stages in life which are more prone to vulnerability. Example: late adolescence and young adulthood. • Youth, especially students, require counselling for promoting Wellbeing, apart from career guidance. 45 Factors Affecting Wellbeing
  • 46. 2. Personality Factors • Research suggests that the level of Wellbeing is determined by stable individual characteristics called personality traits. • Cloninger (2006): personality traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self- transcendence are each essential for Wellbeing. • (Sharma, Sharma and Yadav, 2004): level of Wellbeing is determined by stable self-esteem and general mental health. • Hariharan (1995) listed three personality factors that affect Wellbeing: • General disposition to anticipate • Flexible coping style • Judicious use of social support 46 Factors Affecting Wellbeing
  • 47. 3. Individual Differences • Any activity can not help every person become happier. • People have varying values, interests, strength and indications which predispose them to benefit more from some activities than others. • An act that makes one individual very happy and promotes Wellbeing might not do so for another. This indicates the role of person-activity fit. 47 Factors Affecting Wellbeing
  • 48. 4. Stress (1/2) • Environmental difficulties and stress are present universally. • However, humans are not passive respondents to environmental stimuli so Wellbeing is not determined solely by environmental factors such as opportunities and reward. • Coping and attainment of Wellbeing is dependant on an individual’s appraisal of the situation vis-à-vis his/her autonomy, competence and relatedness to handle the environment appropriately so as to restore the homeostasis and sustain the state of Wellbeing. 48 Factors Affecting Wellbeing
  • 49. 4. Stress (2/2): The Vulnerable and Invulnerable Invulnerable or resilient: those who sustain and promote wellbeing by functioning optimally despite multiple environmental adversities. Vulnerable: those who become dysfunctional or manifest inadequate functioning owing to the disadvantaged environmental conditions. 49 Factors Affecting Wellbeing Advantaged Laidback Invulnerable/ Resilient Vulnerable Positive Environment Conditions Adverse/Negative Environment Conditions Wellness Present Wellness Absent Some interesting outcomes that interest researchers include: - Presence of Wellbeing in negative environmental conditions, where the invulnerable are located. - Absence of Wellbeing despite positive environmental conditions i.e., Laidback.
  • 50. 5. Healthy Values and Goal Attainment • Values, motives and goals are inherently associated with wellbeing and can have a negative or positive impact. • There are two kinds of motives: 50 Factors Affecting Wellbeing Wellbeing also results from psychological need satisfaction. Intrinsic Motives • Originate from basic psychological needs satisfaction • Reflect psychological growth • Essential to wellbeing Extrinsic Motives • Originate from the need to obtain other people’s approval, admiration, and praise. • Reflect the need to avoid social punishment • Do not promote wellbeing
  • 51. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 51 c Contents
  • 52. Assessment of Wellbeing • Usually done using self-report surveys. Respondent him/herself judges and reports about: • his/her life satisfaction and • frequency of his/her pleasant/unpleasant emotions • Commonly used surveys include: • SUBI - Subjective Wellbeing Inventory • SWLS - Satisfaction With Life Scale 52 Assessment of Wellbeing
  • 53. Subjective Wellbeing Inventory - SUBI • By Sell and Nagpal, 1992 • Contains 40 items • Standardized on adult Indian population. • Assesses subjective Wellbeing of the respondents on 11 factorial dimensions apart from General Wellbeing. These 11 factors include: 53 Assessment of Wellbeing Positive Affect [GWB-PA] Expectation- Achievement Congruence [EAC] Confidence in Coping [CC] Transcendence [Trans] Family Group Support [FGS] Social Support [SS] Primary Group Concern [PGC] Inadequate mental mastery [IMM] Perceived Ill- Health [PIH] Deficiency in Social Contacts [DSC] General Wellbeing - Negative Affect [GWB-NA]
  • 54. Satisfaction With Life Scale - SWLS • Assesses life satisfaction of the subjects • By Diener, Emmons, Larson and Griffin, 1985 • This scale is originally in English language • Contains five items requiring a general evaluation of the respondent’s life as whole on a 7-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. • Total score may range from 5 to 35. • Can be interpreted in terms of absolute as well as relative life satisfaction. • Score of 20 represents the neutral point on the scale: point at which the respondent is almost equally satisfied and dissatisfied. 54 Assessment of Wellbeing
  • 55. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 55 c Contents
  • 56. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 56 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 57. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Cognitive Restructuring A technique in CBT with the goal of identifying irrational or unhealthy thoughts and modifying them to present a more accurate view of the situation. 57
  • 58. Cognitive Distortion requires Cognitive Restructuring 58 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring Stress leads to Cognitive Distortion • All kinds of stressors exist in the environment. • However, it is not the circumstances per se but their interpretation that leads to stress. • When the interpretation of the stress is severely exaggerated, it is called Cognitive Distortion. Cognitive Restructuring leads to Wellbeing • Cognitive restructuring changes a perception from negative to neutral or positive, thus, making it less stressful. • By altering how we look at the problem we can feel better.
  • 59. Promoting Wellbeing using Cognitive Restructuring How can Wellbeing be promoted? • Assume responsibility for your own thoughts • Face the reality of the situation • Resolve the causes of stress • Create/adopt a positive frame of mind • Fine tune your expectations • Handle the toxic/negative thoughts • Use positive affirmations • Look at the positive aspects of situations 59 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring Focus of Cognitive Restructuring 1. Positive self-talk 2. Coping Skills 3. Learned Optimism Training 4. Creative Problem Solving Skills 5. Hope Therapy 6. Communication Skills
  • 60. 1. Positive Self-Talk • Much of what an individual feels is caused by what the individual says to himself/ herself. • 80% or more of the internal dialogue which goes on within ourselves all day long is with little awareness. (Davidson, 1988) • This is because self-talk is automatic and is carried out repeatedly. • An individual however can make conscious efforts to focus on positive self-talk. 60 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring Self-Talk A coping technique that involves consciously replacing negative self-talk with positive statements. To promote wellbeing, one must focus on positive statements during self-talk: - I am capable - I am doing my best - I can achieve my goal - I choose to be happy.
  • 61. 2. Coping Skills • Confrontive Coping is a technique that leads to greater Wellbeing. • The strategy calls for: • Perseverance • Conviction • Continued Apprehension of Adversities • Preparedness to face them 61 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring Coping Coping involves cognitive and behavioural flexibility in the face of environmental demands that cause stress to the internal and external resources of the individual Confrontive Coping A technique where the individual tries to face the problem squarely – by addressing the crux of the problem - by winning the situation through logical arguments, aggressive encounters or convincing methods. Effective Coping may involve coping through: - Passive appraisal - Reframing - Spiritual and Religious support - Social or formal support
  • 62. 3. Learned Optimism Training 62 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring • Learned optimism training is designed to transform negative thinking into positive cognitive processes that promote flexible thought and resiliency. • In learned optimism, intervention processes: • Have three components of explanatory style: • Permanence • Pervasiveness • Personalization • Are modified with cognitive techniques so that people may respond in a healthier manner to both positive and negative outcomes of daily events. (Seligman, 1999)
  • 63. 4. Cognitive Problem Solving Skills 63 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring • Finding innovative ways to handle everyday life can promote wellbeing. Steps of Problem Solving: 1. Describe the problem 2. Generate ideas 3. Select and Refine Ideas 4. Implement the Selected Idea 5. Evaluate and analyse the action plan
  • 64. 5. Hope Therapy • A system developed by Lopez, Ulven & Snyder, 2000. • It is based on the: • prerequisite skills necessary to produce well conceptualized goal thoughts, along with • requisite associated pathway and agency thoughts. 64 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring Wellbeing is promoted by: - Helping clients to conceptualize clearer goals - Producing numerous pathways to attainment of goal - Summoning the mental energy to maintain pursuit, and - Reframing insurmountable obstacles as challenges to be overcome.
  • 65. 6. Communication Skills Training Good communication skills promote Wellbeing. Communication skills can be improved by using the following strategies: • Speak with precision and directness • Enhance your vocabulary • Use language appropriate for your listening audience • Attack issues not people • Avoid putting others on the defensive • Avoid asking someone else to pass on your thoughts and feelings to a third party • Avoid information overload • Validate your assumptions • Resolve problems when they arise 65 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Cognitive Restructuring
  • 66. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 66 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 67. Super-Notes Super-Notes PsychoTech Services PsychoTech Services Psychology Learners Psychology Learners FREE IGNOU Help Center FREE IGNOU Help Center The Real Happiness Center The Real Happiness Center Behaviour Modification A treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviours with more desirable ones through positive or negative reinforcement. 67
  • 68. Promoting Wellbeing using Behaviour Modification Steps to Modify Behaviour and Improve Wellbeing: Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Behaviour Modification 1 Select behaviour to add or change 2 Establish level of motivation to change this behaviour. 3 Identify changes in perceptions and attitudes desired along with behaviour change 4 Specify the new/changed behaviour to be adopted. 5 Evaluate effectiveness of new behaviour. 6 Evaluate the new attitude and decide how beneficial it was. 68
  • 69. Promoting Wellbeing using Assertiveness Assertiveness is an important part of promoting wellbeing. To promote Wellbeing, one must be assertive. So, how can you be assertive? Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Behaviour Modification 69 Assertiveness The ability to be comfortably strong-willed about one’s thoughts, feelings and actions and be neither inhibited nor aggressive in actions for the betterment of oneself in the surrounding environment.
  • 70. How does Assertiveness reflect in one’s behaviour? How to be Assertive? Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Behaviour Modification 70 To say no and not feel guilty Take your time to form responses to comments or questions Ask for assistance with instructions or directions Ask for what you want Experience and express your feelings Feel positive about yourself under any condition Make mistakes without feeling embarrassed or guilty Form your own opinions and convictions Protest unfair treatment or criticism Be recognized for your achievements and contributions Focus on problem, not on belittling self or others Recognize your and others’ rights - stand up to protect them Overcome feeling of fear Handle feeling of anger diplomatically Avoid manipulation Disagree peacefully Use assertive body language Use eye contact Learn to use ‘I’ statements
  • 71. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 71 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 72. Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Yoga • Yoga is an age-old indigenous technique as well as an art of healthy living. • To promote Wellbeing, yoga should be practised regularly and systematically. • Awareness of the effects of the various techniques on the body as well as the psyche is important. • Studies indicate that people who practice yoga tend to have: • Positive Self-image • Greater Self-esteem • Higher degrees of Self-efficacy 72 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Relaxation Exercises Yoga Meditation Mental/Visual Imagery
  • 73. Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Meditation • Meditation is: • considered the oldest form of relaxation. • a powerful method of coping with stress and promoting Wellbeing. • simply the process of cleansing or emptying the mind. • focused concentration and increased awareness of one’s being, at a deeper level. • a practical, systematic method which enables an individual to gain relaxation, peace and happiness. • When the mind is emptied of conscious thought, unconscious thoughts can enter consciousness and bring enlightenment to our lives. • Bhamgara (1997) considers meditation to be of far greater importance than medication for whatever afflicts humankind today. • There are numerous forms of meditation. Common to all of them is a stimulus on which the one who medicates will focus his/her attention. Example: one’s own breath, a candle flame, flower, etc. Focusing on such stimuli enables the individual to gain relaxation and achieve mental Wellbeing. 73 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Relaxation Exercises Yoga Meditation Mental/Visual Imagery
  • 74. Promoting Wellbeing using Relaxation Exercises: Imagery Steps to Initiate Mental Imagery 74 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Relaxation Exercises Yoga Meditation Mental/Visual Imagery Choose a comfortable setting • Mental Imagery can be done anywhere. • However, you need to get into a comfortable position. • Concentration and Attitude: Mental imagery requires sound concentration, like other relaxation techniques. Choose a Visual Theme • First, decide the purpose of your visualization. Example: a healthier lifestyle. • Now, from the unlimited set of mental images you need to choose a visual theme to concentrate on. • Individuals can be asked to visualize their future in terms of positive mental imagery. • Example: seeing themselves as getting a high rank in exams etc. Take Action • Once the theme is selected the individual is guided through the process of imagery by the counsellor. • After the session, they are asked to channelise their efforts to make this mental imagery a reality.
  • 75. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 75 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 76. Promoting Wellbeing using Social Support • Performing an activity as a group or with the support of a close, with others, it is likely to promote greater and more sustained Wellbeing than doing the activities alone. • Wellbeing can be promoted by (Henderson & Brown, 1988) : • Building a good social-support network • Nurturing relationships • Judicious use of social support network • But, how does Social Support promote individual wellbeing? 76 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Social Support
  • 77. How does Social Support promote wellbeing? Social support promotes Wellbeing as it (Parasuraman et al, 1992): • satisfies the individual’s need for affiliation • enhances self-esteem and self-efficacy • reduces environmental demand or pressure that generate stress • enhances recipients’ cognitive and behavioural coping strategies. Instead of having direct effects on stress or health, social support modifies the relationship between stress and health and protects the individual from negative consequences of stress (Williams & House, 1985). 77 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Social Support
  • 78. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 78 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 79. Promoting Wellbeing using Time Management Effective time management techniques like the following can promote wellbeing: 79 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Time Management • Create a list of all current responsibilities and tasks. • Rank these responsibilities and tasks in their order of importance. Prioritization • Assign the letters A, B, C, to various responsibilities: • A for the highest priority activities - Must do immediately • B for second-priority activities - anything that is not A or C but should do soon • C for low-priority tasks or things you would like to do - can wait to do ABC rank-order method • Assign tasks as urgent - need to be done immediately vs. those that are important and can be done after the urgent tasks. Important-versus-urgent method • Allocate time for prioritized responsibilities - match specific tasks/ responsibilities with time periods to complete them. Scheduling • Implement the schedule • Execute responsibilities in a systemic progression of steps ensuring satisfactory completion of each task. Execution
  • 80. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 80 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 81. Promoting Wellbeing using Art Art promotes Wellbeing by building on the individual’s inner strength and enhancing an individual’s positive image. It can promote Wellbeing by exercises like: 81 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Art •A symbol of yourself, a picture of something you identify yourself with or something that gives you inner strength. Draw something that represents you -Any two animals that come to mind, even those that do not exist -Describe the animals you have drawn in a few words (about three adjectives). Draw two fantasy animals -An area that you feel is perhaps a target of stress, one that shows signs of excessive wear and tear, or that does not feel completely whole. Healing Images - Draw a picture of a part of your body you feel needs special attention -An image that makes you feel relaxed just by thinking about it. -Example: a place you have never been to but have always wanted to go to. Draw a peaceful image -The emotion(s) you are feeling now - Anger, fear, guilt, worry, love, joy, peace. What does it look like to you? -Try to visualize your emotions on paper. Draw how you feel now -Try to include whatever fragments of a particular dream you can recall. Draw a dream image
  • 82. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 82 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 83. Promoting Wellbeing using Journal Writing How it promotes wellbeing? • Allows expression of worry. • Allows emotional catharsis by getting out on paper the toxic thoughts roaming through one’s mind. • Helps in self-exploration • Nurtures self-awareness process and honest expression. • Acts as a vehicle for meditation. • Helps in creative problem solving. 83 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Journal Writing Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1. Try to identify the concerns and problems that cause tension. 2. Ask yourself what emotions are elicited when these stressors as encountered. 3. Allow the writing process to augment your creative process further. Journal Writing writing personal events, thoughts, feelings, memories and perceptions in a journal.
  • 84. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 84 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 85. Promoting Wellbeing using Humour Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 85 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Humour • Take your work seriously, take yourself lightly. You are more than your work. A bad day at work, shouldn’t affect your self-esteem. • You are a whole person with many aspects and talents, not just a spouse or a professional. Learn not to take life too seriously • Humorous events are all around us. Life is full of ironies, incongruencies and just plain funny stuff. • One’s frame of mind is either receptive to these, or simply dismisses them. Find one humorous thing a day • Creativity and humour are virtually inseparable. • Play with children. Kids have wonderful imaginations. Get inspired! Work to improve your imagination and creativity • Buy a notebook and fill it with anything that puts a smile on your face and makes you feel good inside - cartoons, favourite jokes, letters, funny photographs with your captions attached, love poems, and personal items (birthday cards, postcards, photographs, etc.). Start a tickler notebook
  • 86. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 86 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 87. Promoting Wellbeing using Music Key Points to Consider • Musical selection: Music that is most conducive to relaxation and helps return to homeostasis should be selected. • The music should preferably have a slow tempo. • The selection should be enjoyable rather that disturbing. • Listening environment: should be comfortable. • Postures and cognition: Recline in a comfortable position with eyes closed to minimize distractions. Not just listening, even making your own music helps. 87 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Music
  • 88. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing Following strategies are used for promoting wellbeing with the objective of developing a person’s existing strengths. 88 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 1 Cognitive Restructuring 2 Behaviour Modification 3 Relaxation Exercises 4 Social Support 5 Time Management 6 Art 7 Journal Writing 8 Humour 9 Music 10 Exercise and Nutrition Next
  • 89. Promoting Wellbeing using Exercise The psychological benefits of regular exercise, and the intuitive holistic link between physical exercise and well-being, are well documented: • Evidence supports existence of a strong relationship between physical activity and well-being. Physical activity impacts well-being by: • preventing mental health problems and • improving the quality of life for people with mental health problems. (Fox, Boutcher, Faulkner, & Biddle, 2000). • Any exercise has a de-stressing ability because it burns up the extra energy. • Exercise increases blood circulation and this improved flow of blood to the brain provides additional supplies of oxygen and sugars which are essential in helping the individual function properly when stressed. • Even techniques are walking and simple aerobics are highly desirable. 89 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Exercise and Nutrition
  • 90. Promoting Wellbeing using Nutrition Well-being is promoted by: • Eating a well-balanced diet. • Eating a good breakfast • Spacing meals evenly throughout the day. • Avoiding or minimizing the consumption of caffeine and sugar. • Eating a diet that provides adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. 90 Strategies to Promote Wellbeing >> Exercise and Nutrition
  • 91. 1. What is Wellbeing 2. Aspects of Wellbeing 3. Factors Affecting Wellbeing 4. Assessment of Wellbeing 5. Strategies to Promote Wellbeing 6. Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Promoting Wellbeing – Super-Notes 91 c Contents
  • 92. Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different. 92 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Different populations, different approaches Different Populations 1 Children and Adolescents 2 Working Population 3 Special Population 4 Elderly Next
  • 93. Role of Parents in Promoting Child & Adolescent Wellbeing • Parents are important influences on children. Compared to the west, parental role in the life of the Indian adolescent is much greater and the influence exerted on the wards even stronger. • Apart from the developmental changes that occur at an accelerating speed, the academic pressures exerted on them by their parents beset adolescents to even greater pressure. • Though parental pressure can be positive, most adolescents perceive it as negative. The adolescent perceives this pressure both as highly threatening and challenging, thereby experiencing intolerable stress. • They thus, face additional adjustment problems as well. • Unable to cope with such stressful situations, the adolescent may get frustrated and irritated. • Parents play a crucial role in promoting well-being in their children : help the child focus on positive expectations and believe that their efforts would bring them great success, as negative expectations would increase anxiety and stress. 93 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Children and Adolescents
  • 94. Role of Teachers in Promoting Child & Adolescent Wellbeing • Positive beliefs about our self are important to promote and sustain wellbeing. • For some children it may be essential to reinforce feelings of self-worth externally. • This, may induce and strengthen positive feelings. This helps temporarily laidback children. • Some children may have restricted social network. Teachers can expose them to a wider variety of interaction with varied groups in a secure environment, where they would enjoy the interaction and, thereby, develop a more positive sense of self. • Planning and designing games demanding high alertness and actions of reflex and swift-solving skills may help in enhancing their state of anticipation of adversity and preparedness of encountering the same. 94 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Children and Adolescents
  • 95. Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different. 95 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Different populations, different approaches Different Populations 1 Children and Adolescents 2 Working Population 3 Special Population 4 Elderly Next
  • 96. Work Environment and Wellbeing • Baldry et al (1997) argued that the social processes which generate occupational ill-heath can be understood through examining the degree of ‘fit’ between three interrelated components of any work system: • Mismatch of these components may result in strain which may be experienced by the worker as physical discomfort or actual ill-health. • A fit between all the interrelated components of the work system would promote well-being. 96 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Working Population Social Environment Work organization, managerial control Proximate Environment Work station design Ambient Environment Lighting, air quality Work Environment
  • 97. Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different. 97 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Different populations, different approaches Different Populations 1 Children and Adolescents 2 Working Population 3 Special Population 4 Elderly Next
  • 98. Need for Need-Based Intervention • ‘Need-based’ measures are essential for: • promoting psychological well-being among families of people with special needs • family intervention model to be effective. • To strengthen the family, counsellor must identify and meet the individual needs of family members. • Strategies that include family members as an integral part of the rehabilitation process may be particularly effective (Moore, 1989); moreover, these approaches may be couched within cognitive-behavioural frameworks and delivered in innovative, home-based programmes (e.g. Roberts et al, 1995). 98 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Special Population
  • 99. Counselling and Therapy • Counselling family members to handle emotional reactions • Communicating diagnosis and assessment results • Behaviour modification programme for the child • Counselling family to identify sources of income to meet long-term expenditure • Greater acceptance of disability. Demonstrating a sense of meaning in their circumstances. Social & Systemic Support • Connecting with other similar parents • Facilitating parent-teacher connection • Facilitating parent participation in parent- support group • Helping build informal/ formal social security support for the child • Helping them avail government benefits and concessions Knowledge and Skill Building • Providing information material to build awareness • Helping parents understand assets and limitations of the disabled person • Training parents in time management skills Need-based Interventions may include… 99 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Special Population
  • 100. Need-based Interventions may specifically include… • Programmes such as interpersonal and social-skills training and innovative interventions such as aerobic exercise training: they have been found to lead to an increase in sense of well-being, and acceptance of disabilities among persons with physical disabilities. • Cognitive-behavioural interventions designed to enhance coping effectiveness: they may have beneficial effects on people’s ability to positively reappraise their situations and to increase their sense of hope, with corresponding improvements in psychological adjustment (King & Kennet, 1999). 100 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Special Population
  • 101. Professional Help to promote Psychological Wellbeing Psychologists, psychiatrists, trained counsellors, family therapists, and social workers are the professionals who can help families of disabled children resolve their problems. They help: • in understanding their problem and finding a proper solution to the problem • initiate interaction between interested parents by bringing them together at a neutral place for contact. • provide support depending upon the further need of a particular parent group: • identifying needs of the group • facilitating parent group meetings • fostering mutual concern among parents • helping develop policies and programmes to be undertaken • providing technical guidance • motivating parents to mobilize resources and • activities which could help parents in helping themselves. 101 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Special Population
  • 102. Nature of problems are different for different populations, therefore, the focus of wellbeing measures can also be expected to be different. 102 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations Different populations, different approaches Different Populations 1 Children and Adolescents 2 Working Population 3 Special Population 4 Elderly Next
  • 103. Lives are longer, but are they well lived? • The life span of older people has increased because of: • Improvement in standard of living and prosperity • Availability of advanced healthcare services and practices • Though lives are becoming longer, they are not necessarily well lived. • The aspiration is to - live long and live well. So how can we promote wellbeing amongst the elderly? 103 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Elderly
  • 104. Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (1/3) 1. Physical Wellbeing: • Incorporate healthy lifestyle: • Eat hygienic and nutritious food • Exercise/walk/jog regularly • Adopt constructive, good habits • Seek medical advice and follow prescriptions systematically • Control stress through coping mechanisms • Time management • Clean & Safe Living conditions: live in non-polluting environment with proper ventilation and hygienic living conditions including use of safe water. • Support Services: Awareness and availability of support services. 104 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Elderly
  • 105. Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (2/3) 2. Psychological wellbeing: • Independence and autonomy: • Control over one’s own financial affairs: plan for secure future, supplementary income, dealing with financial crises and property management. • Independence: have freedom to move about, doing things for oneself, choose one’s own clothes etc. • Degree of autonomy: Greater autonomy leads to greater happiness. • Life study management: Advise elderly people on how to manage major life events. • Positive attitude: have and develop a positive attitude - tackle new challenges with enthusiasm. • Self-concept: Develop positive self-concept (through optimizing view, self-confidence etc.) • Recreational activities: Get involved and participate in recreational and sports activities. • Creativity: Participate in arts and music activities. 105 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Elderly
  • 106. Strategies for Promoting Wellbeing amongst the Elderly (3/3) 3. Social and emotional wellbeing: • Social contacts: Elderly people will be happier if they have opportunities for social contact with outsiders, than if their contacts are limited to the family members. • Emotional adjustments: Express negative emotions with less intensity and express positive emotions, explicitly (laughter and humour clubs are abundant). 4. Spiritual and religious wellbeing: • Spiritual Practices: Spirituality has always been important in Indian culture. • Yoga: Yoga and meditation help to promote well-being systematically. One should practice yoga and meditation regularly. • Religious Practices: Studies have shown that increase in frequency of religious practices has beneficial effects on the well-being of older people. Prayer helps to reduce anxiety. 106 Promoting Wellbeing in Different Populations >> Elderly
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