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1 
Raymond Limited 
(Khadki Unit) 
Address: N. H. No. 8, At Khadki, Po. Udwada, Tal. Pardi, Dist. Valsad. P.C. 396185. Vapi, 
Gujarat 
Raymond’s textile plant in Vapi is the youngest in the division that produces worsted suiting 
fabric – the other plants being in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, and Jalgaon, Maharashtra. The 
property of 112.61 acres was acquired by Raymond with a vision to develop a world-class unit 
to meet international standards. 
Currently, the unit is engaged in manufacturing of premium worsted suiting fabric, and is 
equipped with state-of-the-art technology with Hi-tech machinery - Warping equipment from 
Switze rland; Weaving machines from Belgium; Finishing machines, Automatic drawing-in 
and other machines from Italy – to produce 25 million meters fabric /annum. Some machines 
to be named like Volkmann, Andar, NSC, TMT, M Tec, Lafer etc. This machines help to convert 
1kg of wool into 3 kg of clothes. The plant, which began commercial production in 2006, is ISO 
9001, 14001 & OHSAS-18001 certified and employs over 1500 people. 
The foundation day of Vapi plant of Raymond was on 14th May 2005. This plant is constructed 
in four phases. Phase 1 was constructed on 30th March 2006, Second phase was on 17th January 
2007, Third phase was completed on 5th March 2009 and the last part was constructed on 31st 
March 2012. 
To support the day to day operation of the company, they have separate team of different 
departments likes Quality Assurance, Human Resources, Production, sales etc. any many more. 
Total employment at Vapi plant consists of 1327 workman and 225 people in management 
team. The culture of Raymond which has helped Raymond to become at brand and successful 
over its other competitor. They also follow the below mentioned practices like: 
 Recruitment of fresh & young work man 
 Multi-skilled 
 No clerical staff 
 Weekly shift rotation 
 Work load per workman 
o 6 workman/shift in Greige and Combing Converter 
o 11 workman/shift in Dyeing 
o 4 Ring frame/ operator in Spinning 
o 17 TFO/operator in Spinning (TFO = Two For One Twisting Machine) 
o 10 Loom/workman in weaving process.
2 
Process Flow Chart 
Greige and 
Combing 
Spinning 
And Yarn 
Finishing Folding 
Production Capacity 
Dyeing 
Recombing 
Warehouse 
Kg or meter/day 
Wool 
Scouring 
Weaving 
and 
mending 
Wool Scouring 14000 
Greige and Combing 7000 
Dyeing 14000 
Recombing 14000 
Spinning And Yarn 7500 
Weaving and mending 28000 
Finishing 65000 
Folding 65000 
Warehouse (Dispatch Capacity) 150000 
The above mentioned process of Scouring Dyeing, weaving, folding etc. is done in a U shaped 
layout facility. This layout increases the efficiency of the assembly line. So they are able 
maintain their lead time of 45 days. And the finishing process which is the heart of Raymond
3 
(feels like heaven) is never being outsourced. All the fishing processes are done in this premise 
at Vapi. There is Quality Check at random sampling method after all process. 
Scouring 
First process of Raymond is Scouring of Wool. The wool is imported from South Africa, 
Australia, and New Zealand in bales. Every week 100 tonnes of wool is imported and 1 bale is 
equal to 40 kg. Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease". In 
this process Grease from the wool is removed and clean the wool for next process. 
Scouring, the technical term for washing, is the first step in the process. In this process there are 
6 chambers of blowers and 6 washers. In 1 round is of 40 minutes and there is 18 round/day. The 
capacity of this process is 14 tonnes/ per day. This involves washing the wool in hot soapy water 
to remove dirt, grease and dry plant matter from the fleece. 
The key is to keep the water temperature and the volume of soap used as low as possible while 
still being able to wash out the grease and dirt. Wool that is very greasy will require hotter and 
stronger solutions to remove the grease. The preferred water temperature for washing wool is 60 
Degrees. To maintain and check the temperature at this process is VNC Software (Virtual 
Network Computing). 
This process extracts 20 barrels/day of this grease which is used to make the face cream, face 
pack, Ponds Cream etc. Through ducks this cleaned wool is send to the next process in different 
buildings for Vapi, Chhindwara and Jalgaon as per the orders they received. 
Carding or Combing 
Carding is gently spreading of washed and dried wool in preparation for further processing. 
Combing is straightening and stretching the fibers to obtain maximum spinning capacity. In this 
process they make the wool straight which can be used to make Yarn out of that. There are 
drums of different colours for easing of process and it also help to identity which barrels are 
processed. 1 Drums can contain 22 to 25 kg of processed wool. The capacity of this process 
is 100 cans/day. 
Then the material has to pass by 2 Gilling machine. Here the short fibers are removed from 
wool which used to make blankets (Kambals). These short fibers are 1.8% of how much is 
produced in this process. 
Finisher is the automated machine in which the combed wool is turned in to the tops of 10 kg 
each. Polyesters are received from Reliance 20 to 25 bales of 160 kg each. Then these Polyesters 
are also combed to make it straight and then they are converted into tops. 
By using Polyesters and wool they make POLYWOOL, PURE WOOL, ALL WOOL,
4 
Dyeing 
Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is 
normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After 
dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time 
controlling are two key factors in dyeing. For preparing the colours and time is controlled by 
using Gant Chart. Dyeing is through three categories: 
1. Yarn Dyeing: Yarn dyeing adds color at the yarn stage. Yarn dyeing provides adequate 
color absorption and penetration for most materials. Thick and highly twisted yarns may 
not have good dye penetration. There are 6 slots of 4 kg each and it takes 17 to 20 min. to 
dye. 
2. Top Dyeing: Top dyeing is dyeing worsted wool fibers after they have been combed to 
straighten and remove the short fibers. The wool fiber at this stage is known as top. Top 
dyeing is preferred for worsted wools as the dye does not have to be wasted on the short 
fibers that are removed during the combing process. There are 37 containers which work 
for 8 hours and produced 14 tonnes. 
3. Piece dyeing: Fabric dyeing, also known as piece dyeing, is dyeing fabric after it has 
been constructed. It is economical and the most common method of dyeing solid colored 
fabrics. The decision regarding color can be made after the fabric has been manufactured. 
Thus, it is suitable for quick response orders. Dye penetration may not be good in thicker 
fabrics, so yarn dyeing is sometimes used to dye thick fabrics in solid colors. Various 
types of dyeing machines are used for piece dyeing. 
Recombing 
After Dyeing, tops are again send to the Recombing section were straightening and stretching of 
fibers is done to obtain maximum spinning capacity. Here the Wool and Polyesters according to 
the ratio i.e. 70:30, 40:60 and so on. Here the capacity of this process is 14 tonnes/day. In this 
process also the cans are coloured so as to know the status of the can and can know that for what 
purpose that can is serving in this process. Gilling is again done after this process. As the before 
step of this is a wet process of dyeing so the re combing section is fully air conditioned because 
after dyeing the yarn is needed some amount of mositureness in the atmosphere. So this area is 
maintained at cool temperature. 
Spinning 
This process is outsourced to different vendors. Spinning is the wool processing step where the 
wool roving’s produced during carding, are turned into yarns. On a commercial wool processing 
scale the roving’s passing through a spinning machine. On an individual scale a spinning wheel
5 
or a hand spindle is used. During spinning the wool roving’s are gently stretched again. Through 
a series of twisting and spinning and twisting again the wool is spun into batches of similar 
quality and strength. This process is done in three types 
1. Pre Spinning 
2. Ring Frames 
3. Post Spinning (Yarn) 
Then Drafting is done to make the yarn thin (0.22 or .060) 
After spinning is done all the yarn is kept in the Yarn Room were everyday opening stock, 
closing stock, Issued Material, and attendance is maintained. 
Weaving and mending 
Weaving is taking strings of yarn, setting them at right angles to each other and interlacing them 
over and then beneath each other thus forming a woven mat. The yarn that is inserted over-and-under 
the warp threads are called the weft, woof, or filler. Each individual warp thread in a fabric 
is called a warp end or end. In warping beams are made with different patterns. There are 8 
warping machines and each one take 1 hour to make a beam. 
Knitting is done by forming loops of yarn and interlocking rows. You are continually forming 
new loops and passing a string of yarn through it. Weaving is done through the Air force which 
is Air jet looms which gives higher production rate as Rapier looms which is very versatile. In 
that rapier looms can weave using a large variety of threads. There are several types of rapiers, 
however they all use a hook system attached to a rod or metal band to pass the pick across the 
shed. These machines regularly reach 700 picks per minute in normal production. 
After Weaving, Calculation of meters is done and simultaneously manual checking is also done 
to check damages that might occur will making the cloth. 
Finishing 
In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth 
into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing 
the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile 
or clothing. This process is never been outsourced because Finishing is the Heart of 
Raymond which makes the Raymond as to feel like heaven. 
 Raising 
Another finishing process is raising. During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth 
to lift the surface fibers, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.
6 
 Calendering 
Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between 
heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface 
properties and relative speeds. 
 Chemical finishing 
Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, 
crease resist and other special effects. 
 Shrinking (Sanforizing) 
Mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to 
shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after 
subsequent laundering is minimal. 
 Steaming and Heat setting 
It is done by using high temperatures to stabilize fabrics containing polyester, nylon, or triacetate 
but not effective on cotton or rayon.it may be performed in fabric form or garment form it may 
cause shade variation from side-to-side if done prior to dyeing; may change the shade if done 
after dyeing 
Finished Fabrics 
After finishing process starts, Grey Fabric is send to the A/C Room for cool down (1 Hour) as it 
has been passed by the hot process for making it soft and then it is send to Quality department 
for checking and then for C utting. The whole lot is called as “THAAN ”. The good meter is 9 and 
15 meters thaan and export rolls are of 10 meters. While cutting 6 to 7% of defect is found. 
There is approximately 188000 SKU.

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Raymond limited

  • 1. 1 Raymond Limited (Khadki Unit) Address: N. H. No. 8, At Khadki, Po. Udwada, Tal. Pardi, Dist. Valsad. P.C. 396185. Vapi, Gujarat Raymond’s textile plant in Vapi is the youngest in the division that produces worsted suiting fabric – the other plants being in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, and Jalgaon, Maharashtra. The property of 112.61 acres was acquired by Raymond with a vision to develop a world-class unit to meet international standards. Currently, the unit is engaged in manufacturing of premium worsted suiting fabric, and is equipped with state-of-the-art technology with Hi-tech machinery - Warping equipment from Switze rland; Weaving machines from Belgium; Finishing machines, Automatic drawing-in and other machines from Italy – to produce 25 million meters fabric /annum. Some machines to be named like Volkmann, Andar, NSC, TMT, M Tec, Lafer etc. This machines help to convert 1kg of wool into 3 kg of clothes. The plant, which began commercial production in 2006, is ISO 9001, 14001 & OHSAS-18001 certified and employs over 1500 people. The foundation day of Vapi plant of Raymond was on 14th May 2005. This plant is constructed in four phases. Phase 1 was constructed on 30th March 2006, Second phase was on 17th January 2007, Third phase was completed on 5th March 2009 and the last part was constructed on 31st March 2012. To support the day to day operation of the company, they have separate team of different departments likes Quality Assurance, Human Resources, Production, sales etc. any many more. Total employment at Vapi plant consists of 1327 workman and 225 people in management team. The culture of Raymond which has helped Raymond to become at brand and successful over its other competitor. They also follow the below mentioned practices like:  Recruitment of fresh & young work man  Multi-skilled  No clerical staff  Weekly shift rotation  Work load per workman o 6 workman/shift in Greige and Combing Converter o 11 workman/shift in Dyeing o 4 Ring frame/ operator in Spinning o 17 TFO/operator in Spinning (TFO = Two For One Twisting Machine) o 10 Loom/workman in weaving process.
  • 2. 2 Process Flow Chart Greige and Combing Spinning And Yarn Finishing Folding Production Capacity Dyeing Recombing Warehouse Kg or meter/day Wool Scouring Weaving and mending Wool Scouring 14000 Greige and Combing 7000 Dyeing 14000 Recombing 14000 Spinning And Yarn 7500 Weaving and mending 28000 Finishing 65000 Folding 65000 Warehouse (Dispatch Capacity) 150000 The above mentioned process of Scouring Dyeing, weaving, folding etc. is done in a U shaped layout facility. This layout increases the efficiency of the assembly line. So they are able maintain their lead time of 45 days. And the finishing process which is the heart of Raymond
  • 3. 3 (feels like heaven) is never being outsourced. All the fishing processes are done in this premise at Vapi. There is Quality Check at random sampling method after all process. Scouring First process of Raymond is Scouring of Wool. The wool is imported from South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand in bales. Every week 100 tonnes of wool is imported and 1 bale is equal to 40 kg. Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease". In this process Grease from the wool is removed and clean the wool for next process. Scouring, the technical term for washing, is the first step in the process. In this process there are 6 chambers of blowers and 6 washers. In 1 round is of 40 minutes and there is 18 round/day. The capacity of this process is 14 tonnes/ per day. This involves washing the wool in hot soapy water to remove dirt, grease and dry plant matter from the fleece. The key is to keep the water temperature and the volume of soap used as low as possible while still being able to wash out the grease and dirt. Wool that is very greasy will require hotter and stronger solutions to remove the grease. The preferred water temperature for washing wool is 60 Degrees. To maintain and check the temperature at this process is VNC Software (Virtual Network Computing). This process extracts 20 barrels/day of this grease which is used to make the face cream, face pack, Ponds Cream etc. Through ducks this cleaned wool is send to the next process in different buildings for Vapi, Chhindwara and Jalgaon as per the orders they received. Carding or Combing Carding is gently spreading of washed and dried wool in preparation for further processing. Combing is straightening and stretching the fibers to obtain maximum spinning capacity. In this process they make the wool straight which can be used to make Yarn out of that. There are drums of different colours for easing of process and it also help to identity which barrels are processed. 1 Drums can contain 22 to 25 kg of processed wool. The capacity of this process is 100 cans/day. Then the material has to pass by 2 Gilling machine. Here the short fibers are removed from wool which used to make blankets (Kambals). These short fibers are 1.8% of how much is produced in this process. Finisher is the automated machine in which the combed wool is turned in to the tops of 10 kg each. Polyesters are received from Reliance 20 to 25 bales of 160 kg each. Then these Polyesters are also combed to make it straight and then they are converted into tops. By using Polyesters and wool they make POLYWOOL, PURE WOOL, ALL WOOL,
  • 4. 4 Dyeing Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. For preparing the colours and time is controlled by using Gant Chart. Dyeing is through three categories: 1. Yarn Dyeing: Yarn dyeing adds color at the yarn stage. Yarn dyeing provides adequate color absorption and penetration for most materials. Thick and highly twisted yarns may not have good dye penetration. There are 6 slots of 4 kg each and it takes 17 to 20 min. to dye. 2. Top Dyeing: Top dyeing is dyeing worsted wool fibers after they have been combed to straighten and remove the short fibers. The wool fiber at this stage is known as top. Top dyeing is preferred for worsted wools as the dye does not have to be wasted on the short fibers that are removed during the combing process. There are 37 containers which work for 8 hours and produced 14 tonnes. 3. Piece dyeing: Fabric dyeing, also known as piece dyeing, is dyeing fabric after it has been constructed. It is economical and the most common method of dyeing solid colored fabrics. The decision regarding color can be made after the fabric has been manufactured. Thus, it is suitable for quick response orders. Dye penetration may not be good in thicker fabrics, so yarn dyeing is sometimes used to dye thick fabrics in solid colors. Various types of dyeing machines are used for piece dyeing. Recombing After Dyeing, tops are again send to the Recombing section were straightening and stretching of fibers is done to obtain maximum spinning capacity. Here the Wool and Polyesters according to the ratio i.e. 70:30, 40:60 and so on. Here the capacity of this process is 14 tonnes/day. In this process also the cans are coloured so as to know the status of the can and can know that for what purpose that can is serving in this process. Gilling is again done after this process. As the before step of this is a wet process of dyeing so the re combing section is fully air conditioned because after dyeing the yarn is needed some amount of mositureness in the atmosphere. So this area is maintained at cool temperature. Spinning This process is outsourced to different vendors. Spinning is the wool processing step where the wool roving’s produced during carding, are turned into yarns. On a commercial wool processing scale the roving’s passing through a spinning machine. On an individual scale a spinning wheel
  • 5. 5 or a hand spindle is used. During spinning the wool roving’s are gently stretched again. Through a series of twisting and spinning and twisting again the wool is spun into batches of similar quality and strength. This process is done in three types 1. Pre Spinning 2. Ring Frames 3. Post Spinning (Yarn) Then Drafting is done to make the yarn thin (0.22 or .060) After spinning is done all the yarn is kept in the Yarn Room were everyday opening stock, closing stock, Issued Material, and attendance is maintained. Weaving and mending Weaving is taking strings of yarn, setting them at right angles to each other and interlacing them over and then beneath each other thus forming a woven mat. The yarn that is inserted over-and-under the warp threads are called the weft, woof, or filler. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end or end. In warping beams are made with different patterns. There are 8 warping machines and each one take 1 hour to make a beam. Knitting is done by forming loops of yarn and interlocking rows. You are continually forming new loops and passing a string of yarn through it. Weaving is done through the Air force which is Air jet looms which gives higher production rate as Rapier looms which is very versatile. In that rapier looms can weave using a large variety of threads. There are several types of rapiers, however they all use a hook system attached to a rod or metal band to pass the pick across the shed. These machines regularly reach 700 picks per minute in normal production. After Weaving, Calculation of meters is done and simultaneously manual checking is also done to check damages that might occur will making the cloth. Finishing In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile or clothing. This process is never been outsourced because Finishing is the Heart of Raymond which makes the Raymond as to feel like heaven.  Raising Another finishing process is raising. During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibers, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.
  • 6. 6  Calendering Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.  Chemical finishing Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease resist and other special effects.  Shrinking (Sanforizing) Mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.  Steaming and Heat setting It is done by using high temperatures to stabilize fabrics containing polyester, nylon, or triacetate but not effective on cotton or rayon.it may be performed in fabric form or garment form it may cause shade variation from side-to-side if done prior to dyeing; may change the shade if done after dyeing Finished Fabrics After finishing process starts, Grey Fabric is send to the A/C Room for cool down (1 Hour) as it has been passed by the hot process for making it soft and then it is send to Quality department for checking and then for C utting. The whole lot is called as “THAAN ”. The good meter is 9 and 15 meters thaan and export rolls are of 10 meters. While cutting 6 to 7% of defect is found. There is approximately 188000 SKU.