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How jeans are made


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How jeans are made

  2. 2. Name : MAZADUL HASAN SHESHIR ID: 2010000400008 Batch: 13th Batch (Session 2009-2013) Department: Wet Processing Technology Email: Blog: www. Southeast University Department of Textile Engineering PREPARED BY ©right
  3. 3. Page 3 1 • Introduction 2 • Cotton Collection 3 • Cleaning 4 • Blending 5 • Carding 6 • Spinning 7 • Warping 8 • Yarn Dyeing and Sizing 9 • Weaving 10 • Garments Factory 11 • Designing 12 • Washing and Finishing
  4. 4. Powerpoint Templates Page 4 Denim is a strong durable fabric constructed in a twill weave with indigo and white yarns. The story of jeans begins in the mid-19th century simultaneously in two European cities: Nîmes in France, where the fabric itself was created, the so-called “Serge de Nîmes” which led to the name “denim”. Genoa in Italy, where the color comes from, called in French “Bleu de Gênes” which led to the expression “blue jeans” .The fabric and color come together to become the jeans, denim.
  5. 5. Cotton grows in a vast field. Picking cotton by hand is a slow back breaking work. Each picker can only pick around 50kg a day. But the mechanical cotton picker, its takes only five minute to pick cotton that a man can pick in whole day. Then cotton comprised in a massive bale which is ready for transportation. Each ton of bale contain 500kg seeds, 100kg leafs and only 400kg of cotton fiber.
  6. 6. Cleaning was always an important basic operation and it will become steadily more important. For one thing, due to machine harvesting cotton contains more and more impurities, which furthermore are shattered by hard ginning. The higher the degree of opening, the higher the degree of cleaning. A very high cleaning effect is almost always purchased at the cost of a high fiber loss.
  7. 7. Intensive blending in a suitable blending machine must be carried out after separate tuft extraction from individual bales of the layout. This blending operation must collect the brunches of fibers arriving sequentially from individual bales and mix them thoroughly. Multi mixer is the machine of blow room where the uniform blending is carried out.
  8. 8. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8 Carding is the reduction of entangled mass of fibers to filmy web by working them between two closely spaced relatively moving surfaces closed with sharp points. It is done to remove any foreign matter and the short fibers so that cotton takes the form of a web which is then converted into a rope like form called sliver..
  9. 9. The drawing process produces a single, uniform Sliver from a number of carded slivers. It is straighten the crimped and hooked fibers in the card sliver. It also achieve a fairly through parallelization of the fibers along the sliver axis, so that when they came to be spun on the spinning frame they will be evenly drafted and twisted to produce an acceptable yarn.
  10. 10. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10 Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. Ring-spinning is the most common spinning method in the world. Other systems include air-jet and rotor or open-end spinning. Rotor spinning is done using break or open-end spinning. This is a technique where the staple fiber is blown by air into a rotor and attaches to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber.
  11. 11. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11 The parallel winding of warp ends from many winding packages on to a common package (warp beam) is called warping. To arrange a convenient number of warp yarns of related length so that they can be collect on a single warp beam as a continuous sheet of yarns which can be used for sizing or next process.
  12. 12. There are various dying and sizing processes of yarns, which can be classified into four categories. Continuous Indigo-rope dying and sizing , Continuous dying and sizing, Indigo-back beam dyeing and sizing and Continuous dyeing and sizing. In indigo-back beam, dyeing and sizing is done in two stages. In the first stage, back beams are dyed , oxidized , dried and wound on a batch roll. The batch roll is then sized, dried and wound on a weavers beam.
  13. 13. The most usual weaving structure used in denim fabric is Twill. Twill weave is normally designated as a fraction, such as 3/1. In this case the numerator indicates the number of harnesses which are raised when the filling thread is inserted (in this case it is 3). The denominator indicates the number of harnesses that are lowered when the filling thread is inserted (in this case is 1). Weaving is done by Air jet, Water jet, Rapier or a Projectile weaving machine..
  14. 14. Produced fabric is come into the garments factory for further processing. Firstly Marker is making efficiently, then Spreading the fabric using spreading machine and finally Cutting the fabric using cutting machine. Each pair jeans takes 15 min to make, including 1.6 meter denim, 1 zipper , 5 button etc. This jeans still not ready to use. It is then Blown up and stretched for 60 min.
  15. 15. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15 It is pass through a high tech laser for producing different design.
  16. 16. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16 In order to accelerate the garment wash effect and to give garments an even more unique appearance and softer hand, abrasive stones were introduced to the wash bath.
  17. 17. Finally the fabric is ready for use and it packed and send to the consumer.