SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Project Management CPM/PERT
What exactly is a project? PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these resources by lecturers and students within the college.
Project is not defined by the type of outcome it is set up to achieve PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. A new drug PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these resources by lecturers and students within the college. A new method of teaching students PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. A shopping complex
Characteristic of  a project A project is a temporary endeavour involving a connected sequence of activities and a range of resources, which is designed to achieve a specific and unique outcome and which operates within time, cost and quality constraints and which is often used to introduce change. A unique, one-time operational activity or effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Established to achieve specific objective Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited Typically has its own management structure Need leadership Project
Examples constructing houses, factories, shopping malls, athletic stadiums or arenas developing military weapons systems, aircrafts, new ships launching satellite systems constructing oil pipelines developing and implementing new computer systems planning concert, football games, or basketball tournaments introducing new products into  market
What is project management The application of a collection of tools and techniques to direct the use of diverse resources towards the accomplishment of a unique, complex, one time task within time, cost and quality constraints. Its origins lie in World War II, when the military authorities used the techniques of operational research to plan the optimum use of resources. One of these techniques was the use of networks to represent a system of related activities
Project Management Process Project planning Project scheduling  Project control Project team made up of individuals from various areas and departments within a company Matrix organization a team structure with members from functional areas, depending on  skills required Project Manager most important member of project team Scope statement a document that provides an understanding, justification, and expected result of a project Statement of work written description of  objectives of a project Organizational Breakdown Structure a chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for work items Responsibility Assignment Matrix shows who is responsible for work in a project
Work breakdown structure A method of breaking down a project into individual elements ( components, subcomponents, activities and tasks) in a hierarchical structure which can be scheduled and cost It defines tasks that can be completed independently of other tasks, facilitating resource allocation, assignment of responsibilities and measurement and control of the project It is foundation of project planning It is developed before identification of dependencies  and estimation of activity durations It can be used to identity the tasks in the CPM and PERT
Work Breakdown Structure for Computer Order Processing System Project
Project Planning  Resource Availability and/or Limits Due date, late penalties, early completion incentives Budget Activity Information Identify all required activities Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each activity Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create interrelationships
Project Scheduling and Control Techniques Gantt Chart Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows  passage of time Provides visual display of project schedule Gantt Chart
History of CPM/PERT Critical Path Method (CPM) E I Du Pont de Nemours & Co. (1957) for construction of new chemical plant and maintenance shut-down Deterministic task times Activity-on-node network construction Repetitive nature of jobs Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) U S Navy (1958) for the POLARIS missile program Multiple task time estimates (probabilistic nature) Activity-on-arrow network  construction Non-repetitive jobs (R & D work)
Project Network Use of nodes and arrows Arrows   An arrow leads from tail to head directionally Indicate  ACTIVITY,  a time consuming effort  that is required to perform a part of the work. Nodes   A node is represented by a circle -  Indicate  EVENT,  a point in time where one or more activities start and/or  finish. Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning, management and control of projects Activity A task or a certain amount of work required in the project Requires time to complete Represented by an arrow Dummy Activity Indicates only precedence relationships Does not require any time of effort
Event Signals the beginning or ending of an activity Designates a point in time Represented by a circle (node) Network Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows Activity-on-node (AON) nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence relationships Activity-on-arrow (AOA) arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time Project Network
AOA Project Network for House AON Project Network for House 3 2 0 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 7 3 5 Lay foundation Design house and obtain financing Order and receive materials Dummy Finish work Select carpet Select paint Build house 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 Start Design house and obtain financing Order and receive materials Select paint Select carpet Lay foundations Build house Finish work
Situations in network diagram A must finish before either B or C can start both A and B must finish before C can start both A and C must finish before either of B or D can start A must finish before B can start both A and C must finish before D can start A B C A B C D C B A A C B D Dummy
 
Network example Illustration of network analysis of a minor redesign of a product and its associated packaging. The key question is:  How long will it take to complete this project ?
For clarity, this list is kept to a minimum by specifying only immediate relationships, that is relationships involving activities that " occur near to each other in time".
Questions to prepare activity network Is this a Start Activity?  Is this a Finish Activity?  What Activity Precedes this?  What Activity Follows this?  What Activity is Concurrent with this?
CPM calculation Path A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event Critical Path The longest path (time); determines the project duration Critical Activities All of the activities that make up the critical path
Forward Pass Earliest Start Time (ES) earliest time an activity can start  ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors Earliest finish time (EF) earliest time an activity can finish earliest start time plus  activity time EF= ES +  t Latest Start Time (LS) Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time  LS= LF -  t Latest finish time (LF) latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time LS = minimum LS of immediate predecessors Backward Pass
CPM analysis Draw the CPM network Analyze the paths through the network Determine the float for each activity Compute the activity’s float   float = LS - ES = LF - EF Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays completion of the project Find the critical path is that the sequence of activities and events where there is no “slack”  i.e..  Zero slack Longest path through a network Find the project duration is minimum project completion time
CPM Example:  CPM Network a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12
CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5
CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14  8  21  6  23  6 21
CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14  8  21  21 33 6  23  21  30  23  29 6 21  Project’s EF = 33
CPM Example LS and LF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14  8  21  21 33 6  23  21  30  23  29 6 21  21 33 27 33 24  33
CPM Example LS and LF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14  8  21  21 33 6  23  21  30  23  29 6 21  4  10  0 8 7 12  12  21  21 33 27 33 8  21  10  27  24  33  18  24
CPM Example Float a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14  8  21  21 33 6  23  21  30  23  29 6 21  3  9  0 8 7 12  12  21  21 33 27 33 8  21  10  27  24  33  9  24  3 4  3 3  4  0 0 7 7 0
CPM Example Critical Path a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12
PERT  PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of an activity’s duration distribution: pessimistic time  (t p  ) - the time the activity would take if things did not go well most likely time  (t m  ) - the consensus best estimate of the activity’s duration optimistic time  (t o  ) - the time the activity would take if things did go well Mean (expected time):   t e  = t p  + 4  t m  +  t o 6 Variance: V t  =   2  = t p  -  t o 6 2
PERT analysis Draw the network. Analyze the paths through the network and find the critical path. The length of the critical path is the mean of the project duration probability distribution which is assumed to be normal The standard deviation of the project duration probability distribution is computed by adding the variances of the critical activities (all of the activities that make up the critical path) and taking the square root of that sum Probability computations can now be made using the normal distribution table.
Probability computation Determine probability that project is completed within specified time where    = t p  = project mean time      = project standard mean time x = (proposed ) specified time  Z =  x -   
 
PERT Example    Immed.  Optimistic  Most Likely  Pessimistic Activity   Predec.   Time (Hr. )  Time (Hr.)   Time (Hr.)   A  --  4  6  8 B  --  1  4.5  5 C  A  3  3  3 D  A  4  5  6  E  A  0.5  1  1.5 F  B,C  3  4  5 G  B,C  1  1.5  5 H  E,F  5  6  7 I  E,F  2  5  8 J  D,H  2.5  2.75  4.5 K  G,I  3  5  7
PERT Example A D C B F E G I H K J PERT Network
PERT Example   Activity   Expected Time   Variance   A    6    4/9 B    4    4/9 C    3    0 D    5    1/9 E    1    1/36 F    4    1/9 G    2    4/9 H    6    1/9 I    5    1 J    3    1/9 K    5    4/9
PERT Example   Activity   ES   EF   LS   LF   Slack   A  0   6   0   6  0 *critical B  0   4   5   9  5 C  6   9   6   9  0 * D  6  11  15  20  9 E  6   7  12  13  6 F  9  13   9  13  0 * G  9  11  16  18  7 H  13  19  14  20  1 I  13  18  13  18  0 * J  19  22  20  23  1 K  18  23  18  23  0 *
PERT Example V path  =  V A  + V C  + V F  + V I  + V K   =  4/9 + 0 + 1/9 + 1 + 4/9    =  2  path   =  1.414   z  = (24 - 23)/  (24-23)/1.414 = .71 From the Standard Normal Distribution table:   P(z  <  .71) = .5 + .2612 =  .7612
PROJECT COST
Cost consideration in project Project managers may have the option or requirement to crash the project, or accelerate the completion of the project. This is accomplished by reducing the length of the critical path(s). The length of the critical path is reduced by reducing the duration of the activities on the critical path. If each activity requires the expenditure of an amount of money to reduce its duration by one unit of time, then the project manager selects the least cost critical activity, reduces it by one time unit, and traces that change through the remainder of the network. As a result of a reduction in an activity’s time, a new critical path may be created. When there is more than one critical path, each of the critical paths must be reduced. If the length of the project needs to be reduced further, the process is repeated.
Project Crashing Crashing reducing project time by expending additional resources Crash time an amount of time an activity is reduced Crash cost cost of reducing activity time Goal reduce project duration at minimum cost
Activity crashing Slope = crash cost per unit time Activity cost Activity time Crashing activity Crash time Crash cost Normal Activity Normal time Normal cost
Time-Cost Relationship Crashing costs increase as project duration decreases Indirect costs increase as project duration increases Reduce project length as long as crashing costs are less than indirect costs Time-Cost Tradeoff  cost time Direct cost Indirect cost Total project cost Min total cost = optimal project time
Project Crashing example 1 12 2 8 4 12 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4
Time Cost data 110700 75000 400 500 3000 7000 200 200 7000 5 3 1 3 3 3 1 5000 3500 7000 71000 1100 1100 22000 7 5 3 9 1 1 3 3000 2000 4000 50000 500 500 1500 12 8 4 12 4 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 slope Allowable crash time Crash cost Rs Crash time Normal cost Rs Normal time Activity
From….. To….. 1 12 2 8 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 R400 R500 R3000 R7000 R200 R200 R700 12 4 Project duration = 36 1 7 2 8 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 R400 R500 R3000 R7000 R200 R200 R700 12 4 Project  duration = 31 Additional cost = R2000
Benefits of CPM/PERT Useful at many stages of project management Mathematically simple Give critical path and slack time Provide project documentation Useful in monitoring costs How long will the entire project take to be completed? What are the risks involved?  Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time?  Is the project on schedule, behind schedule or ahead of schedule?  If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best way to do this at the least cost?  CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions:
Limitations to CPM/PERT Clearly defined, independent and stable activities Specified precedence relationships Over emphasis on critical paths Deterministic CPM model Activity time estimates are subjective and depend on judgment PERT assumes a beta distribution for these time estimates, but the actual distribution may be different PERT consistently underestimates the expected project completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical To overcome the limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be performed on the network to eliminate the optimistic bias
Computer Software  for Project Management Microsoft Project  (Microsoft Corp.) MacProject   (Claris Corp.) PowerProject   (ASTA Development Inc.) Primavera Project Planner   (Primavera) Project Scheduler   (Scitor Corp.) Project Workbench   (ABT Corp.)
Practice Example A social project manager is faced with a project with the following activities: Draw network diagram and show the critical path. Calculate project duration. 4w Carry out immunization of under fives 15w Establish rural credit programme 14w Establish mother & child health program 5w Analyse results of survey 12w Social research team to do survey 5w Social work team to live in village Duration Activity Description
Practice problem 4w Carry out immunization of under fives 4-5 15w Establish rural credit programme 3-5 14w Establish mother & child health program 2-4 5w Analyse results of survey 3-4 12w Social research team to do survey 1-3 5w Social work team to live in village 1-2 Duration Description Activity 3 1 2 4 5

More Related Content

What's hot

Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
Zulfiquer Ahmed Amin
 
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
SN Panigrahi, PMP
 
Critical path method(cpm)
Critical path method(cpm)Critical path method(cpm)
Critical path method(cpm)
chandkec
 
Construction Delay Analysis, Simplified
Construction Delay Analysis, SimplifiedConstruction Delay Analysis, Simplified
Construction Delay Analysis, Simplified
Michael Pink
 
PERT
PERTPERT
Project Management Techniques
Project Management TechniquesProject Management Techniques
Project Management Techniques
project management
 
Project management & Network analysis
Project management & Network analysisProject management & Network analysis
Project management & Network analysis
Harinadh Karimikonda
 
Project management techniques
Project management techniquesProject management techniques
Project management techniques
Ragjni Govindaraju
 
Pert cpm
Pert cpmPert cpm
Pert cpm
Jyoti Mamtani
 
Project management Using Pert
Project management Using PertProject management Using Pert
Project management Using Pert
Vishnu RC Vijayan
 
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLSPERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Zulfiquer Ahmed Amin
 
Pert, cpm & gert
Pert, cpm & gertPert, cpm & gert
Pert, cpm & gert
Pranav Krishna
 
Pert Analysis
Pert AnalysisPert Analysis
Pert Analysis
Kaizer Dave
 
Pert
PertPert
Pert
corvinno
 
PROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULEPROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULE
Ajeesh Mk
 
Pert & cpm project management
Pert & cpm   project managementPert & cpm   project management
Pert & cpm project management
Rahul Dubey
 
Pert and cpm
Pert and cpmPert and cpm
Pert and cpm
Shashank Kapoor
 
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Debanjan15
 
Work breakdown structure ppt
Work breakdown structure pptWork breakdown structure ppt
Work breakdown structure ppt
nazi2020
 
Project Time Management
Project Time ManagementProject Time Management
Project Time Management
dyaksa hanindito
 

What's hot (20)

Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
Project Management Tools and Techniques (PERT- Project Evaluation and Review ...
 
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
#Project Scheduling - Network Diagrams : PERT & CPM# By SN Panigrahi
 
Critical path method(cpm)
Critical path method(cpm)Critical path method(cpm)
Critical path method(cpm)
 
Construction Delay Analysis, Simplified
Construction Delay Analysis, SimplifiedConstruction Delay Analysis, Simplified
Construction Delay Analysis, Simplified
 
PERT
PERTPERT
PERT
 
Project Management Techniques
Project Management TechniquesProject Management Techniques
Project Management Techniques
 
Project management & Network analysis
Project management & Network analysisProject management & Network analysis
Project management & Network analysis
 
Project management techniques
Project management techniquesProject management techniques
Project management techniques
 
Pert cpm
Pert cpmPert cpm
Pert cpm
 
Project management Using Pert
Project management Using PertProject management Using Pert
Project management Using Pert
 
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLSPERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
 
Pert, cpm & gert
Pert, cpm & gertPert, cpm & gert
Pert, cpm & gert
 
Pert Analysis
Pert AnalysisPert Analysis
Pert Analysis
 
Pert
PertPert
Pert
 
PROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULEPROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULE
 
Pert & cpm project management
Pert & cpm   project managementPert & cpm   project management
Pert & cpm project management
 
Pert and cpm
Pert and cpmPert and cpm
Pert and cpm
 
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
 
Work breakdown structure ppt
Work breakdown structure pptWork breakdown structure ppt
Work breakdown structure ppt
 
Project Time Management
Project Time ManagementProject Time Management
Project Time Management
 

Viewers also liked

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Abhishek Pachisia
 
Network Problem CPM & PERT
Network Problem CPM &  PERTNetwork Problem CPM &  PERT
Network Problem CPM & PERT
Pulchowk Campus
 
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULINGOR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
Jignesh Kariya
 
PERT CPM Intro
PERT CPM IntroPERT CPM Intro
PERT CPM Intro
Ninoto Zhimomi
 
Project management cpm-pert
Project management   cpm-pertProject management   cpm-pert
Project management cpm-pert
Dr. Varaprasada Rao Manda
 
Cpm n pert
Cpm n pertCpm n pert
Cpm n pert
Sheetu Goel
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path method
Harshit Jhawar
 
Critical Path Method
Critical Path MethodCritical Path Method
Critical Path Method
Mr. Ramesh Nayaka
 
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite ImagesBand Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
Kabir Uddin
 
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
Fredy Neira
 
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model MakerFew Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
Swetha A
 
NDVI
NDVINDVI
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat imageIntroduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
Kabir Uddin
 
Supervised Classification
Supervised ClassificationSupervised Classification
Supervised Classification
Chad Yowler
 
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, CaliforniaLand cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
Lisa Jensen
 
Clustering
ClusteringClustering
Clustering
M Rizwan Aqeel
 
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
Susan Aragon
 
Original SOINN
Original SOINNOriginal SOINN
Original SOINN
SOINN Inc.
 

Viewers also liked (18)

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
 
Network Problem CPM & PERT
Network Problem CPM &  PERTNetwork Problem CPM &  PERT
Network Problem CPM & PERT
 
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULINGOR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
OR PERT CPM AND JOB SCHEDULING
 
PERT CPM Intro
PERT CPM IntroPERT CPM Intro
PERT CPM Intro
 
Project management cpm-pert
Project management   cpm-pertProject management   cpm-pert
Project management cpm-pert
 
Cpm n pert
Cpm n pertCpm n pert
Cpm n pert
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path method
 
Critical Path Method
Critical Path MethodCritical Path Method
Critical Path Method
 
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite ImagesBand Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
Band Combination of Landsat 8 Earth-observing Satellite Images
 
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
Presentacion elafis Brasil 2009
 
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model MakerFew Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
Few Indicies(NDVI... etc) performed on ERDAS software using Model Maker
 
NDVI
NDVINDVI
NDVI
 
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat imageIntroduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
Introduce variable/ Indices using landsat image
 
Supervised Classification
Supervised ClassificationSupervised Classification
Supervised Classification
 
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, CaliforniaLand cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
Land cover supervised classification at Toro Park, California
 
Clustering
ClusteringClustering
Clustering
 
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
 
Original SOINN
Original SOINNOriginal SOINN
Original SOINN
 

Similar to Pert & Cpm

Project management cpm-pert
Project management   cpm-pertProject management   cpm-pert
Project management cpm-pert
Abu Bashar
 
Cpm pert
Cpm pertCpm pert
Cpm pert
Jags Jagdish
 
CPM AND PERT
CPM AND PERTCPM AND PERT
CPM AND PERT
SimranGrewal33
 
project management-cpm and pert methods for managers
project management-cpm and pert methods for managersproject management-cpm and pert methods for managers
project management-cpm and pert methods for managers
Naganna Chetty
 
ITFT - Project Management
ITFT - Project ManagementITFT - Project Management
ITFT - Project Management
Pooja
 
Chapter 3.pptx
Chapter 3.pptxChapter 3.pptx
Chapter 3.pptx
BetshaTizazu2
 
pert/cpm
pert/cpmpert/cpm
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptx
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptxChapter 5-Project Management.pptx
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptx
BahredinAbdella1
 
Network Analysis- CPM ppt..pptx
Network Analysis- CPM  ppt..pptxNetwork Analysis- CPM  ppt..pptx
Network analysis cpm module3 ppt
Network analysis cpm module3 pptNetwork analysis cpm module3 ppt
Network analysis cpm module3 ppt
ahsanrabbani
 
Advanced project management mod 4
Advanced project management mod 4Advanced project management mod 4
Advanced project management mod 4
POOJA UDAYAN
 
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptxCPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
SpoorthiJanardhan
 
Network analysis cpm module3
Network analysis cpm module3Network analysis cpm module3
Network analysis cpm module3
ahsanrabbani
 
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniquesLec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
SAJID ALI RUK
 
Nce603 mod unit2
Nce603 mod unit2Nce603 mod unit2
Nce603 mod unit2
MODASSAR ANSARI
 
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
Jags Jagdish
 
CPM and PERT
CPM and  PERTCPM and  PERT
CPM and PERT
Mamatha Upadhya
 
time mamangement.ppt
time mamangement.ppttime mamangement.ppt
time mamangement.ppt
Madhusha15
 
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptxEstablishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
shrinivas kulkarni
 
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptxPROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
TecnicoItca
 

Similar to Pert & Cpm (20)

Project management cpm-pert
Project management   cpm-pertProject management   cpm-pert
Project management cpm-pert
 
Cpm pert
Cpm pertCpm pert
Cpm pert
 
CPM AND PERT
CPM AND PERTCPM AND PERT
CPM AND PERT
 
project management-cpm and pert methods for managers
project management-cpm and pert methods for managersproject management-cpm and pert methods for managers
project management-cpm and pert methods for managers
 
ITFT - Project Management
ITFT - Project ManagementITFT - Project Management
ITFT - Project Management
 
Chapter 3.pptx
Chapter 3.pptxChapter 3.pptx
Chapter 3.pptx
 
pert/cpm
pert/cpmpert/cpm
pert/cpm
 
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptx
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptxChapter 5-Project Management.pptx
Chapter 5-Project Management.pptx
 
Network Analysis- CPM ppt..pptx
Network Analysis- CPM  ppt..pptxNetwork Analysis- CPM  ppt..pptx
Network Analysis- CPM ppt..pptx
 
Network analysis cpm module3 ppt
Network analysis cpm module3 pptNetwork analysis cpm module3 ppt
Network analysis cpm module3 ppt
 
Advanced project management mod 4
Advanced project management mod 4Advanced project management mod 4
Advanced project management mod 4
 
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptxCPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
CPM AND PERT(critical path method) .pptx
 
Network analysis cpm module3
Network analysis cpm module3Network analysis cpm module3
Network analysis cpm module3
 
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniquesLec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
 
Nce603 mod unit2
Nce603 mod unit2Nce603 mod unit2
Nce603 mod unit2
 
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
Pert cpm-1226075768298180-8 (1)
 
CPM and PERT
CPM and  PERTCPM and  PERT
CPM and PERT
 
time mamangement.ppt
time mamangement.ppttime mamangement.ppt
time mamangement.ppt
 
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptxEstablishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
Establishing An Enterprise and Project Management.pptx
 
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptxPROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx
 

More from Vikram Thadeshvar

Advertisement For B2 B
Advertisement For B2 BAdvertisement For B2 B
Advertisement For B2 B
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
David Aakars Ad Expouser Model
David Aakars Ad Expouser ModelDavid Aakars Ad Expouser Model
David Aakars Ad Expouser Model
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Basics Of Wealth Mgt
Basics Of Wealth MgtBasics Of Wealth Mgt
Basics Of Wealth Mgt
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Advertisement
AdvertisementAdvertisement
Advertisement
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Warren Buffet
Warren BuffetWarren Buffet
Warren Buffet
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
The Creative World Of Advertisement
The Creative World Of AdvertisementThe Creative World Of Advertisement
The Creative World Of Advertisement
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Project Report Format
Project Report FormatProject Report Format
Project Report Format
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Principles Of Management
Principles Of ManagementPrinciples Of Management
Principles Of Management
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
ITCs Agri Business
ITCs Agri BusinessITCs Agri Business
ITCs Agri Business
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Distribution System
Distribution SystemDistribution System
Distribution System
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support SystemsDecision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Advertisement
AdvertisementAdvertisement
Advertisement
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support SystemsDecision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
One Nation One Tax
One Nation One TaxOne Nation One Tax
One Nation One Tax
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Expert Systems
Expert SystemsExpert Systems
Expert Systems
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Agricultural Reform In India
Agricultural Reform In IndiaAgricultural Reform In India
Agricultural Reform In India
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
The Price Of Growth In India
The Price Of Growth In IndiaThe Price Of Growth In India
The Price Of Growth In India
Vikram Thadeshvar
 
Service Sector Reforms In India
Service Sector Reforms In IndiaService Sector Reforms In India
Service Sector Reforms In India
Vikram Thadeshvar
 

More from Vikram Thadeshvar (20)

Advertisement For B2 B
Advertisement For B2 BAdvertisement For B2 B
Advertisement For B2 B
 
David Aakars Ad Expouser Model
David Aakars Ad Expouser ModelDavid Aakars Ad Expouser Model
David Aakars Ad Expouser Model
 
Basics Of Wealth Mgt
Basics Of Wealth MgtBasics Of Wealth Mgt
Basics Of Wealth Mgt
 
Advertisement
AdvertisementAdvertisement
Advertisement
 
Warren Buffet
Warren BuffetWarren Buffet
Warren Buffet
 
The Creative World Of Advertisement
The Creative World Of AdvertisementThe Creative World Of Advertisement
The Creative World Of Advertisement
 
Project Report Format
Project Report FormatProject Report Format
Project Report Format
 
Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
 
Principles Of Management
Principles Of ManagementPrinciples Of Management
Principles Of Management
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
ITCs Agri Business
ITCs Agri BusinessITCs Agri Business
ITCs Agri Business
 
Distribution System
Distribution SystemDistribution System
Distribution System
 
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support SystemsDecision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems
 
Advertisement
AdvertisementAdvertisement
Advertisement
 
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support SystemsDecision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems
 
One Nation One Tax
One Nation One TaxOne Nation One Tax
One Nation One Tax
 
Expert Systems
Expert SystemsExpert Systems
Expert Systems
 
Agricultural Reform In India
Agricultural Reform In IndiaAgricultural Reform In India
Agricultural Reform In India
 
The Price Of Growth In India
The Price Of Growth In IndiaThe Price Of Growth In India
The Price Of Growth In India
 
Service Sector Reforms In India
Service Sector Reforms In IndiaService Sector Reforms In India
Service Sector Reforms In India
 

Recently uploaded

DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.pptIntroduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Dr. S. Bulomine Regi
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docxParent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
AntonioJarligoCompra
 
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Celine George
 
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdfFINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
maricelrudela
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
NurFitriah45
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj TripathiPower of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Pankaj523992
 

Recently uploaded (20)

DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.pptIntroduction to Banking System in India.ppt
Introduction to Banking System in India.ppt
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docxParent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
Parent PD Design for Professional Development .docx
 
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
 
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdfFINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
 
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj TripathiPower of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
 

Pert & Cpm

  • 2. What exactly is a project? PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these resources by lecturers and students within the college.
  • 3. Project is not defined by the type of outcome it is set up to achieve PM 2 – I am directing a team of research scientists. We are running trials on a new analgesic drug on behalf of a pharmaceutical company. It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that proper scientific and legal procedures are followed, so that our results can be subjected to independent statistical analysis. A new drug PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to New Delhi to organize the introduction of multimedia resources at a teachers’ training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance of these resources by lecturers and students within the college. A new method of teaching students PM 1 – I’m in charge of the construction of a retail development in the centre of a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work of the various contractors to ensure that the project is completed to specification, within budget and on time. A shopping complex
  • 4. Characteristic of a project A project is a temporary endeavour involving a connected sequence of activities and a range of resources, which is designed to achieve a specific and unique outcome and which operates within time, cost and quality constraints and which is often used to introduce change. A unique, one-time operational activity or effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Established to achieve specific objective Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited Typically has its own management structure Need leadership Project
  • 5. Examples constructing houses, factories, shopping malls, athletic stadiums or arenas developing military weapons systems, aircrafts, new ships launching satellite systems constructing oil pipelines developing and implementing new computer systems planning concert, football games, or basketball tournaments introducing new products into market
  • 6. What is project management The application of a collection of tools and techniques to direct the use of diverse resources towards the accomplishment of a unique, complex, one time task within time, cost and quality constraints. Its origins lie in World War II, when the military authorities used the techniques of operational research to plan the optimum use of resources. One of these techniques was the use of networks to represent a system of related activities
  • 7. Project Management Process Project planning Project scheduling Project control Project team made up of individuals from various areas and departments within a company Matrix organization a team structure with members from functional areas, depending on skills required Project Manager most important member of project team Scope statement a document that provides an understanding, justification, and expected result of a project Statement of work written description of objectives of a project Organizational Breakdown Structure a chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for work items Responsibility Assignment Matrix shows who is responsible for work in a project
  • 8. Work breakdown structure A method of breaking down a project into individual elements ( components, subcomponents, activities and tasks) in a hierarchical structure which can be scheduled and cost It defines tasks that can be completed independently of other tasks, facilitating resource allocation, assignment of responsibilities and measurement and control of the project It is foundation of project planning It is developed before identification of dependencies and estimation of activity durations It can be used to identity the tasks in the CPM and PERT
  • 9. Work Breakdown Structure for Computer Order Processing System Project
  • 10. Project Planning Resource Availability and/or Limits Due date, late penalties, early completion incentives Budget Activity Information Identify all required activities Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each activity Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create interrelationships
  • 11. Project Scheduling and Control Techniques Gantt Chart Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
  • 12. Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows passage of time Provides visual display of project schedule Gantt Chart
  • 13. History of CPM/PERT Critical Path Method (CPM) E I Du Pont de Nemours & Co. (1957) for construction of new chemical plant and maintenance shut-down Deterministic task times Activity-on-node network construction Repetitive nature of jobs Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) U S Navy (1958) for the POLARIS missile program Multiple task time estimates (probabilistic nature) Activity-on-arrow network construction Non-repetitive jobs (R & D work)
  • 14. Project Network Use of nodes and arrows Arrows  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. Nodes  A node is represented by a circle - Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish. Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning, management and control of projects Activity A task or a certain amount of work required in the project Requires time to complete Represented by an arrow Dummy Activity Indicates only precedence relationships Does not require any time of effort
  • 15. Event Signals the beginning or ending of an activity Designates a point in time Represented by a circle (node) Network Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows Activity-on-node (AON) nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence relationships Activity-on-arrow (AOA) arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time Project Network
  • 16. AOA Project Network for House AON Project Network for House 3 2 0 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 7 3 5 Lay foundation Design house and obtain financing Order and receive materials Dummy Finish work Select carpet Select paint Build house 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 Start Design house and obtain financing Order and receive materials Select paint Select carpet Lay foundations Build house Finish work
  • 17. Situations in network diagram A must finish before either B or C can start both A and B must finish before C can start both A and C must finish before either of B or D can start A must finish before B can start both A and C must finish before D can start A B C A B C D C B A A C B D Dummy
  • 18.  
  • 19. Network example Illustration of network analysis of a minor redesign of a product and its associated packaging. The key question is: How long will it take to complete this project ?
  • 20. For clarity, this list is kept to a minimum by specifying only immediate relationships, that is relationships involving activities that &quot; occur near to each other in time&quot;.
  • 21. Questions to prepare activity network Is this a Start Activity? Is this a Finish Activity? What Activity Precedes this? What Activity Follows this? What Activity is Concurrent with this?
  • 22. CPM calculation Path A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event Critical Path The longest path (time); determines the project duration Critical Activities All of the activities that make up the critical path
  • 23. Forward Pass Earliest Start Time (ES) earliest time an activity can start ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors Earliest finish time (EF) earliest time an activity can finish earliest start time plus activity time EF= ES + t Latest Start Time (LS) Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time LS= LF - t Latest finish time (LF) latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time LS = minimum LS of immediate predecessors Backward Pass
  • 24. CPM analysis Draw the CPM network Analyze the paths through the network Determine the float for each activity Compute the activity’s float float = LS - ES = LF - EF Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays completion of the project Find the critical path is that the sequence of activities and events where there is no “slack” i.e.. Zero slack Longest path through a network Find the project duration is minimum project completion time
  • 25. CPM Example: CPM Network a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12
  • 26. CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5
  • 27. CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14 8 21 6 23 6 21
  • 28. CPM Example ES and EF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14 8 21 21 33 6 23 21 30 23 29 6 21 Project’s EF = 33
  • 29. CPM Example LS and LF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14 8 21 21 33 6 23 21 30 23 29 6 21 21 33 27 33 24 33
  • 30. CPM Example LS and LF Times a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14 8 21 21 33 6 23 21 30 23 29 6 21 4 10 0 8 7 12 12 21 21 33 27 33 8 21 10 27 24 33 18 24
  • 31. CPM Example Float a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12 0 6 0 8 0 5 5 14 8 21 21 33 6 23 21 30 23 29 6 21 3 9 0 8 7 12 12 21 21 33 27 33 8 21 10 27 24 33 9 24 3 4 3 3 4 0 0 7 7 0
  • 32. CPM Example Critical Path a, 6 f, 15 b, 8 c, 5 e, 9 d, 13 g, 17 h, 9 i, 6 j, 12
  • 33. PERT PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of an activity’s duration distribution: pessimistic time (t p ) - the time the activity would take if things did not go well most likely time (t m ) - the consensus best estimate of the activity’s duration optimistic time (t o ) - the time the activity would take if things did go well Mean (expected time): t e = t p + 4 t m + t o 6 Variance: V t =   2 = t p - t o 6 2
  • 34. PERT analysis Draw the network. Analyze the paths through the network and find the critical path. The length of the critical path is the mean of the project duration probability distribution which is assumed to be normal The standard deviation of the project duration probability distribution is computed by adding the variances of the critical activities (all of the activities that make up the critical path) and taking the square root of that sum Probability computations can now be made using the normal distribution table.
  • 35. Probability computation Determine probability that project is completed within specified time where  = t p = project mean time  = project standard mean time x = (proposed ) specified time Z = x -  
  • 36.  
  • 37. PERT Example Immed. Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Activity Predec. Time (Hr. ) Time (Hr.) Time (Hr.) A -- 4 6 8 B -- 1 4.5 5 C A 3 3 3 D A 4 5 6 E A 0.5 1 1.5 F B,C 3 4 5 G B,C 1 1.5 5 H E,F 5 6 7 I E,F 2 5 8 J D,H 2.5 2.75 4.5 K G,I 3 5 7
  • 38. PERT Example A D C B F E G I H K J PERT Network
  • 39. PERT Example Activity Expected Time Variance A 6 4/9 B 4 4/9 C 3 0 D 5 1/9 E 1 1/36 F 4 1/9 G 2 4/9 H 6 1/9 I 5 1 J 3 1/9 K 5 4/9
  • 40. PERT Example Activity ES EF LS LF Slack A 0 6 0 6 0 *critical B 0 4 5 9 5 C 6 9 6 9 0 * D 6 11 15 20 9 E 6 7 12 13 6 F 9 13 9 13 0 * G 9 11 16 18 7 H 13 19 14 20 1 I 13 18 13 18 0 * J 19 22 20 23 1 K 18 23 18 23 0 *
  • 41. PERT Example V path = V A + V C + V F + V I + V K = 4/9 + 0 + 1/9 + 1 + 4/9 = 2  path = 1.414 z = (24 - 23)/  (24-23)/1.414 = .71 From the Standard Normal Distribution table: P(z < .71) = .5 + .2612 = .7612
  • 43. Cost consideration in project Project managers may have the option or requirement to crash the project, or accelerate the completion of the project. This is accomplished by reducing the length of the critical path(s). The length of the critical path is reduced by reducing the duration of the activities on the critical path. If each activity requires the expenditure of an amount of money to reduce its duration by one unit of time, then the project manager selects the least cost critical activity, reduces it by one time unit, and traces that change through the remainder of the network. As a result of a reduction in an activity’s time, a new critical path may be created. When there is more than one critical path, each of the critical paths must be reduced. If the length of the project needs to be reduced further, the process is repeated.
  • 44. Project Crashing Crashing reducing project time by expending additional resources Crash time an amount of time an activity is reduced Crash cost cost of reducing activity time Goal reduce project duration at minimum cost
  • 45. Activity crashing Slope = crash cost per unit time Activity cost Activity time Crashing activity Crash time Crash cost Normal Activity Normal time Normal cost
  • 46. Time-Cost Relationship Crashing costs increase as project duration decreases Indirect costs increase as project duration increases Reduce project length as long as crashing costs are less than indirect costs Time-Cost Tradeoff cost time Direct cost Indirect cost Total project cost Min total cost = optimal project time
  • 47. Project Crashing example 1 12 2 8 4 12 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4
  • 48. Time Cost data 110700 75000 400 500 3000 7000 200 200 7000 5 3 1 3 3 3 1 5000 3500 7000 71000 1100 1100 22000 7 5 3 9 1 1 3 3000 2000 4000 50000 500 500 1500 12 8 4 12 4 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 slope Allowable crash time Crash cost Rs Crash time Normal cost Rs Normal time Activity
  • 49. From….. To….. 1 12 2 8 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 R400 R500 R3000 R7000 R200 R200 R700 12 4 Project duration = 36 1 7 2 8 3 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 R400 R500 R3000 R7000 R200 R200 R700 12 4 Project duration = 31 Additional cost = R2000
  • 50. Benefits of CPM/PERT Useful at many stages of project management Mathematically simple Give critical path and slack time Provide project documentation Useful in monitoring costs How long will the entire project take to be completed? What are the risks involved? Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time? Is the project on schedule, behind schedule or ahead of schedule? If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best way to do this at the least cost? CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions:
  • 51. Limitations to CPM/PERT Clearly defined, independent and stable activities Specified precedence relationships Over emphasis on critical paths Deterministic CPM model Activity time estimates are subjective and depend on judgment PERT assumes a beta distribution for these time estimates, but the actual distribution may be different PERT consistently underestimates the expected project completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical To overcome the limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be performed on the network to eliminate the optimistic bias
  • 52. Computer Software for Project Management Microsoft Project (Microsoft Corp.) MacProject (Claris Corp.) PowerProject (ASTA Development Inc.) Primavera Project Planner (Primavera) Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.) Project Workbench (ABT Corp.)
  • 53. Practice Example A social project manager is faced with a project with the following activities: Draw network diagram and show the critical path. Calculate project duration. 4w Carry out immunization of under fives 15w Establish rural credit programme 14w Establish mother & child health program 5w Analyse results of survey 12w Social research team to do survey 5w Social work team to live in village Duration Activity Description
  • 54. Practice problem 4w Carry out immunization of under fives 4-5 15w Establish rural credit programme 3-5 14w Establish mother & child health program 2-4 5w Analyse results of survey 3-4 12w Social research team to do survey 1-3 5w Social work team to live in village 1-2 Duration Description Activity 3 1 2 4 5