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Dr. Arun Sharma
Metabolism
Purpose: The fundamental principles of energy transactions
are the same in physical and biological world
Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in
maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be
conveniently divided into two categories, known also as an endergonic process.
Anabolism is the building-up aspect of metabolism, whereas catabolism is the
breaking-down aspect.
What is the importance of metabolism?
Metabolism is a central theme in biochemistry; it keeps cells and organisms alive, by
giving them the energy they need to carry on and the building blocks they require for
growth and propagation. Metabolism is also an important theme in medicine and
pharmacy.
What is metabolism in the body?
Metabolism is the complex chemical processes your body uses for normal functioning
and sustaining life, including breaking down food and drink to energy and building or
repairing your body.
Thermodynamics as applied to biological systems. Exothermic and
endothermic versus endergonic and exergonic reactions.
Concept of Keq and its relation to standard free energy
The Gibbs free energy is the available energy of a substance
that can be used in a chemical transformation or reaction.
Substances tend to transform into other substances that have
less Gibbs free energy. The change of Gibbs free
energy predicts whether a chemical reaction will occur
spontaneously.
Spontaneity and Gibbs free energy
ATP as an energy currency
Glycolysis
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the TCA
cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle –is a
series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic
organisms to generate energy through the oxidization
of acetate—derived from carbohydrates, fats, and
proteins —into carbon dioxide. Theoretically there are
several alternatives to the TCA cycle, but the
TCA cycle appears to be the most efficient.
Krebs cycle
Synthesis of glucose from CO2 and H2O (Photosynthesis)
Photosynthesis is
the process
by which plants use
sunlight, water,
and carbon dioxide to
create oxygen
and energy in the
form of sugar.
Energy yielding and energy consuming reactions
Energy-yielding metabolism is needed for all functions and activities of
the body, including physical activity and exercise. The Panel considers
that contribution to energy-yielding metabolism is a beneficial
physiological effect.
ATP: fueling chemical reactions. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the
primary carrier of energy in cells. The water-mediated reaction known
as hydrolysis releases energy from the chemical bonds in ATP to
fuel cellular processes. Certain enzymes catalyze the breakdown of
organic foodstuffs.
The net energy yield refers to the amount of energy that is gained from
harvesting an energy source. This yield is the total amount
of energy gained from harvesting the source after deducting the
amount of energy that was spent to harvest it.
Concept of Energy Charge
Metabolism for Engineers (Useful for B.Tech., B.E. students)
Metabolism for Engineers (Useful for B.Tech., B.E. students)

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Metabolism for Engineers (Useful for B.Tech., B.E. students)

  • 2. Purpose: The fundamental principles of energy transactions are the same in physical and biological world
  • 3. Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be conveniently divided into two categories, known also as an endergonic process. Anabolism is the building-up aspect of metabolism, whereas catabolism is the breaking-down aspect. What is the importance of metabolism? Metabolism is a central theme in biochemistry; it keeps cells and organisms alive, by giving them the energy they need to carry on and the building blocks they require for growth and propagation. Metabolism is also an important theme in medicine and pharmacy. What is metabolism in the body? Metabolism is the complex chemical processes your body uses for normal functioning and sustaining life, including breaking down food and drink to energy and building or repairing your body.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Thermodynamics as applied to biological systems. Exothermic and endothermic versus endergonic and exergonic reactions.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Concept of Keq and its relation to standard free energy The Gibbs free energy is the available energy of a substance that can be used in a chemical transformation or reaction. Substances tend to transform into other substances that have less Gibbs free energy. The change of Gibbs free energy predicts whether a chemical reaction will occur spontaneously.
  • 11.
  • 12. Spontaneity and Gibbs free energy
  • 13. ATP as an energy currency
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 19.
  • 20. The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle –is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate—derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins —into carbon dioxide. Theoretically there are several alternatives to the TCA cycle, but the TCA cycle appears to be the most efficient. Krebs cycle
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Synthesis of glucose from CO2 and H2O (Photosynthesis)
  • 27.
  • 28. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar.
  • 29. Energy yielding and energy consuming reactions
  • 30. Energy-yielding metabolism is needed for all functions and activities of the body, including physical activity and exercise. The Panel considers that contribution to energy-yielding metabolism is a beneficial physiological effect. ATP: fueling chemical reactions. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the primary carrier of energy in cells. The water-mediated reaction known as hydrolysis releases energy from the chemical bonds in ATP to fuel cellular processes. Certain enzymes catalyze the breakdown of organic foodstuffs. The net energy yield refers to the amount of energy that is gained from harvesting an energy source. This yield is the total amount of energy gained from harvesting the source after deducting the amount of energy that was spent to harvest it.