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Prof.
Shrinivas
Leadership
“Leadership is the ability to influence people
to strive willingly for mutual benefit”
Leadership traits
• Self confidence
• Knowledge of business
• Creativity and originality
• Warmth
• Flexibility and adaptiveness
• Cognitive ability
• Honesty and integrity
• Personal drive
• Desire to lead
Leadership styles
• Autocratic
• Democratic
• Laissez faire
Difference between transactional and transformational leaders
Transactional Transformational
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in
the direction of established goals by clarifying
role and task requirement
Leaders who provide individualized
consideration and intellectual
stimulation
Contracts exchange of rewards for effort,
promises rewards for good performance,
recognizes accomplishments
Provides vision and sense of mission, instills
pride, gains respect and trust
Watches and searches for deviations and takes
corrective actions
Expresses important purposes in simple
ways
Intervenes only if standards are not met Promotes intelligence, rationality and careful
problem solving
Avoids making decisions by self Gives personal attention, treats each employee
individually, coaches and advices
Differentiate between management and
leadership
MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP
Planning and
budgeting
Establishing
direction
Organizing and
staffing
Aligning people
Controlling and
problem solving
Motivating and
inspiring
Can lead to change
based on power
and authority
Can lead to change
based on personal
influence
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
Power
• Coercive
• Reward
• Legitimate
• Expert
• Referent
• Expert power
• The influence a leader can exert as a
result of his or her expertise, skills, or
knowledge.
• Referent power
• The power of a leader that arise
because of a person’s desirable
resources or admired personal traits.
Managing Power
Legitimate power
The power a leader
has as a result of his or
her position.
Coercive power
The power a leader
has to punish or
control.
Reward power
The power to give
positive benefits or
rewards.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall
16–
9
Theories of Leadership
• Trait theories
• Behavioral theories
• Contingency theories
Trait theories
• Theories that sought personality, social, physical or
intellectual traits that differentiated leaders from non
leaders
• Traits like ambition and energy, the desire to lead,
honesty and integrity, self confidence, intelligence and
job knowledge , high self monitoring differentiates
leaders and non leaders
Drawbacks
• No universal traits that predicts leadership in all situations
• Traits predict behavior more in weak situations than in strong
situations
• Evidence is unclear in separating Cause from effect
• Traits do a better job in predicting the appearance of leadership
than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leadership
Behavioral theories
• Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate
leaders from non leaders
• Behaviors like tough talking, intense and autocratic
would mean behavior of a leader
• Ohio state study, university of Michigan studies, The
Managerial grid and Scandinavian studies pioneered
behavioral theories
Important Behavioral Studies
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
12-
14
• Ohio State University
• Found two key dimensions of leader behavior:
• Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles
• Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect
• Both are important
• University of Michigan
• Also found two key dimensions of leader behavior:
• Employee-oriented – emphasize interpersonal relationships and is
the most powerful dimension
• Production-oriented – emphasize the technical aspects of the job
• The dimensions of the two studies are very similar
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial
Grid®
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
• Draws on both studies to assess leadership style
• “Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee-
Orientation
• “Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and
Production-Orientation
• Style is determined by position on the graph
The Managerial Grid
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall
16–
16
The Managerial Grid
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall
• Managerial Grid
• Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:
• Concern for people
• Concern for production
• Places managerial styles in five categories:
• Impoverished management
• Task management
• Middle-of-the-road management
• Country club management
• Team management
Contingency theories
“Predicting leadership success is more
complex than isolating a few traits or
preferable behaviors”
• The attention was later drawn towards
which suggested theories which proposed
that leadership depends on situations and
not only on traits
• The Fiedler model, Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational theory, Leader member
exchange theory and the path goal and
leader participation model were the main
contributions for contingency theories
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory
• A contingency theory that focuses on
followers readiness
• Followers are the one who accept or reject
the leader
• Readiness refers to the extent to which
people have the ability and willingness to
accomplish a specific task
• Four leadership situations were identified
• If followers are unable and unwilling to do a
task, the leader needs to give clear and specific
directions
• If followers are unable and willing, the leader
needs to display high task orientation
• If followers are able and unwilling the leader
needs to use a supportive and participative style
• If followers are both able and willing the leader
doesn’t need to do much
House’s Path-Goal Theory
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
• Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory
of motivation
• The Theory:
• Leaders provide followers with information, support, and
resources to help them achieve their goals
• Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals
• Leaders can display multiple leadership types
• Four types of leaders:
• Directive: focuses on the work to be done
• Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker
• Participative: consults with employees in decision-making
• Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals
Path-Goal Model
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
• Two classes of contingency variables:
• Environmental are outside of employee control
• Subordinate factors are internal to employee
• Mixed support in the research findings
Charismatic leadership
• Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
• 5 Characteristics of charismatic leadership: vision and
articulation, personal risk, environmental sensitivity,
sensitivity to follower needs and unconventional behavior
Illinois Institute for Maternal and Child Health Leadership
SITUATIONAL
LEADERSIP
INDIVIDUALS CAN ADAPT THEIR
LEADERSHIP STYLE TO VARYING
SITUATIONS IN APPROPRIATE
MANNERS
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
Leader as MentorsLeader as Mentors
• Mentoring is the craft of developing another person to
become a leader, thereby increasing the effectiveness of
the individual, the organization, and ultimately the
mentor.
• Bridge the gap.
• Leadership and Mentorship are cousins.
• Mentoring can reduce the probability of leadership
failure, provide needed accountability, and empower a
responsive, potential laborer.
• Share and participate withShare and participate with
menteementee
• Help discover real expectationsHelp discover real expectations
as a leaderas a leader
• Assist with technicalAssist with technical
interpersonal and conceptualinterpersonal and conceptual
skills necessary for leadership.skills necessary for leadership.
• Establish mutually-agreeableEstablish mutually-agreeable
goalsgoals
• Schedule regular appointmentsSchedule regular appointments
• Suggest activities for workingSuggest activities for working
toward goalstoward goals
• Request assistance from mentorRequest assistance from mentor
for guidancefor guidance
Mentor (leader)
Responsibilities
 
Mentee
Responsibilities
Leadership
• Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right
to do and what is right to do.
• Ethics or simple honesty is the building blocks upon which our
whole society is based, and business is a part of our society,
and it's integral to the practice of being able to conduct
business, that you have a set of honest standards.
• Ethics defined
Ethical Leaders see their constituents as not
just followers, but rather as stakeholders
striving to achieve that same common
purpose...
•Ethical Leadership
It is important for leaders to tell a
compelling and morally rich story, but
ethical leaders must also embody and
live the story.
•Ethical Leadership
The Ten Commandments of Ethical Leadership
• 1. People are illogical, unreasonable and self-centered.
• Love and trust them anyway.
• 2. If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish ulterior motives.
• Do good anyway.
• 3. If you are successful, you will win some false friends and true enemies.
• Do good anyway.
• 4. The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow.
• Do good anyway.
• 5. Honesty and frankness will make you vulnerable.
• Be honest and frank anyway.
• 6. The biggest people with the biggest ideas can be shot down by the smallest people
• with the smallest ideas.
• Think big anyway.
• 7. People favor underdogs, but follow top dogs.
• Fight for the underdog anyway.
• 8. What you spend years building may be destroyed overnight.
• Build anyway!
• 9. People really need help, but may attack you if you do help.
• Help people anyway.
• 10. Give the world the best you got and you may get kicked in the teeth.
• Give the world the best you have anyway.
© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
12-
33
Summary and Managerial Implications
• Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader
provides the direction
• Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent
relationships to leadership
• Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the
impact of followers
Leadership - Organisational Behavior
Leadership - Organisational Behavior

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Leadership - Organisational Behavior

  • 2. Leadership “Leadership is the ability to influence people to strive willingly for mutual benefit”
  • 3. Leadership traits • Self confidence • Knowledge of business • Creativity and originality • Warmth • Flexibility and adaptiveness • Cognitive ability • Honesty and integrity • Personal drive • Desire to lead
  • 4. Leadership styles • Autocratic • Democratic • Laissez faire
  • 5. Difference between transactional and transformational leaders Transactional Transformational Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust Watches and searches for deviations and takes corrective actions Expresses important purposes in simple ways Intervenes only if standards are not met Promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving Avoids making decisions by self Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advices
  • 6. Differentiate between management and leadership MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Planning and budgeting Establishing direction Organizing and staffing Aligning people Controlling and problem solving Motivating and inspiring Can lead to change based on power and authority Can lead to change based on personal influence
  • 8. Power • Coercive • Reward • Legitimate • Expert • Referent
  • 9. • Expert power • The influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge. • Referent power • The power of a leader that arise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits. Managing Power Legitimate power The power a leader has as a result of his or her position. Coercive power The power a leader has to punish or control. Reward power The power to give positive benefits or rewards. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16– 9
  • 10. Theories of Leadership • Trait theories • Behavioral theories • Contingency theories
  • 11. Trait theories • Theories that sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiated leaders from non leaders • Traits like ambition and energy, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self confidence, intelligence and job knowledge , high self monitoring differentiates leaders and non leaders
  • 12. Drawbacks • No universal traits that predicts leadership in all situations • Traits predict behavior more in weak situations than in strong situations • Evidence is unclear in separating Cause from effect • Traits do a better job in predicting the appearance of leadership than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leadership
  • 13. Behavioral theories • Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders • Behaviors like tough talking, intense and autocratic would mean behavior of a leader • Ohio state study, university of Michigan studies, The Managerial grid and Scandinavian studies pioneered behavioral theories
  • 14. Important Behavioral Studies © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- 14 • Ohio State University • Found two key dimensions of leader behavior: • Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles • Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect • Both are important • University of Michigan • Also found two key dimensions of leader behavior: • Employee-oriented – emphasize interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension • Production-oriented – emphasize the technical aspects of the job • The dimensions of the two studies are very similar
  • 15. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. • Draws on both studies to assess leadership style • “Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee- Orientation • “Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and Production-Orientation • Style is determined by position on the graph
  • 16. The Managerial Grid Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16– 16
  • 17. The Managerial Grid Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall • Managerial Grid • Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: • Concern for people • Concern for production • Places managerial styles in five categories: • Impoverished management • Task management • Middle-of-the-road management • Country club management • Team management
  • 18. Contingency theories “Predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or preferable behaviors” • The attention was later drawn towards which suggested theories which proposed that leadership depends on situations and not only on traits • The Fiedler model, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory, Leader member exchange theory and the path goal and leader participation model were the main contributions for contingency theories
  • 19. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory • A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness • Followers are the one who accept or reject the leader • Readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task • Four leadership situations were identified
  • 20. • If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions • If followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation • If followers are able and unwilling the leader needs to use a supportive and participative style • If followers are both able and willing the leader doesn’t need to do much
  • 21. House’s Path-Goal Theory © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. • Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory of motivation • The Theory: • Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals • Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals • Leaders can display multiple leadership types • Four types of leaders: • Directive: focuses on the work to be done • Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker • Participative: consults with employees in decision-making • Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals
  • 22. Path-Goal Model © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. • Two classes of contingency variables: • Environmental are outside of employee control • Subordinate factors are internal to employee • Mixed support in the research findings
  • 23. Charismatic leadership • Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors • 5 Characteristics of charismatic leadership: vision and articulation, personal risk, environmental sensitivity, sensitivity to follower needs and unconventional behavior
  • 24. Illinois Institute for Maternal and Child Health Leadership SITUATIONAL LEADERSIP INDIVIDUALS CAN ADAPT THEIR LEADERSHIP STYLE TO VARYING SITUATIONS IN APPROPRIATE MANNERS
  • 26. Leader as MentorsLeader as Mentors • Mentoring is the craft of developing another person to become a leader, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the individual, the organization, and ultimately the mentor. • Bridge the gap. • Leadership and Mentorship are cousins. • Mentoring can reduce the probability of leadership failure, provide needed accountability, and empower a responsive, potential laborer.
  • 27. • Share and participate withShare and participate with menteementee • Help discover real expectationsHelp discover real expectations as a leaderas a leader • Assist with technicalAssist with technical interpersonal and conceptualinterpersonal and conceptual skills necessary for leadership.skills necessary for leadership. • Establish mutually-agreeableEstablish mutually-agreeable goalsgoals • Schedule regular appointmentsSchedule regular appointments • Suggest activities for workingSuggest activities for working toward goalstoward goals • Request assistance from mentorRequest assistance from mentor for guidancefor guidance Mentor (leader) Responsibilities   Mentee Responsibilities
  • 29. • Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do. • Ethics or simple honesty is the building blocks upon which our whole society is based, and business is a part of our society, and it's integral to the practice of being able to conduct business, that you have a set of honest standards. • Ethics defined
  • 30. Ethical Leaders see their constituents as not just followers, but rather as stakeholders striving to achieve that same common purpose... •Ethical Leadership
  • 31. It is important for leaders to tell a compelling and morally rich story, but ethical leaders must also embody and live the story. •Ethical Leadership
  • 32. The Ten Commandments of Ethical Leadership • 1. People are illogical, unreasonable and self-centered. • Love and trust them anyway. • 2. If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish ulterior motives. • Do good anyway. • 3. If you are successful, you will win some false friends and true enemies. • Do good anyway. • 4. The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow. • Do good anyway. • 5. Honesty and frankness will make you vulnerable. • Be honest and frank anyway. • 6. The biggest people with the biggest ideas can be shot down by the smallest people • with the smallest ideas. • Think big anyway. • 7. People favor underdogs, but follow top dogs. • Fight for the underdog anyway. • 8. What you spend years building may be destroyed overnight. • Build anyway! • 9. People really need help, but may attack you if you do help. • Help people anyway. • 10. Give the world the best you got and you may get kicked in the teeth. • Give the world the best you have anyway.
  • 33. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12- 33 Summary and Managerial Implications • Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader provides the direction • Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent relationships to leadership • Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the impact of followers