WHO ARE LEADERS?
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
• Leader is someone who can influence
others and who has managerial
• Leadership is a process of influencing
a group to achieve goals.
All managers are leaders?
• Yes, because leading is one of the
four management functions. Ideally,
all managers should be leaders.
OVERVIEW OF THEORIES
EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES
• TRAIT THEORY
• BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
• FIEDLER MODEL
• HERSEY AND BLANCHARD'S SITUATIONAL THEORY
• LEADER PARTICIPATION MODEL
• PATH GOAL MODEL
CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP
• TRANSFORMATIONAL-TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
• CHARISMATIC –VISIONARY LEADERSHIP
• TEAM LEADERSHIP
EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES
• “Leaders are born, not made.”
• The trait approach to leadership was one of the
earliest theories of leadership.
• This approach focuses on the personal attributes
(or traits) of leaders, such as physical and
personality characteristics, competencies, and
• Leadership traits are considered to be enduring
characteristics that people are born with and that
remain relatively stable over time.
• Trait theory – assumes the leader is different from
the average person in terms of personality traits
such as intelligence, perseverance, and ambition.
• People are born with inherited
• Some traits are particularly
suited to leadership.
• People who make good leaders
have the right (or sufficient)
combination of traits.
TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
• Desire to lead
• Honesty and integrity
• Job relevant knowledge
• No universal traits found that predict
leadership in all situations.
• Unclear evidence of the cause and
effect of relationship of leadership and
• Better predictor of the appearance of
leadership than distinguishing effective
and ineffective leaders.
• Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
• Successful leadership is based on definable, learnable
• Behavioural theories do not seek inborn traits – they look at what
leaders actually do.
• Success can be defined in terms of describable actions.
• Leadership capability can be learned.
According to UNIVERSITY OF LOWA STUDIES
• The study was conducted by Kurt Lewin and his
• The three leadership styles which are:-
AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
• An autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff
and makes decisions without any consultation.
• The leader likes to control the situation they are in.
• Quick and centralized decision making.
• This type of management style can decrease
motivation and increase staff turnover.
• Structured set of rewards and punishments.
• Rely on threats and
punishment to influence staff
• Do not trust staff
• Do not allow for employee
SHOULD BE USED
• New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which
procedures to follow effective supervision provided only through
detailed orders and instructions
• Staff do not respond to any other leadership style.
• Limited time in which to make a decision.
• A manager’s power challenged by staff.
• Work needs to be coordinated with another department or
SHOULD NOT BE USED
• Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful.
• Staff expect their opinions heard.
• Staff depend on their manager to make all their
• Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism
and work stoppage.
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
A COACH WHO HAS THE FINAL SAY, BUT GATHERS INFORMATION FROM STAFF
BEFORE MAKING A DECISION.
• Also known as participative style.
• Encourages staff to be a part of the
• Keeps staff informed about
everything that affects their work and
shares decision making and problem
• Wants to keep staff informed about matters that
• Wants staff to share in decision-making and
• Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a
high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.
• A large or complex problem that requires lots of
input to solve.
• Changes must be made or problems solved that
• Want to encourage team building and participation.
• Not enough time to get everyone’s input
• Easier and more cost-effective for the
manager to make the decision
• Can’t afford mistakes
• Manager feels threatened by this type of
• Staff safety is a critical concern
• Also known as the “hands-off¨
• The manager provides little or
no direction and gives staff as
much freedom as possible.
• All authority or power given to
the staff and they determine
goals, make decisions, and
resolve problems on their own.
• Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
• Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it
successfully on their own.
• Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants
• Staff trustworthy and experienced.
• Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.
• The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff
on how well they are doing.
• Managers unable to thank staff for their good work.
• The manager doesn’t understand his or her
responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her.
THE OHIO STATE STUDIES
• It refers to the extent to which a leader defines and structured his/her role
and the roles of group members in the search of goal attainment.
• It included behaviour that involved attempt to organise work, work
relationships and goal.
• It refers to the extent to which a leader had job relationships characterized
by mutual trust and respect for group members, ideas and feelings.
• A leader who was high in consideration helped group members with
personal problems, was friendly and approachable, and treated all group
members as equal.
A leader who was high in both initiating structure and considerations achieved high group task
performance and high satisfaction more frequently than who rated low on either dimension or both.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
• Leaders who were employee oriented were described as emphasizing
• They took a personal interest in the needs of their followers and accepted the
individual differences among group members.
• They tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job were
concerned mainly with accomplishing their group’s task and regarded group
members as a means to the end.
Conclusion of MSU researchers strongly favoured leaders who were employee oriented as they were
associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
• COUNTRY CLUB MANAGEMENT- (1,9)-
Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationship
leads to comfortable, friendly organization, atmosphere and work
• TEAM MANAGEMENT –(9,9)-
Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence
through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to
relationships of trust and respect.
• MIDDLE OF MANAGEMWENT –(5,5)
Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing
the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a
• IMPOVERISHED MANAGEMENT-(1,1)
Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate
to sustain organization membership.
• TASK MANAGEMENT –(9,1)
Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in
such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.
CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF
• Leadership as being more flexible .
• Different leadership styles being used at different times
depending upon the circumstances.
• Suggested leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that
can be transposed into different contexts. May depend on:
• Type of staff
• History of business
• Culture of the business
• Quality of relationship
• Nature of the change needed
• Accepted norms within the institution.
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL
• The model was based on the premise that a certain a certain leadership style would be most
effective in different types of leadership.
• To measure a leader’s style Fiedler developed LPC (least preferred co worker)
• LPC measured whether leader was task oriented or relationship oriented. Based on this Fiedler
gave three contingency dimensions:
1. Leader-member relations
• The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader.
2. Task structure
• The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
3. Position power
• Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to
hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases
HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL
• This model also called as situational leadership theory(SLT).
This theory focuses main attention on follower readiness and
situation behavior of leader.
• Readiness is defined as extent to which people have the ability
and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
• SLT uses the same two leadership dimensions that fielder
identified- task and relationship behaviour.
• They go a step further by considering each as either high or
low and then combining them into four specific leadership
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
Four specific leadership styles.
• Telling – (high task and low relationship)- leader defines roles.
• Selling-(high task and high relationship)- the leader provides both directive and
• Participating-( low task and high relationship)- the leader and follower share in
decision making. Main role of leader is facilitating and communicating.
• Delegating- (low task and low relationship)- the leader provides little direction
Four stages of follower readiness
• R1- People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for doing something
• R2-People are unable but willing to the job tasks.
• R3- People are able but unwilling to do the what the leader wants.
• R4- People are both able and willing to what is asked of them.
LEADERSHIP PARTICIPATION MODEL
• Leadership participation model related the leadership behaviour
and participation to decision making.
• The model argued that leader behaviour must adjust to reflect the
task structure- whether it was routine, non routine or in between.
• The model provides the sequential set of rules (norms)that the
leader followed in determining the form and amount of decision
making, as determined by the different situations and thus called
• Consult individually
LEADERSHIP PARTICIPATION MODEL
• There is also a current model which reflects the how and with
whom decisions are made and uses variations of leadership
• It also expand upon the decision making contingencies leader look
at in what leadership style would be most effective.
• These contingencies are either present (H for High) or absent (L
• Time driven model have short term orientation and concerned with
making effective decisions with minimum cost .
• Development driven model is also structured in the same way but
emphasizes making effective decisions with maximum employee
development outcomes and places no value on time.
Decision making contingencies:-
Importance of commitment
Likelihood of commitment
TO USE THIS MODEL LEADER GOES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT.
PATH AND GOAL THEORY
• The term path goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify
the path to help their followers get from where they are to the
achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path
easier by reducing road blocks and pitfalls.
• According to House, there are four different types of leadership styles
depending on the situation:
1. Directive Leadership
2. Supportive Leadership
3. Participative Leadership
4. Achievement-oriented Leadership
House assumed that the leaders are flexible and same leader can display
any of all these leadership styles depending upon the situation.
CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON
• Leaders who stimulates and inspire(transforms) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes.
• Leaders who guide or motivate followers to work towards established goals by exchanging
rewards for their productivity.
• Transformational leadership is built on the top of transactional leadership.
• It produces levels of employee effort and performance that go beyond what would occur with
a transactional approach alone.
• Transformational leaders were evaluated as more effective, higher performers, more
promotable, than their transactional counterparts, and more interpersonally sensitive.
• Transformational leadership is strongly correlated with lower turnover rates and higher levels
of productivity, employee satisfaction, creativity, goal attainment, and follower well being.
A charismatic leader is an enthusiastic, self confident leader whose personality and actions influence
people to behave in a certain ways.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
They have a vision
Able to articulate that vision.
Are willing to take risks to achieve that vision.
Sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs.
Exhibit behaviour that are out of the ordinary.
The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible and attractive
vision of the future that improves upon the current situation
• Visionary leaders have the ability to:
• Explain the vision to others.
• Express the vision not just verbally but through behavior.
• Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts
• Handling disciplinary problems
• Reviewing team and individual
• Training and communication
Liaison with external
Conflict manager Trouble-shooter
• The role of team leader is
different from traditional
Team leaders should have
skill such as:
• Having patience to share
• Being able to trust others
• to give up authority
• Understanding when to
• Difficult balancing act of
knowing when to leave their
teams alone and when to
MAJOR ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP
• Managing power:- Legitimate, coercive, reward, expert
• Developing trust:- Integrity, competence, consistence,
loyalty and openness.
• Providing ethical leadership
• Empowering employees
• Cross cultural leadership
• Gender differences in leadership
• Demise of celebrity leaders
• Substitutes of leadership