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Free body diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object by isolating it from its surroundings. The document provides examples of free body diagrams for the Statue of Liberty, a sitting gorilla, a wooden swing, a bungee jumper's bucket, a traffic light, and the pin at point A of a truss bridge. Forces are shown as vectors with arrows indicating direction and labels providing magnitudes. Diagrams for static systems will sum the vertical and horizontal forces to zero, indicating equilibrium.

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Free body diagram

Free body diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting on an object. They include only physical forces touching the object like gravity, applied forces, friction, and reactions, drawn as arrows from a dot representing the object. To analyze motion, forces are resolved into horizontal and vertical components and Newton's second law is applied to each direction separately. For example, with an applied force at an angle on a block, the horizontal force component gives acceleration along the plane while the vertical forces sum to zero for no jump.

Moments

(1) The document discusses moments, which are turning forces that cause an object to rotate rather than push it linearly. Moments depend on the magnitude of the applied force and its distance from the pivot point.
(2) To calculate the moment of a single force, the formula is Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance from the pivot. When multiple forces are present, their individual moments are summed.
(3) Systems in equilibrium have their clockwise and counter-clockwise moments equal, allowing one to solve for unknown values like reactions at supports. Diagrams are drawn and moments taken to set up and solve equations of equilibrium.

Moments

This document discusses moments and their applications. It defines moment as the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to the point of rotation. There are clockwise and anticlockwise moments. Varignon's principle of moments states the algebraic sum of moments about any point equals the moment of the resultant force. Levers are machines that use moments to multiply force. There are three types of simple levers and examples of levers include scissors and pliers. Compound levers use multiple simple levers together. Moments allow machines like levers to provide mechanical advantage.

Kinematics 2012

Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion and forces on objects, and it is classified into statics, dynamics, and kinematics; statics concerns equilibrium, dynamics concerns forces on moving objects, and kinematics concerns motion without forces. Mechanics studies the motion of macroscopic bodies using concepts like position, displacement, distance, vectors, and methods for adding vectors like the component method using trigonometry or the graphical head-to-tail method.

Dynamics

The document discusses mechanics and dynamics. It begins by defining mechanics as a branch of physics dealing with the behavior of physical bodies under forces or displacements. Dynamics is identified as the branch of mechanics concerned with the effects of forces on motion, especially external forces. The document goes on to provide information on internal forces, types of fundamental forces, Newton's laws of motion, and concepts such as inertia, mass, and equilibrium. It includes examples of applying dynamics concepts to problems involving forces.

2.1 Kinematics

This document discusses key kinematic concepts including displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and uniformly accelerated motion. It defines these terms and discusses how to calculate them using equations of motion. Graphical representations of motion like distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs are also covered. The effects of air resistance and gravity are summarized.

Mechanics ppt 1

This document provides an overview of key kinematic concepts in mechanics and IB Physics including:
- Scalar and vector quantities as well as the differences between distance, displacement, speed, and velocity.
- Definitions and equations for rest, motion, acceleration, and projectile motion.
- Graphs showing relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration over time and how to calculate changes in position from these graphs.
- Key equations of motion including the SUVAT equations that can be used when acceleration is constant.

Kinematics - The Study of Motion

Describes displacement, velocity, acceleration as vectors and distance and speed as scalars, Show all needed equations and their use.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com
and
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wnsautter&aq=f

Free body diagram

Free body diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting on an object. They include only physical forces touching the object like gravity, applied forces, friction, and reactions, drawn as arrows from a dot representing the object. To analyze motion, forces are resolved into horizontal and vertical components and Newton's second law is applied to each direction separately. For example, with an applied force at an angle on a block, the horizontal force component gives acceleration along the plane while the vertical forces sum to zero for no jump.

Moments

(1) The document discusses moments, which are turning forces that cause an object to rotate rather than push it linearly. Moments depend on the magnitude of the applied force and its distance from the pivot point.
(2) To calculate the moment of a single force, the formula is Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance from the pivot. When multiple forces are present, their individual moments are summed.
(3) Systems in equilibrium have their clockwise and counter-clockwise moments equal, allowing one to solve for unknown values like reactions at supports. Diagrams are drawn and moments taken to set up and solve equations of equilibrium.

Moments

This document discusses moments and their applications. It defines moment as the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to the point of rotation. There are clockwise and anticlockwise moments. Varignon's principle of moments states the algebraic sum of moments about any point equals the moment of the resultant force. Levers are machines that use moments to multiply force. There are three types of simple levers and examples of levers include scissors and pliers. Compound levers use multiple simple levers together. Moments allow machines like levers to provide mechanical advantage.

Kinematics 2012

Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion and forces on objects, and it is classified into statics, dynamics, and kinematics; statics concerns equilibrium, dynamics concerns forces on moving objects, and kinematics concerns motion without forces. Mechanics studies the motion of macroscopic bodies using concepts like position, displacement, distance, vectors, and methods for adding vectors like the component method using trigonometry or the graphical head-to-tail method.

Dynamics

The document discusses mechanics and dynamics. It begins by defining mechanics as a branch of physics dealing with the behavior of physical bodies under forces or displacements. Dynamics is identified as the branch of mechanics concerned with the effects of forces on motion, especially external forces. The document goes on to provide information on internal forces, types of fundamental forces, Newton's laws of motion, and concepts such as inertia, mass, and equilibrium. It includes examples of applying dynamics concepts to problems involving forces.

2.1 Kinematics

This document discusses key kinematic concepts including displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and uniformly accelerated motion. It defines these terms and discusses how to calculate them using equations of motion. Graphical representations of motion like distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs are also covered. The effects of air resistance and gravity are summarized.

Mechanics ppt 1

This document provides an overview of key kinematic concepts in mechanics and IB Physics including:
- Scalar and vector quantities as well as the differences between distance, displacement, speed, and velocity.
- Definitions and equations for rest, motion, acceleration, and projectile motion.
- Graphs showing relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration over time and how to calculate changes in position from these graphs.
- Key equations of motion including the SUVAT equations that can be used when acceleration is constant.

Kinematics - The Study of Motion

Describes displacement, velocity, acceleration as vectors and distance and speed as scalars, Show all needed equations and their use.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com
and
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wnsautter&aq=f

Moment

The document discusses moments, which are the tendency of a force to cause rotation about an axis. It defines key terms like moment, moment arm, and how to calculate moment using the equation: Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance. It also covers units of moment, properties like sense of direction, and applications like Varignon's theorem for resolving forces. An example problem is worked through to find the moment created by different forces and placements.

Displacement and Velocity

This document discusses key concepts of displacement, velocity, and their relationships. It defines displacement as the change in position of an object, and distinguishes between displacement and distance traveled. Velocity is defined as the rate of change of an object's position and is calculated as total displacement over the time interval. The document contrasts velocity, which includes both magnitude and direction of motion, with speed, which only refers to magnitude. It provides equations for calculating displacement, average velocity, and using graphs of position over time to determine velocity.

Vector Addition

The document describes several methods for finding the vector sum (resultant) of two or more vectors, including:
1. The parallelogram method draws the vectors to form a parallelogram, with the resultant being the diagonal.
2. The cosine method uses a formula involving the magnitudes of the vectors and the angle between them.
3. The polygon method connects the vectors tip to tail to form a polygon, with the resultant connecting the initial and final points.
4. The analytic method resolves the vectors into their x and y components, sums the respective components, and determines the resultant's magnitude and direction from the sums and a formula.

statics

This chapter focuses on objects in static equilibrium, where the net force and net torque on the object are both zero. Solving static equilibrium problems involves drawing free body diagrams showing all external forces acting on the object, then resolving forces into components and setting the sums of forces in each direction equal to zero. Three examples are given of solving static equilibrium problems involving particles under the influence of multiple forces. The problems are solved by resolving forces into horizontal and vertical or parallel and perpendicular components, setting the component force equations equal to zero, and solving the equations to determine the magnitudes of unknown forces. Key steps include drawing diagrams, resolving forces, setting force sums to zero, and solving the resulting equations.

Force vectors

Engineering mechanics
Download:
http://skillcruise.com/academics/mechanical-engineering/engineering-mechanics/

Relative motion in 1D & 2D

This PPT covers relative motion between particles in a very systematic and lucid manner. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructor's as well as students.

Kinematics(class)

Here are the key points about rate of change of velocity:
- Rate of change of velocity is also known as acceleration.
- Acceleration is a vector quantity which indicates the rate at which the velocity of an object is changing.
- The SI unit of acceleration is meter per second squared (m/s2).
- If an object's velocity is increasing with time, it has a positive acceleration. If velocity is decreasing with time, acceleration is negative.
- Acceleration can be caused by a change in the object's speed, direction of motion, or both.
- Constant acceleration means the rate of change of velocity remains the same over time. This results in a linear relationship between velocity and time

Free body diagrams

1) A free body diagram shows all the forces acting on an object.
2) To draw a free body diagram, isolate the object, choose a coordinate system, sketch the forces with arrows representing magnitude and direction, resolve forces if at an angle, and find the net force.
3) For an example of a book at rest on a table, the free body diagram shows the force of gravity pulling down equal and opposite to the normal force of the table pushing up, resulting in no net force and no acceleration.

Linear momentum

This document summarizes key concepts about linear momentum from Chapter 2:
Linear momentum is defined as the product of an object's mass and velocity. It is a vector quantity that determines how difficult an object is to stop or set in motion. The total linear momentum of a system of objects is equal to the sum of the individual momenta. Newton's second law can be expressed as the rate of change of linear momentum of a particle or system being equal to the net external force acting on it.

Moment of inertia

Moment of inertia (I) is a property of an object that represents its resistance to angular acceleration about an axis. I depends on both the mass of the object and how far its mass is distributed from the axis of rotation. Mathematically, I is defined as the sum of the mass of each particle multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis. An object has three principal axes with maximum, minimum, and intermediate moments of inertia. Composite areas have moments of inertia that can be calculated by subtracting or adding the I values of individual shapes about an axis.

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1) Displacement is defined as the straight line path between an object's initial and final positions, representing the change in position. It is not necessarily the same as the total distance travelled.
2) Victor's displacement is calculated as his final position (2km North of Starbucks) minus his initial position (3km South of Starbucks), equaling 5km North.
3) A position-time graph shows an object's position over time. The slope of the line between any two points represents the average velocity during that time interval.

Center of mass ppt.

this is about center of mass, center of mass for complicated shapes, center of mass of hemisphere, center of mass of many particles, center of mass of solids, center of mass of uniform cylinder, center of mass of uniform rod

Physics mechanics

1. The document discusses various topics in physics including mechanics, motion, vectors, and kinematics formulas.
2. Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion of material objects. Motion can be rectilinear, circular, rotational, translational, and one, two, or three dimensional.
3. Important concepts in motion include speed, velocity, distance, displacement, scalars, and vectors. Kinematics formulas summarize relationships for one dimensional motion with constant acceleration.

Simple harmonic motion

1) Simple harmonic motion describes any oscillatory motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement. It follows the differential equation d2x/dt2 = -ω2x, where ω is the angular frequency.
2) The position as a function of time for simple harmonic motion is given by x(t) = Acos(ωt + φ), which describes a simple sinusoidal oscillation.
3) When a damping force is present that is proportional to the velocity, the motion is described by damped harmonic motion. The amplitude decreases exponentially with time in underdamped systems.

Work energy theorem ppt

The document discusses the work-energy theorem and how it relates to changes in kinetic energy, potential energy, and thermal energy. It provides examples of calculating work done to change an object's speed and examples of calculating thermal energy generated from friction. The final section lists three example problems involving calculating initial or final velocities given information about work done and masses of objects.

Chapter 1 measurements

This document discusses the system of units used in physics. It defines fundamental and derived quantities, and explains that derived quantities are combinations of fundamental quantities. The seven base SI units are listed as the meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela. Prefixes are used to modify unit names to indicate multiplicative factors of powers of ten. The document also covers converting between different units, and how to determine the number of significant figures in calculations. Three examples at the end demonstrate applying concepts like unit conversions and significant figures to physics problems.

D alemberts principle

D'Alembert's Principle states that the resultant of all external forces and inertia forces acting on a body is zero for the body to be in dynamic equilibrium. Inertia forces are represented as minus mass times acceleration. The principle allows equations of static equilibrium to be applied to bodies undergoing translational motion by considering an imaginary inertia force equal and opposite to actual inertia. Several example problems are provided applying the principle to analyze motion of connected bodies over pulleys, motion on inclined planes, and motion within elevators.

types of friction

here in this presentation i explain the types of friction and their examples. and i explain world without friction is like this in video.

Torque

Torque is a rotational force that depends on three main factors: the distance from the axis of rotation (lever arm), the angle of the applied force, and the magnitude of the applied force. Torque causes an object to rotate and is measured in Newton-meters. Systems in rotational equilibrium have no net torque, meaning the sum of all torques acting on the object is zero. This allows seesaws and diving boards to remain balanced. Solving rotational equilibrium problems involves drawing free body diagrams and setting the sum of torques equal to zero.

Basics in scalar and vector

This document defines scalar and vector quantities in physics. Scalars have only magnitude, while vectors have both magnitude and direction. Examples of scalars include time, mass, and temperature, while vectors include displacement, velocity, and force. Vectors are represented by arrows. Scalar quantities can be simply added or subtracted, while adding vectors requires considering both magnitude and direction, such as combining velocities in the same or opposite directions.

Statics free body diagram

This document provides an introduction to statics and static equilibrium for particles. It defines key terms like particles, equilibrium, and free-body diagrams. It explains that a particle is in equilibrium if the net force acting on it is zero. Free-body diagrams show all forces acting on a particle and are used to apply the equations of equilibrium to solve problems. Examples are provided of drawing free-body diagrams and using them to determine unknown forces on mechanical components in static equilibrium.

Study of free body diagram

Some of students have issue that they are not know fully about free body diagram.it was a short concept of free body diagram.

Moment

The document discusses moments, which are the tendency of a force to cause rotation about an axis. It defines key terms like moment, moment arm, and how to calculate moment using the equation: Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance. It also covers units of moment, properties like sense of direction, and applications like Varignon's theorem for resolving forces. An example problem is worked through to find the moment created by different forces and placements.

Displacement and Velocity

This document discusses key concepts of displacement, velocity, and their relationships. It defines displacement as the change in position of an object, and distinguishes between displacement and distance traveled. Velocity is defined as the rate of change of an object's position and is calculated as total displacement over the time interval. The document contrasts velocity, which includes both magnitude and direction of motion, with speed, which only refers to magnitude. It provides equations for calculating displacement, average velocity, and using graphs of position over time to determine velocity.

Vector Addition

The document describes several methods for finding the vector sum (resultant) of two or more vectors, including:
1. The parallelogram method draws the vectors to form a parallelogram, with the resultant being the diagonal.
2. The cosine method uses a formula involving the magnitudes of the vectors and the angle between them.
3. The polygon method connects the vectors tip to tail to form a polygon, with the resultant connecting the initial and final points.
4. The analytic method resolves the vectors into their x and y components, sums the respective components, and determines the resultant's magnitude and direction from the sums and a formula.

statics

This chapter focuses on objects in static equilibrium, where the net force and net torque on the object are both zero. Solving static equilibrium problems involves drawing free body diagrams showing all external forces acting on the object, then resolving forces into components and setting the sums of forces in each direction equal to zero. Three examples are given of solving static equilibrium problems involving particles under the influence of multiple forces. The problems are solved by resolving forces into horizontal and vertical or parallel and perpendicular components, setting the component force equations equal to zero, and solving the equations to determine the magnitudes of unknown forces. Key steps include drawing diagrams, resolving forces, setting force sums to zero, and solving the resulting equations.

Force vectors

Engineering mechanics
Download:
http://skillcruise.com/academics/mechanical-engineering/engineering-mechanics/

Relative motion in 1D & 2D

This PPT covers relative motion between particles in a very systematic and lucid manner. I hope this PPT will be helpful for instructor's as well as students.

Kinematics(class)

Here are the key points about rate of change of velocity:
- Rate of change of velocity is also known as acceleration.
- Acceleration is a vector quantity which indicates the rate at which the velocity of an object is changing.
- The SI unit of acceleration is meter per second squared (m/s2).
- If an object's velocity is increasing with time, it has a positive acceleration. If velocity is decreasing with time, acceleration is negative.
- Acceleration can be caused by a change in the object's speed, direction of motion, or both.
- Constant acceleration means the rate of change of velocity remains the same over time. This results in a linear relationship between velocity and time

Free body diagrams

1) A free body diagram shows all the forces acting on an object.
2) To draw a free body diagram, isolate the object, choose a coordinate system, sketch the forces with arrows representing magnitude and direction, resolve forces if at an angle, and find the net force.
3) For an example of a book at rest on a table, the free body diagram shows the force of gravity pulling down equal and opposite to the normal force of the table pushing up, resulting in no net force and no acceleration.

Linear momentum

This document summarizes key concepts about linear momentum from Chapter 2:
Linear momentum is defined as the product of an object's mass and velocity. It is a vector quantity that determines how difficult an object is to stop or set in motion. The total linear momentum of a system of objects is equal to the sum of the individual momenta. Newton's second law can be expressed as the rate of change of linear momentum of a particle or system being equal to the net external force acting on it.

Moment of inertia

Moment of inertia (I) is a property of an object that represents its resistance to angular acceleration about an axis. I depends on both the mass of the object and how far its mass is distributed from the axis of rotation. Mathematically, I is defined as the sum of the mass of each particle multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis. An object has three principal axes with maximum, minimum, and intermediate moments of inertia. Composite areas have moments of inertia that can be calculated by subtracting or adding the I values of individual shapes about an axis.

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1) Displacement is defined as the straight line path between an object's initial and final positions, representing the change in position. It is not necessarily the same as the total distance travelled.
2) Victor's displacement is calculated as his final position (2km North of Starbucks) minus his initial position (3km South of Starbucks), equaling 5km North.
3) A position-time graph shows an object's position over time. The slope of the line between any two points represents the average velocity during that time interval.

Center of mass ppt.

this is about center of mass, center of mass for complicated shapes, center of mass of hemisphere, center of mass of many particles, center of mass of solids, center of mass of uniform cylinder, center of mass of uniform rod

Physics mechanics

1. The document discusses various topics in physics including mechanics, motion, vectors, and kinematics formulas.
2. Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of motion of material objects. Motion can be rectilinear, circular, rotational, translational, and one, two, or three dimensional.
3. Important concepts in motion include speed, velocity, distance, displacement, scalars, and vectors. Kinematics formulas summarize relationships for one dimensional motion with constant acceleration.

Simple harmonic motion

1) Simple harmonic motion describes any oscillatory motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement. It follows the differential equation d2x/dt2 = -ω2x, where ω is the angular frequency.
2) The position as a function of time for simple harmonic motion is given by x(t) = Acos(ωt + φ), which describes a simple sinusoidal oscillation.
3) When a damping force is present that is proportional to the velocity, the motion is described by damped harmonic motion. The amplitude decreases exponentially with time in underdamped systems.

Work energy theorem ppt

The document discusses the work-energy theorem and how it relates to changes in kinetic energy, potential energy, and thermal energy. It provides examples of calculating work done to change an object's speed and examples of calculating thermal energy generated from friction. The final section lists three example problems involving calculating initial or final velocities given information about work done and masses of objects.

Chapter 1 measurements

This document discusses the system of units used in physics. It defines fundamental and derived quantities, and explains that derived quantities are combinations of fundamental quantities. The seven base SI units are listed as the meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela. Prefixes are used to modify unit names to indicate multiplicative factors of powers of ten. The document also covers converting between different units, and how to determine the number of significant figures in calculations. Three examples at the end demonstrate applying concepts like unit conversions and significant figures to physics problems.

D alemberts principle

D'Alembert's Principle states that the resultant of all external forces and inertia forces acting on a body is zero for the body to be in dynamic equilibrium. Inertia forces are represented as minus mass times acceleration. The principle allows equations of static equilibrium to be applied to bodies undergoing translational motion by considering an imaginary inertia force equal and opposite to actual inertia. Several example problems are provided applying the principle to analyze motion of connected bodies over pulleys, motion on inclined planes, and motion within elevators.

types of friction

here in this presentation i explain the types of friction and their examples. and i explain world without friction is like this in video.

Torque

Torque is a rotational force that depends on three main factors: the distance from the axis of rotation (lever arm), the angle of the applied force, and the magnitude of the applied force. Torque causes an object to rotate and is measured in Newton-meters. Systems in rotational equilibrium have no net torque, meaning the sum of all torques acting on the object is zero. This allows seesaws and diving boards to remain balanced. Solving rotational equilibrium problems involves drawing free body diagrams and setting the sum of torques equal to zero.

Basics in scalar and vector

This document defines scalar and vector quantities in physics. Scalars have only magnitude, while vectors have both magnitude and direction. Examples of scalars include time, mass, and temperature, while vectors include displacement, velocity, and force. Vectors are represented by arrows. Scalar quantities can be simply added or subtracted, while adding vectors requires considering both magnitude and direction, such as combining velocities in the same or opposite directions.

Moment

Moment

Displacement and Velocity

Displacement and Velocity

Vector Addition

Vector Addition

statics

statics

Force vectors

Force vectors

Relative motion in 1D & 2D

Relative motion in 1D & 2D

Kinematics(class)

Kinematics(class)

Free body diagrams

Free body diagrams

Linear momentum

Linear momentum

Moment of inertia

Moment of inertia

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

1.2 displacement and position vs time graphs

Center of mass ppt.

Center of mass ppt.

Physics mechanics

Physics mechanics

Simple harmonic motion

Simple harmonic motion

Work energy theorem ppt

Work energy theorem ppt

Chapter 1 measurements

Chapter 1 measurements

D alemberts principle

D alemberts principle

types of friction

types of friction

Torque

Torque

Basics in scalar and vector

Basics in scalar and vector

Statics free body diagram

This document provides an introduction to statics and static equilibrium for particles. It defines key terms like particles, equilibrium, and free-body diagrams. It explains that a particle is in equilibrium if the net force acting on it is zero. Free-body diagrams show all forces acting on a particle and are used to apply the equations of equilibrium to solve problems. Examples are provided of drawing free-body diagrams and using them to determine unknown forces on mechanical components in static equilibrium.

Study of free body diagram

Some of students have issue that they are not know fully about free body diagram.it was a short concept of free body diagram.

Free body diagram Concept in Mechanics

A free body diagram is a sketch that shows an isolated body and all the external forces acting on it. It does not show internal forces or the body's environment. Forces are drawn as vectors at the point where they are applied. Common forces shown include weight, normal force, friction, and tension. Free body diagrams are used to write force balance equations for mechanical systems. Examples of free body diagrams include a block on a ramp, a book on a table, an object in projectile motion, and an object slowing down due to friction.

Presentation on free body diagram 10.01.03.119

This document provides information about free body diagrams and internal/external forces. It includes:
1) A definition of a free body diagram as a pictorial device used to analyze forces and moments acting on a body.
2) The purpose of a free body diagram is to help determine unknown forces and equations of motion to analyze problems in statics or dynamics.
3) External forces act on an object from outside sources, while internal forces are introduced inside an object due to external forces and balance them to satisfy equilibrium.

Free Body Diagram

The document uses a box named Billy and a table named Terry to explain free body diagrams. It provides an example of drawing a free body diagram for Billy, who has a mass of 5 kg and is pushed to the right by a 12 N force. Terry explains that the diagram would show Billy's weight as a 49 N force down, a normal force of 49 N up from the table, the 12 N applied force to the right, and a 12 N frictional force to the left to balance the forces since Billy is moving at a constant speed. The document then provides another example where Billy accelerates to the right due to forces.

Centre of Gravity and Stability

The document discusses the center of gravity (CoG) and stability of objects. It defines CoG as the point where the entire weight of an object can be considered to act. For regular shapes, the CoG is at the geometric center. For irregular objects, methods are described to find the CoG using a plumb line and balance point. An object is stable when its CoG is directly above or within its base, and unstable if the CoG falls outside the base, allowing it to more easily rotate. Features like a low CoG and wide base promote stability.

Mass Weight.Cente of Gravity States of Equlibrium

The document defines key concepts around mass, weight, and equilibrium. It states that mass is the amount of matter in an object and is measured in kilograms, while weight is the force on an object due to gravity and is measured in newtons. It also describes center of gravity as the imaginary point where an object's entire weight is concentrated, and can be inside or outside the object depending on its configuration. Finally, it outlines the three states of equilibrium: stable, where an object returns to its original position after a disturbance; unstable, where a small change causes a large effect; and neutral, where a slight movement does not change the object's position.

What Is Gravity

Gravity is a force that pulls any two objects with mass toward each other, with a stronger pull exerted by more massive objects and those closer together. It is responsible for keeping planets in orbit around the sun and moons around planets, as well as giving weight to objects and holding people on the ground due to Earth's gravitational pull.

Group Meeting Recording Form

This document is a form for recording group meetings. It includes fields for the manager, questioner, summarizer, recorder, and time keeper for the meeting. It also includes sections to record who will be reading reports, topics for group discussion, and any support required.

9 motion in a plane

This document discusses projectile motion, which refers to the motion of an object that is given an initial velocity and then allowed to move only under the influence of gravity. Projectile motion is a combination of constant horizontal velocity and uniformly accelerated vertical motion. The key concepts covered include range, time of flight, equations of projectile motion, and sample exercises calculating values like maximum height, velocity after a given time, and time and range of flight for various projectile scenarios.

Ch 03b motion in a plane

This document summarizes key concepts from a chapter on motion in a plane, including adding and subtracting vectors using graphical and component methods, definitions of velocity and acceleration, and projectile motion where the acceleration along the x-axis is 0 and along the y-axis is -g. Examples of solving projectile motion problems are provided, such as calculating the velocity and position of an object over time or determining where an object lands.

cartesian plane by : joe olivare

This document provides information about the Cartesian plane (or Cartesian coordinate system) including:
- It specifies each point uniquely using a pair of numerical coordinates that represent the distance from the point to two fixed perpendicular axes.
- Rene Descartes invented the Cartesian coordinate system to plot ordered pairs (x,y) on a plane with perpendicular x and y axes intersecting at the origin (0,0).
- The x-coordinate represents the horizontal axis and the y-coordinate represents the vertical axis. Ordered pairs written as (x, y) locate a point by moving left/right along the x-axis and up/down along the y-axis from the origin.

Cartesian plane

This document provides information about various landmarks and their locations: Rizal Park in Manila, New York City in the USA, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Merlion in Singapore, and the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome. It then instructs the reader to locate each of these places on a map according to their latitude and longitude. The document explains how Cartesian coordinates use a grid system with x and y axes to precisely locate points on a plane or map. It provides examples of plotting points in the Cartesian plane's four quadrants and identifying points' coordinates. The document distinguishes between points that lie within the quadrants versus along the axes. It concludes with an activity asking the reader to identify quadrant locations for

Kinesiology planes of motion copy-1

1. The document discusses planes of motion, axes of rotation, and the cardinal planes which are the three basic planes used to describe human movement.
2. It also covers muscle terminology including names based on appearance, location, function, and fiber arrangement of muscles.
3. The types of muscle contractions - isometric, concentric, and eccentric - and the roles of agonist, antagonist, synergist and other muscles are defined.

Centreofgravityandstabilitystuver 100518122326-phpapp02

This document discusses the concept of stability and center of gravity (CoG). It begins by defining stability as an object's ability to return to its original position after being tilted, while instability means an object continues moving past its original position. An object is in equilibrium when stationary. The CoG is the point where all the object's weight seems to be concentrated and where gravitational force acts. For regular shapes, the CoG is at the geometric center. Irregular shapes require finding the CoG experimentally by balancing on different points. Stability depends on CoG position and base size - a lower CoG and wider base increase stability. The document provides various examples and explanations of these concepts.

Coordinate systems (Lecture 3)

This document discusses various coordinate systems used to define positions in satellite navigation. It describes geocentric systems like ECEF and ECI that use the Earth's center as the origin, as well as topocentric systems that use the observer's location. It also discusses spherical coordinate systems that define positions using radial distance, elevation and azimuth angles. Key systems covered include WGS-84 used in GPS and PZ-90.02 used in GLONASS. While definitions are close, realized coordinates between the two systems can differ by up to 0.5 meters.

Cartesian coordinate plane

The document discusses the Cartesian coordinate plane and functions. It defines the Cartesian plane as being formed by two perpendicular number lines called the x-axis and y-axis that intersect at the origin (0,0). It describes how each point on the plane is associated with an ordered pair (x,y) denoting its coordinates and how the plane is divided into four quadrants. It then demonstrates how to plot various points on the plane by starting at the origin and moving right or left along the x-axis and up or down along the y-axis. Finally, it discusses relations and functions, defining a function as a relation where each x-value is mapped to only one y-value.

Load bearing elements part5

This document discusses load bearing walls and their functions. Load bearing walls have two primary functions: to support suspended floors and roofs. Load is transferred from floors through wall plates and laterally through the brickwork or blocks that make up the walls. Bricks and blocks are the most common materials used for external load bearing walls in domestic construction. Mortar is used to bind the bricks and blocks together and must provide adequate bond strength and resistance to water penetration. There are several methods for building over window and door openings in load bearing walls, including arches, lintels, and catnic lintels, which are commonly used today.

Center of gravity

The document discusses the concept of center of gravity and how it relates to an object's stability. It defines center of gravity as the point where an object's entire weight seems to act and explains that an object's stability depends on the position of its center of gravity relative to its base. Specifically, an object will be stable if tilting moves the center of gravity higher within the base, unstable if tilting lowers it outside the base, and neutrally stable if tilting does not change the height. Real-life examples like buses and lamps are designed with low, broad bases to lower the center of gravity and increase stability.

Beams ppt

This document provides an introduction to beams used in structural steel design. It discusses different types of beams classified based on their geometry and support conditions. Common beam types include straight, curved, tapered, constant cross-section, cantilever, simply supported, continuous, and overhanging beams. Beams are also classified based on their application, such as girders, joists, stringers, purlins, and lintels. Common steel sections used for beams include W-shapes, channels, and open web joists. Bending stresses in beams are also introduced, where compressive stresses occur on the top and tensile on the bottom under positive bending moments.

Statics free body diagram

Statics free body diagram

Study of free body diagram

Study of free body diagram

Free body diagram Concept in Mechanics

Free body diagram Concept in Mechanics

Presentation on free body diagram 10.01.03.119

Presentation on free body diagram 10.01.03.119

Free Body Diagram

Free Body Diagram

Centre of Gravity and Stability

Centre of Gravity and Stability

Mass Weight.Cente of Gravity States of Equlibrium

Mass Weight.Cente of Gravity States of Equlibrium

What Is Gravity

What Is Gravity

Group Meeting Recording Form

Group Meeting Recording Form

9 motion in a plane

9 motion in a plane

Ch 03b motion in a plane

Ch 03b motion in a plane

cartesian plane by : joe olivare

cartesian plane by : joe olivare

Cartesian plane

Cartesian plane

Kinesiology planes of motion copy-1

Kinesiology planes of motion copy-1

Centreofgravityandstabilitystuver 100518122326-phpapp02

Centreofgravityandstabilitystuver 100518122326-phpapp02

Coordinate systems (Lecture 3)

Coordinate systems (Lecture 3)

Cartesian coordinate plane

Cartesian coordinate plane

Load bearing elements part5

Load bearing elements part5

Center of gravity

Center of gravity

Beams ppt

Beams ppt

Work energy and potential energy

Hi ! This Presentation would be really helpful to all of you...I hope you like it....Save it !!! Show It...Have Fun....

Engmech 05 (equilibrium_of_concurrent_force_system)

Equilibrium is the state of rest of a particle or body where the net force and net torque are zero. For a body to be in static equilibrium, the sum of the forces in the x and y directions and the sum of moments must equal zero. There are various types of loads that can act on structures including concentrated loads, uniformly distributed loads, and uniformly varying loads. Equilibrium problems of concurrent coplanar forces can be solved using the principle of two forces or three forces. Examples are provided to demonstrate solving for tensions, reactions, and other unknown forces in equilibrium problems.

basics

1. A resultant force is a single force that has the same effect on a rigid body as the original system of forces acting on it. It is obtained by combining all the individual forces.
2. The principle of superposition states that the combined effect of multiple forces acting on an object is equal to the sum of the effects of each individual force.
3. A rigid body is an idealization in which deformation is neglected, meaning the distances between any two points remain constant regardless of external forces.

Moments & Centre of Mass (Multiple Choice) QP.pdf

1) The document contains 27 multiple choice physics questions about equilibrium, moments, levers, and centers of mass.
2) Many questions involve diagrams of beams, rods, or objects balanced at a pivot point, with forces applied or masses positioned at different distances. Learners must understand which configurations result in equilibrium.
3) Other questions show objects or systems and ask learners to identify the center of mass or determine if the object or system is in equilibrium based on the center of mass position.

20221102165222_PPT03.ppt

Horizontal and vertical motion are independent in projectile motion. The horizontal range is maximized when the launch angle is 45 degrees. Uniform circular motion describes objects moving in a circle at constant speed. Centripetal acceleration points toward the center and is required to maintain circular motion. Newton's laws relate forces to motion: the first law states an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by a net external force, the second law defines acceleration as proportional to net force, and the third law states forces between objects act in equal magnitude but opposite directions.

The kinds of force ( macam macam gaya )

The document describes different types of forces:
1) Weight is the force exerted on a mass by gravity. It is calculated as mass times gravitational acceleration.
2) Normal force is the contact force acting perpendicular to a surface. It is equal to weight when an object is at rest on a surface.
3) String tension is the pulling force transmitted through a string. It is equal to weight when a hanging object is at static equilibrium.
4) Friction opposes the direction of motion and depends on the normal force and coefficient of friction. Free body diagrams can be used to analyze forces on objects. Several example problems are then provided to calculate acceleration, distance, tension and normal contact forces in different physical situations

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

The document contains several physics problems involving free body diagrams and motion diagrams. It asks the reader to identify the correct free body diagram, motion diagram, mathematical equations, or word descriptions for situations involving objects being pulled or moving under the influence of various forces like gravity, friction, and applied forces.

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

The document contains several physics problems involving free body diagrams and motion diagrams. It asks the reader to identify the correct free body diagram, motion diagram, mathematical equations, or word descriptions for situations involving objects being pulled or moving under the influence of various forces like gravity, friction, and applied forces.

Physics Equilibrium

The document discusses concepts related to equilibrium in physics including:
- Equilibrium as a condition where net forces are balanced out
- Statics as the study of structures in equilibrium under static forces
- Conditions for translational and rotational equilibrium as the sum of forces and sum of torques being equal to zero respectively
- Examples of calculating tensions in ropes and finding the center of gravity to solve equilibrium problems

Ch8 - 1 Friction.pdf

The document discusses analyzing wedges using free body diagrams (FBDs). It explains that to determine the force required to push or pull a wedge, FBDs must be drawn of both the wedge and the object on top of it. The key steps are to assume impending slippage, draw the FBDs showing all relevant forces, and then apply equations of equilibrium and friction to solve for the required force. An example problem demonstrates this process and finds the minimum force needed to remove a wedged object.

IIT JEE NOTES work, energy and power BY ANURAG TYAGI CLASSES

कौन बनेगा सिलेक्शन का बादशाह टेस्ट सीरीज !
अनुराग त्यागी क्लासेज़ द्वारा !!
ज्वाइन करे औए आपका आई आई टी और मेडिकल में सिलेक्शन हमारी गारंटी !!!
REGARDS
Anurag Tyagi Classes Ghaziabad

forces-and-motion-ppt.docx lecture in Physical Science

This document provides an overview of forces and motion. It begins by outlining the key concepts students should understand, including Newton's Laws of motion and how to apply them to problems involving linear and vertical motion. It then defines different types of forces and friction. Examples are provided to illustrate calculating forces using free body diagrams and applying Newton's Laws to problems involving balanced and unbalanced forces. Key concepts like static friction, kinetic friction, and Newton's Third Law are defined. Worked examples demonstrate applying concepts like friction to problems involving blocks on inclined planes or connected by strings over pulleys.

Ch12 ssm

This document contains conceptual problems and questions about static equilibrium and elasticity. It includes the following:
1) True/false questions about the conditions for static equilibrium.
2) A question about the tension in different parts of a wire made of aluminum and steel.
3) Derivations of the expression for Young's modulus based on an atomic model and an estimate of the atomic force constant.
4) Questions involving calculating tensions, normal forces, and torque in situations involving objects in equilibrium, such as masts on sailboats and cylinders on steps.
5) Questions involving static equilibrium conditions to solve for quantities like the location of a person's center of gravity and the height a ladder can

Kragte 11 e

- A force is a push or pull on an object due to its interaction with other objects. Common forces include gravity, normal force, tension, friction, electromagnetic force, and contact force.
- Forces are represented by arrows, with the length proportional to the magnitude. Forces can be added vectorially to find the net/resultant force. If the net force is nonzero, the object will accelerate. If it's zero, the object will maintain a constant velocity or remain at rest.
- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The forces due to interactions between two objects are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

Dinámica

This document discusses forces and Newton's laws of motion. It begins by asking what causes an object to remain at rest or in motion, and defines force as a vector quantity that can change an object's motion. It then introduces Newton's three laws of motion: 1) An object remains at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force, 2) The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass, and 3) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Examples of different types of forces like normal force, friction, and weight are also provided.

Chapter 14 Statics

To determine if an object is in equilibrium, there can be no resultant force or torque. This means the sum of all forces and sum of all torques must equal zero. To analyze equilibrium problems, one draws a free body diagram, chooses an axis of rotation where information is lacking, sums the torques and forces about that axis, setting each sum equal to zero to solve for unknowns. Common examples analyze beams, ropes, and physical systems with multiple supports to find tensions and reactive forces.

Chapter 14 Statics

To determine if an object is in equilibrium, there can be no resultant force or torque. This means the sum of all forces and sum of all torques must equal zero. To analyze equilibrium problems, one draws a free body diagram, chooses an axis of rotation where information is lacking, sums the torques and forces about that axis, setting each sum equal to zero to solve for unknowns. Common examples involve finding tensions in ropes or forces from supports of beams or structures.

14 ap physics_c_-_work_and_energy

- Work is the transfer of energy that occurs when a force causes an object to undergo a displacement. Work is calculated as the scalar product of the force and displacement vectors.
- There are many forms of energy including kinetic energy (energy of motion) and potential energy (stored energy due to an object's position). The work-energy theorem states that the work done on an object is equal to its change in kinetic energy.
- Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. It is typically measured in watts, which are joules per second. Conservation of energy principles apply to mechanical systems where energy is transferred between kinetic and potential forms.

Lecture02

The document discusses forces and equilibrium examples in physics. It covers textbook sections on Newton's laws of motion, free body diagrams, friction, gravity, springs, tension, and two-dimensional examples. Examples include calculating the force needed to keep a block from sliding down an incline and finding the tension in a string suspending a mass.

Lecture02

The document discusses forces and equilibrium examples in physics. It covers textbook sections on Newton's laws of motion, friction, gravity, springs, tension, and two-dimensional examples. Key concepts include drawing free body diagrams, analyzing forces in different directions, and using equations like the force of a spring being proportional to its displacement.

Work energy and potential energy

Work energy and potential energy

Engmech 05 (equilibrium_of_concurrent_force_system)

Engmech 05 (equilibrium_of_concurrent_force_system)

basics

basics

Moments & Centre of Mass (Multiple Choice) QP.pdf

Moments & Centre of Mass (Multiple Choice) QP.pdf

20221102165222_PPT03.ppt

20221102165222_PPT03.ppt

The kinds of force ( macam macam gaya )

The kinds of force ( macam macam gaya )

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

Interpreting Free Body Diagrams

Physics Equilibrium

Physics Equilibrium

Ch8 - 1 Friction.pdf

Ch8 - 1 Friction.pdf

IIT JEE NOTES work, energy and power BY ANURAG TYAGI CLASSES

IIT JEE NOTES work, energy and power BY ANURAG TYAGI CLASSES

forces-and-motion-ppt.docx lecture in Physical Science

forces-and-motion-ppt.docx lecture in Physical Science

Ch12 ssm

Ch12 ssm

Kragte 11 e

Kragte 11 e

Dinámica

Dinámica

Chapter 14 Statics

Chapter 14 Statics

Chapter 14 Statics

Chapter 14 Statics

14 ap physics_c_-_work_and_energy

14 ap physics_c_-_work_and_energy

Lecture02

Lecture02

Lecture02

Lecture02

Buoyancy.ppt

Buoyancy and pressure in fluids are discussed. Objects experience an upward buoyant force when submerged in fluids due to higher pressure at deeper levels pushing up on the bottom of the object. Archimedes' principle states that the buoyant force equals the weight of fluid displaced by the object. The buoyant force can be calculated by subtracting the weight of the object in water from its weight in air.

Acceleration

This document discusses acceleration and how it relates to changes in an object's velocity over time. It defines acceleration as the rate of change of velocity, whether that means changing speed or direction. Acceleration is calculated by finding the change in velocity divided by the time taken. Positive acceleration increases velocity while negative acceleration decreases velocity. The constant acceleration due to gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s2. Free falling objects experience this acceleration and will fall at increasing speeds over time if air resistance is negligible. Galileo was one of the first scientists to study acceleration from gravity by rolling objects down inclined planes and observing their increasing speed over time.

Work and energy

The document discusses different types of energy:
- Work is done when a force causes an object to move, and is calculated as work (W) equals force (F) multiplied by distance (d).
- Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and is calculated as kinetic energy (KE) equals one-half mass (m) multiplied by velocity (v) squared.
- Potential energy is stored energy due to an object's position or state, such as height, and is calculated as potential energy (PE) equals mass (m) multiplied by gravity (g) multiplied by height (h).

Waves

Waves are disturbances that transfer energy through a medium. They are caused by vibrations in the medium and can be transverse, longitudinal, or a combination. Key properties of waves include amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed. Waves interact with each other and surfaces through reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and can form standing waves through the combination of incoming and reflected waves.

Universal forces

This document discusses key concepts about the forces that hold our universe together. It defines facts, laws, hypotheses and theories, with theories being the highest level explanations supported by evidence. Atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. The four fundamental forces are gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. Gravity is the attraction between masses. Electromagnetism includes both electrical charges and magnetism. The strong nuclear force binds protons in an atom's nucleus. The weak nuclear force is responsible for neutron decay.

Static electricity

Static electricity is the buildup of electric charges on the surface of objects. It was discovered in 600 BC by Thales of Miletos who observed that rubbing amber with fur caused the amber to attract feathers due to static charge. Benjamin Franklin's kite experiment in the 1740s demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. Static charge is generated through friction, conduction, or induction. Objects can become positively or negatively charged by gaining or losing electrons. Coulomb's Law from 1785 describes the electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges, directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Sound

Sound is a form of energy that travels in waves from a vibrating object. It can travel through solids, liquids, and gases in the form of compression waves. The ear detects sound waves and transmits signals to the brain. Properties of sound waves include frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and pitch. The speed of sound depends on the medium and temperature, being fastest in solids and slowest in gases. Reflection and refraction of sound waves results in phenomena like echoes and resonance. Doppler effect changes the perceived frequency of a sound based on the motion of its source.

Projectile motion

Projectile motion involves objects moving through the air without propulsion. It has constant horizontal velocity but constant downward acceleration. The trajectory is a parabolic curve. Key equations given relate the total time, horizontal range, and maximum height to the initial velocity and launch angle using kinematic equations that treat horizontal and vertical motions independently.

Power

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done or energy is consumed, measured in Watts (J/s). Two examples are provided: (1) A Big Mac contains 2,000,000 J of energy, which could power a 60W light bulb for about 9 hours. (2) Lifter A exerted 1000N of force over 0.5 seconds to lift a barbell 0.8m, resulting in a power output of 1600W, while Lifter B took 0.75 seconds for 800W of power. Power calculations are demonstrated for cycling and stair stepping exercises.

Newtons laws of_motion - 2nd law

The document discusses Newton's second law of motion, which states that the net force on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration (F=ma). It provides an example calculation of using the formula to find the net force required to accelerate a 1400 kg car. It also defines that one newton is the force needed to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1 m/s2. Gravity and its relationship to the second law is discussed, where gravitational force Fg equals mass times gravitational acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. Several example problems are provided to check understanding of applying the second law.

Newtons laws of_motion - 1st law

This document summarizes Newton's three laws of motion. It explains the first law of inertia, which states that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. It provides examples using eggs to illustrate the concepts of balanced and unbalanced forces and how they relate to an object changing or maintaining its motion. Safety tips are also given related to wearing seatbelts based on the first law of inertia.

Motion2

This document discusses speed, velocity, and distance-time graphs. It defines speed as distance divided by time and uses examples to calculate speed. A distance-time graph that is a straight line indicates constant speed, while a curved graph shows acceleration. A speed-time graph can reveal if an object is maintaining a steady velocity, slowing down, or speeding up based on whether the line is horizontal, slanting down, or slanting up.

Motion

This document discusses frames of reference and the differences between motion, distance, and displacement. It provides examples to illustrate key points. The most common frame of reference is the Earth. Motion is defined as a change in position relative to a frame of reference. Distance is the actual length traveled along a path, while displacement is the straight line distance and direction between the start and end points. Vectors contain both magnitude and direction, while scalars contain only magnitude.

Metrics

The document discusses various measurements in the metric system including length, volume, mass, temperature, and density. It explains that the metric system uses base units like meters, liters, and grams along with prefixes like kilo, centi, and milli which are powers of ten. Converting between units involves moving the decimal place right or left based on multiplying or dividing by ten. The Celsius scale uses 0°C for freezing and 100°C for boiling water. Density is calculated by dividing an object's mass by its volume.

Magnetism

Magnets have been known for centuries, with the Chinese and Greeks aware of their unusual properties. The ancient Greeks used a stone called magnetite that always pointed in the same direction, which later helped with navigation. William Gilbert proposed in 1600 that the Earth itself acts as a magnet with magnetic poles. Magnets have north and south poles and attract objects made of iron. The magnetic field can magnetize other materials and cause charged particles to spiral around magnetic field lines.

Light em&bigbang

The document discusses the electromagnetic spectrum and the Big Bang theory. It explains that electromagnetic radiation consists of photons with different wavelengths and energies. The farther away objects are observed, the farther back in time we see them due to the finite speed of light. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide evidence that the universe began in a hot, dense state around 13.7 billion years ago and has been expanding and cooling ever since, as predicted by the Big Bang theory.

Gravity and motion

This document discusses gravity and its effects. It explains that Isaac Newton first hypothesized that gravity causes apples and the moon to fall toward Earth. Gravity is a force that attracts all objects and depends on the masses and distance between objects. Newton's law of universal gravitation states that gravitational force is proportional to the product of masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them. Gravity and inertia combine to keep objects like Earth and the moon in orbit. Mass is the amount of matter in an object, while weight is the gravitational force on the object.

Friction

Friction is a force that opposes the relative motion between two surfaces in contact. The amount of friction depends on the type of surfaces and the force pressing them together. Friction can be beneficial by allowing us to grip objects, but also harmful as it causes wear and reduces efficiency. Rough surfaces have more friction than smooth surfaces due to more contact points. Friction converts kinetic energy into thermal energy, and lubricants can reduce friction to improve machine efficiency.

Electricity

This document contains a series of lessons on electrical concepts:
Lesson 1 discusses static electricity and defines key terms like protons, electrons, and charge. Lesson 2 explains the difference between open and closed circuits. Lesson 3 reviews a lesson on conductors and insulators. Lesson 4 discusses parallel and series circuits and provides examples of each. Interactive quizzes are included throughout to help reinforce the concepts covered in each lesson.

Buoyancy.ppt

Buoyancy.ppt

Acceleration

Acceleration

Work and energy

Work and energy

Waves

Waves

Universal forces

Universal forces

Static electricity

Static electricity

Sound

Sound

Projectile motion

Projectile motion

Power

Power

Newtons laws of_motion - 3rd law

Newtons laws of_motion - 3rd law

Newtons laws of_motion - 2nd law

Newtons laws of_motion - 2nd law

Newtons laws of_motion - 1st law

Newtons laws of_motion - 1st law

Motion2

Motion2

Motion

Motion

Metrics

Metrics

Magnetism

Magnetism

Light em&bigbang

Light em&bigbang

Gravity and motion

Gravity and motion

Friction

Friction

Electricity

Electricity

Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf

•Post-harvestlossesaccountforabout10%oftotalfoodgrainsduetounscientificstorage,insects,rodents,micro-organismsetc.,
•Totalfoodgrainproductioninindiais311milliontonnesandstorageis145mt.InIndia,annualstoragelosseshavebeenestimated14mtworthofRs.7,000croreinwhichinsectsaloneaccountfornearlyRs.1,300crores.
•InIndiaoutofthetotalproduction,about30%ismarketablesurplus
•Remaining70%isretainedandstoredbyfarmersforconsumption,seed,feed.Hence,growerneedstoragefacilitytoholdaportionofproducetosellwhenthemarketingpriceisfavourable
•TradersandCo-operativesatmarketcentresneedstoragestructurestoholdgrainswhenthetransportfacilityisinadequate

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

Storagedeteriorationisanyformoflossinquantityandqualityofbio-materials.
Themajorcausesofdeteriorationinstorage
•Physical
•Biological
•Mechanical
•Chemical
Storageonlypreservesquality.Itneverimprovesquality.
Itisadvisabletostartstoragewithqualityfoodproduct.Productwithinitialpoorqualityquicklydepreciates

LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx

CLASS 11 PHYSICS PPT

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

The shorelines of Titan’s hydrocarbon seas trace flooded erosional landforms such as river valleys; however, it isunclear whether coastal erosion has subsequently altered these shorelines. Spacecraft observations and theo-retical models suggest that wind may cause waves to form on Titan’s seas, potentially driving coastal erosion,but the observational evidence of waves is indirect, and the processes affecting shoreline evolution on Titanremain unknown. No widely accepted framework exists for using shoreline morphology to quantitatively dis-cern coastal erosion mechanisms, even on Earth, where the dominant mechanisms are known. We combinelandscape evolution models with measurements of shoreline shape on Earth to characterize how differentcoastal erosion mechanisms affect shoreline morphology. Applying this framework to Titan, we find that theshorelines of Titan’s seas are most consistent with flooded landscapes that subsequently have been eroded bywaves, rather than a uniform erosional process or no coastal erosion, particularly if wave growth saturates atfetch lengths of tens of kilometers.

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

Livro sobre Cromossomos Humanos / Genética

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and ReplicabilityUniversity of Rennes, INSA Rennes, Inria/IRISA, CNRS

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability
Abstract: Reproducibility (aka determinism in some cases) constitutes a fundamental aspect in various fields of computer science, such as floating-point computations in numerical analysis and simulation, concurrency models in parallelism, reproducible builds for third parties integration and packaging, and containerization for execution environments. These concepts, while pervasive across diverse concerns, often exhibit intricate inter-dependencies, making it challenging to achieve a comprehensive understanding. In this short and vision paper we delve into the application of software engineering techniques, specifically variability management, to systematically identify and explicit points of variability that may give rise to reproducibility issues (eg language, libraries, compiler, virtual machine, OS, environment variables, etc). The primary objectives are: i) gaining insights into the variability layers and their possible interactions, ii) capturing and documenting configurations for the sake of reproducibility, and iii) exploring diverse configurations to replicate, and hence validate and ensure the robustness of results. By adopting these methodologies, we aim to address the complexities associated with reproducibility and replicability in modern software systems and environments, facilitating a more comprehensive and nuanced perspective on these critical aspects.
https://hal.science/hal-04582287
TOPIC OF DISCUSSION: CENTRIFUGATION SLIDESHARE.pptx

Centrifugation is a powerful technique used in laboratories to separate components of a heterogeneous mixture based on their density. This process utilizes centrifugal force to rapidly spin samples, causing denser particles to migrate outward more quickly than lighter ones. As a result, distinct layers form within the sample tube, allowing for easy isolation and purification of target substances.

Compositions of iron-meteorite parent bodies constrainthe structure of the pr...

Magmatic iron-meteorite parent bodies are the earliest planetesimals in the Solar System,and they preserve information about conditions and planet-forming processes in thesolar nebula. In this study, we include comprehensive elemental compositions andfractional-crystallization modeling for iron meteorites from the cores of five differenti-ated asteroids from the inner Solar System. Together with previous results of metalliccores from the outer Solar System, we conclude that asteroidal cores from the outerSolar System have smaller sizes, elevated siderophile-element abundances, and simplercrystallization processes than those from the inner Solar System. These differences arerelated to the formation locations of the parent asteroids because the solar protoplane-tary disk varied in redox conditions, elemental distributions, and dynamics at differentheliocentric distances. Using highly siderophile-element data from iron meteorites, wereconstruct the distribution of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) across theprotoplanetary disk within the first million years of Solar-System history. CAIs, the firstsolids to condense in the Solar System, formed close to the Sun. They were, however,concentrated within the outer disk and depleted within the inner disk. Future modelsof the structure and evolution of the protoplanetary disk should account for this dis-tribution pattern of CAIs.

BIRDS DIVERSITY OF SOOTEA BISWANATH ASSAM.ppt.pptx

Ahota Beel, nestled in Sootea Biswanath Assam , is celebrated for its extraordinary diversity of bird species. This wetland sanctuary supports a myriad of avian residents and migrants alike. Visitors can admire the elegant flights of migratory species such as the Northern Pintail and Eurasian Wigeon, alongside resident birds including the Asian Openbill and Pheasant-tailed Jacana. With its tranquil scenery and varied habitats, Ahota Beel offers a perfect haven for birdwatchers to appreciate and study the vibrant birdlife that thrives in this natural refuge.

23PH301 - Optics - Unit 1 - Optical Lenses

Under graduate Physics - Optics

Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...

Neutralizing antibodies, pivotal in immune defense, specifically bind and inhibit viral pathogens, thereby playing a crucial role in protecting against and mitigating infectious diseases. In this slide, we will introduce what antibodies and neutralizing antibodies are, the production and regulation of neutralizing antibodies, their mechanisms of action, classification and applications, as well as the challenges they face.

JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS

The pathway(s) to seeding the massive black holes (MBHs) that exist at the heart of galaxies in the present and distant Universe remains an unsolved problem. Here we categorise, describe and quantitatively discuss the formation pathways of both light and heavy seeds. We emphasise that the most recent computational models suggest that rather than a bimodal-like mass spectrum between light and heavy seeds with light at one end and heavy at the other that instead a continuum exists. Light seeds being more ubiquitous and the heavier seeds becoming less and less abundant due the rarer environmental conditions required for their formation. We therefore examine the different mechanisms that give rise to different seed mass spectrums. We show how and why the mechanisms that produce the heaviest seeds are also among the rarest events in the Universe and are hence extremely unlikely to be the seeds for the vast majority of the MBH population. We quantify, within the limits of the current large uncertainties in the seeding processes, the expected number densities of the seed mass spectrum. We argue that light seeds must be at least 103 to 105 times more numerous than heavy seeds to explain the MBH population as a whole. Based on our current understanding of the seed population this makes heavy seeds (Mseed > 103 M⊙) a significantly more likely pathway given that heavy seeds have an abundance pattern than is close to and likely in excess of 10−4 compared to light seeds. Finally, we examine the current state-of-the-art in numerical calculations and recent observations and plot a path forward for near-future advances in both domains.

Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe

Recent theoretical progress indicates that spacetime and gravity emerge together from the entanglement structure of an underlying microscopic theory. These ideas are best understood in Anti-de Sitter space, where they rely on the area law for entanglement entropy. The extension to de Sitter space requires taking into account the entropy and temperature associated with the cosmological horizon. Using insights from string theory, black hole physics and quantum information theory we argue that the positive dark energy leads to a thermal volume law contribution to the entropy that overtakes the area law precisely at the cosmological horizon. Due to the competition between area and volume law entanglement the microscopic de Sitter states do not thermalise at sub-Hubble scales: they exhibit memory effects in the form of an entropy displacement caused by matter. The emergent laws of gravity contain an additional ‘dark’ gravitational force describing the ‘elastic’ response due to the entropy displacement. We derive an estimate of the strength of this extra force in terms of the baryonic mass, Newton’s constant and the Hubble acceleration scale a0 = cH0, and provide evidence for the fact that this additional ‘dark gravity force’ explains the observed phenomena in galaxies and clusters currently attributed to dark matter.

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureInternational Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office

PPT on Direct Seeded Rice presented at the three-day 'Training and Validation Workshop on Modules of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technologies in South Asia' workshop on April 22, 2024.
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

Context. The observation of several L-band emission sources in the S cluster has led to a rich discussion of their nature. However, a definitive answer to the classification of the dusty objects requires an explanation for the detection of compact Doppler-shifted Brγ emission. The ionized hydrogen in combination with the observation of mid-infrared L-band continuum emission suggests that most of these sources are embedded in a dusty envelope. These embedded sources are part of the S-cluster, and their relationship to the S-stars is still under debate. To date, the question of the origin of these two populations has been vague, although all explanations favor migration processes for the individual cluster members. Aims. This work revisits the S-cluster and its dusty members orbiting the supermassive black hole SgrA* on bound Keplerian orbits from a kinematic perspective. The aim is to explore the Keplerian parameters for patterns that might imply a nonrandom distribution of the sample. Additionally, various analytical aspects are considered to address the nature of the dusty sources. Methods. Based on the photometric analysis, we estimated the individual H−K and K−L colors for the source sample and compared the results to known cluster members. The classification revealed a noticeable contrast between the S-stars and the dusty sources. To fit the flux-density distribution, we utilized the radiative transfer code HYPERION and implemented a young stellar object Class I model. We obtained the position angle from the Keplerian fit results; additionally, we analyzed the distribution of the inclinations and the longitudes of the ascending node. Results. The colors of the dusty sources suggest a stellar nature consistent with the spectral energy distribution in the near and midinfrared domains. Furthermore, the evaporation timescales of dusty and gaseous clumps in the vicinity of SgrA* are much shorter ( 2yr) than the epochs covered by the observations (≈15yr). In addition to the strong evidence for the stellar classification of the D-sources, we also find a clear disk-like pattern following the arrangements of S-stars proposed in the literature. Furthermore, we find a global intrinsic inclination for all dusty sources of 60 ± 20◦, implying a common formation process. Conclusions. The pattern of the dusty sources manifested in the distribution of the position angles, inclinations, and longitudes of the ascending node strongly suggests two different scenarios: the main-sequence stars and the dusty stellar S-cluster sources share a common formation history or migrated with a similar formation channel in the vicinity of SgrA*. Alternatively, the gravitational influence of SgrA* in combination with a massive perturber, such as a putative intermediate mass black hole in the IRS 13 cluster, forces the dusty objects and S-stars to follow a particular orbital arrangement. Key words. stars: black holes– stars: formation– Galaxy: center– galaxies: star formation

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

Context. The early-type galaxy SDSS J133519.91+072807.4 (hereafter SDSS1335+0728), which had exhibited no prior optical variations during the preceding two decades, began showing significant nuclear variability in the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) alert stream from December 2019 (as ZTF19acnskyy). This variability behaviour, coupled with the host-galaxy properties, suggests that SDSS1335+0728 hosts a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole (BH) that is currently in the process of ‘turning on’. Aims. We present a multi-wavelength photometric analysis and spectroscopic follow-up performed with the aim of better understanding the origin of the nuclear variations detected in SDSS1335+0728. Methods. We used archival photometry (from WISE, 2MASS, SDSS, GALEX, eROSITA) and spectroscopic data (from SDSS and LAMOST) to study the state of SDSS1335+0728 prior to December 2019, and new observations from Swift, SOAR/Goodman, VLT/X-shooter, and Keck/LRIS taken after its turn-on to characterise its current state. We analysed the variability of SDSS1335+0728 in the X-ray/UV/optical/mid-infrared range, modelled its spectral energy distribution prior to and after December 2019, and studied the evolution of its UV/optical spectra. Results. From our multi-wavelength photometric analysis, we find that: (a) since 2021, the UV flux (from Swift/UVOT observations) is four times brighter than the flux reported by GALEX in 2004; (b) since June 2022, the mid-infrared flux has risen more than two times, and the W1−W2 WISE colour has become redder; and (c) since February 2024, the source has begun showing X-ray emission. From our spectroscopic follow-up, we see that (i) the narrow emission line ratios are now consistent with a more energetic ionising continuum; (ii) broad emission lines are not detected; and (iii) the [OIII] line increased its flux ∼ 3.6 years after the first ZTF alert, which implies a relatively compact narrow-line-emitting region. Conclusions. We conclude that the variations observed in SDSS1335+0728 could be either explained by a ∼ 106M⊙ AGN that is just turning on or by an exotic tidal disruption event (TDE). If the former is true, SDSS1335+0728 is one of the strongest cases of an AGNobserved in the process of activating. If the latter were found to be the case, it would correspond to the longest and faintest TDE ever observed (or another class of still unknown nuclear transient). Future observations of SDSS1335+0728 are crucial to further understand its behaviour. Key words. galaxies: active– accretion, accretion discs– galaxies: individual: SDSS J133519.91+072807.4

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

Presentation given at the official farewell of Prof Ken Gillet at Wageningen on 13 June 2024

Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf

Hello Everyone Here We are Sharing You with The process of protien Synthesis in very short points you will be Able to understand It Very well

Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf

Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx

LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf

Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf

Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

TOPIC OF DISCUSSION: CENTRIFUGATION SLIDESHARE.pptx

TOPIC OF DISCUSSION: CENTRIFUGATION SLIDESHARE.pptx

Compositions of iron-meteorite parent bodies constrainthe structure of the pr...

Compositions of iron-meteorite parent bodies constrainthe structure of the pr...

BIRDS DIVERSITY OF SOOTEA BISWANATH ASSAM.ppt.pptx

BIRDS DIVERSITY OF SOOTEA BISWANATH ASSAM.ppt.pptx

23PH301 - Optics - Unit 1 - Optical Lenses

23PH301 - Optics - Unit 1 - Optical Lenses

Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...

Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...

JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS

JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS

Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe

Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture

Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications

cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx

Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf

Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf

- 2. A scalar is simply a number, a magnitude alone. A force is usually shown as a vector, which includes both magnitude and a direction. Force (or free-body) diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object. The object must be isolated and “free” of its surroundings.
- 3. This is a free-body diagram of the Statue of Liberty. She is represented by a simple box. The forces acting on her are labeled with a magnitude and the arrow shows direction. Notice the surrounding objects are stripped away and the forces acting on the object are shown. 496210 lb 496210 lb
- 4. WW here represents the force of the weight of the statue. NN is the normal force, which represents the force Liberty Island is pushing back up on the statue. The island has a great resistance to compression. The ground is exerting a force upward on the statue perpendicular, or normal, to the surface. 496210 lb 496210 lbN = W =
- 5. Think of the diagram on an XY plane. If “up” is assumed to be the positive direction, then N is positive and W is negative. 496210 lb496210 lb 496210 lb496210 lbN =N = W =W = (Positive y-direction) +y +x (Positive x-direction)
- 6. The first line of this calculation reads, “The sum of the ForcesThe sum of the Forces inin thethe positive y directionpositive y direction is WW + NN” ( Σ is the Greek symbol for “sum” ) ++↑↑ ΣΣFFyy = WW + NN ΣFy = (-496210 lb-496210 lb) + (+496210 lb+496210 lb ) ΣFy = 0 496210 lb496210 lb 496210 lb496210 lbN =N = W =W = (Positive y-direction) +y +x (Positive x-direction) The sum of the forces in the y is zero. The forces acting on the object cancel each other out.
- 7. •We know F = m * aa, where “a” is acceleration. •If aa = 00, then F = m * 00 = 00. •When Σ F = 0, the object is not accelerating. •We we can then say that the forces acting on the object cancel each other out and it is in a state of static equilibrium.
- 8. Sitting Gorilla Free Body Diagram of the Sitting Gorilla (The box represents the gorilla, W = weight of the gorilla, N = Normal force) W N Create a free body diagram (FBD) for each of the following situations. Draw a FBD of the gorilla:
- 9. This is also an acceptable diagram. N W Sitting Gorilla Create a free body diagram (FBD) for each of the following situations. Draw a FBD of the gorilla:
- 10. Parrot on wooden swing hung by ropes Draw a FBD of the wooden swing: Free Body Diagram of the wooden swing (The box represents the wooden swing, W = weight of the swing and the parrot, T represents the ropes that are in tension supporting the weight) W T2T1
- 11. Bungee jumping from crane Draw a FBD of bucket the bungee jumper leaped from: Free Body Diagram of the bucket (T represents the tensile force of the cable the bucket is suspended from, and W is the weight of the diver and the bucket) W T
- 12. Traffic Light supported by cables Draw a FBD of the ring at point C: A B C D Free Body Diagram of the ring at point C (T represents the force of the cables that are in tension acting on the ring) TCA TCD TCB
- 13. Draw a FBD of the traffic light: Free Body Diagram of the traffic light (TCD represents the force of the cables acting on the light and W is the weight acting on the light) W TCD Traffic Light supported by cables A B C D
- 14. Pin-Connected Pratt Through Truss Bridge Draw a FBD of the pin at point A: A B E D C Free Body Diagram of pin A (If you consider the third dimension, then there is an additional force acting on point A into the paper: The force of the beam that connects the front of the bridge to the back of the bridge.) TAE TAC TAB TAD