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Chapter 5 Pictorial sketching
Contents Freehand sketching techniques ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Isometric projection vs isometric sketch  Oblique sketch Isometric sketch  from an orthographic views Isometric sketch of an object
Freehand  sketching techniques Sketching is one of the primary modes of communication in the initial stages of the design process. Sketching also is a means to creative thinking. It has been shown that your mind works more creatively when your hand is sketching as you are engaged in thinking about a problem.   [Lieu & Sorby 2009] Contents
2-D geometry  1. Straight line  (Horizontal, vertical and Inclined) 2. Arc, circle and curve A two-dimensional geometry is always composed of Example Use your experiences gained from the chapter “applied geometry”. Analyze  the composition  of 2-D geometry and list the  construction steps. Suggestion for practicing
Tools preparation & recommendations 2. Sketching paper 1. Pencil 3. Eraser Sharpen the lead . You  don’t  need to fix it to the table, i.e. let it moves and rotates freely while sketching. Use different lead grades   pencils for each required line weight. Make sure it is clean.
Techniques :  Sketching a line Vertical lines  should sketch from  top  to  bottom . Horizontal lines  should sketch from  left  to  right . Inclined lines  that are  mostly vertical , sketch them from top  to  bottom . Inclined lines  that are  mostly horizontal , sketch them from left  to  right . Sketch the line in the following directions Focus on the  end  point. + + + + +
Prefer horizontal line Prefer vertical line Techniques :  Sketching a line You can rotate the paper on the desk to suit your preferences line tracing direction.
Techniques :  Sketching an arc To sketch an arc of a given radius it is necessary to use construction lines to locate its  center  and its  tangent points . Explanation 1. Sketch two lines intersect at the    center of an arc. 2. Sketch a  square bounding box with the length of its sides equal to radius of an arc . 3. Sketch a  diagonal line.  [option] 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far   from the center of an arc for a distance 2/3 of the length of the line. 5. Sketch an arc through the tangent    points and marked point Play 1/3 2/3 Radius of an arc Radius of an arc
Techniques :  Sketching a  small  circle To sketch a circle of a given diameter it is necessary to use construction lines to locate its  center  and its  tangent points . Explanation 1. Sketch two lines intersect at the    center of a circle. 2. Sketch a  square bounding box with the length of its sides equal to radius of a circle . 3. Sketch the  diagonal lines.  [option] 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far   from the center of a circle for a distance 2/3 of the  half -length of the    line. 5. Sketch a circle through all marked    points and tangent points. Play 1/3 2/3 Radius of a circle Radius of a circle
[object Object],[object Object],Techniques :  Sketching a  large  circle
Pictorial projection Contents
Types of a  pictorial  projection Parallel &  normal to picture plane Parallel &  oblique to picture plane Axonometric Projection Oblique Projection A B C D Line of sight A B C D A B C D Line of sight A D C B
Type of an  axonometric  projection 2.  Di metric Two angles are equal. 1.  Tri metric None  of  the angles are equal. 3.  Iso metric All   angles are equal. Axonometric axes a b c a b c b a c
1. Cavalier 2. Cabinet Type of an  oblique  projection This obliqued angle can be any angles but for convenient a 45 o  is chosen 45 o 45 o Full scale Half scale
Isometric projection vs. Isometric sketch Contents
Isometric projection 45  The  projected lengths  of the edges parallel to the axonometric axes are approximately  81% of their   true length . 3-D object (Cube) Axonometric projection 35 o 16 ' Isometric view a a a 0.8a 0.8a 0.8a
Isometric sketch Isometric sketch has a similar shape as an isometric projection view except that their  edges parallel to the axonometric axes are  drawn in  full size . Isometric projection Isometric sketching/drawing Foreshorten Full size
Angle & distance in isometric sketch Angles in an isometric sketch  distort  from the actual angle found in the object . Actual or true distance can be measured along the isometric lines   of the isometric sketch. Example   90 o  angle appears as 120 o . 90 o  angle appears as 60 o . Correct Wrong Isometric axes B A C D
Orientation of isometric axes Isometric axes can be arbitrarily oriented to create different views of a single object. Regular isometric Reverse axis isometric Long axis isometric View point is looking down on the top of the object. View point is looking up on the bottom of the object. View point is looking from the right (or left) of the object.
              Class activity :   Identify the nonisometric lines Click  on the following button that you think that it represents an  nonisometric  line. AB BC CD DE EF AF BG CH DI EI FJ GH HI IJ Isometric axes A B C D E F G H I J
Isometric sketching From an orthographic views Contents
Overview of the process 1. Analyze the alignment of a given orthographic views Procedures Examples 2. Select a suitable orientation    of isometric axes. Front Front T F R B F R T F L Front 3. Interpret the lines/areas in    orthographic views as a    plane or surface. 4. Sketch that plane or surface in an isometric axes. Front Normal plane
Sketching a   normal   plane Front-Right-Top Front-Right-Bottom Front Front Given Given
Class activity :  Sketching a normal plane Front-Right-Bottom Given 1. View alignment is 2. Identify the front view 3. Sketch the plane  (1 min) Front Answer
Sketch an   inclined   plane Front-Right-Top Front Given Did you see that the parallel lines in orthographic views still be the parallel lines in an isometric sketch?
Front-Right-Top Given 1. View alignment is 2. Identify the front view 3. Sketch the plane  (1 min) Answer Class activity :  Sketching an inclined plane Front
Sketching a circle and an arc (appeared on the normal plane ) Circle appears as ellipse in a pictorial sketch. In case of isometric sketch, the ellipse is called “ isometric ellipse ”. The square that circumscribes an isometric ellipse is called “ isometric square ”.  Isometric  ellipse Isometric  square Tangent points Tangent points
Isometric ellipses :   Their orientations Front & Top Front & Top Front & Right Major axis Major axis Major axis
Play 3. Sketch diagonal lines. 5. Draw the arcs through the   marked and tangent points. Explanation 2. Sketch an isometric square. 1. Locate the center of an ellipse by two  isometric lines .  Isometric ellipses :   Sketching method 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far from the center of an ellipse for a distance 3/4 of the half-   length of the line. 1/4 3/4 1/4 3/4
3. Construct a perpendicular   bisector from each tangent point. 4. Locate the  four  centers. 5. Draw the arcs with these centers   and tangent to isometric square. Explanation Suitable for the case of instrumental drawing. 2. Sketch an isometric square. 1. Locate the center of an ellipse.  Isometric ellipses :   Four-center method Play
Sketching an  arc Isometric  arc  is a part of an isometric circle. Steps for sketching an isometric arc are 1. Locate its center by two   isometric lines. 2. Create an isometric square   circumscribes an arc. 3. Draw a radial diagonal line. 4. Divide the diagonal line into   a ratio 1:4 5. Sketch an arc. 1/4 3/4 3/4 1/4 90 o  arc 180 o  arc Play Try to sketch an arc oriented on a different planes by yourself
Front-Bottom-Right Front Given Example
1. In orthographic views, choose a finite number of points   along the curve.  2. Plot these points in the isometric axes. 3. Sketch the curve. The concept used is similar to plotting a curve. Sketching an  irregular curve (appeared on the normal plane )
Isometric sketching of an object Contents
Guidance 1 A  parallel line   always parallel  to each other  regardless  of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views.  The  third  dimension of an object is created by  extruding   a 2D  geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch. Examples 1 1.Sketch the front view Explanation 2. There are parallel lines    along the depth direction.  3. Extrude the front surface 4. Sketch the rear surface. In this example, hidden lines can be omitted.
Guidance 1 Examples 2  A  parallel line   always parallel  to each other  regardless  of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views.  The  third  dimension of an object is created by  extruding   a 2D  geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch. 1.Sketch the top view Explanation 2. There are parallel lines    along the height direction.  3. Extrude the top surface 4. Sketch the bottom surface. In this example, hidden lines can be omitted.
Guidance 1 Examples 3 A  parallel line   always parallel  to each other  regardless  of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views.  The third dimension of an object is created by extruding  a 2D  geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch.
Guidance 2 Examples 4 Many of the complex shape objects come from a combination of a simple shape object. Strategy 1  : Sketch a group of simple objects before combining them. Strategy 2  : Sketch a main body of an object before gradually adding    details or modifying. + Hidden line can be omitted without losing object information
Guidance 2 Examples 5 Many of the complex shape objects come from a combination of a simple shape object. Strategy 1  : Sketch a group of simple objects before combining them. Strategy 2  : Sketch a main body of an object before adding details or modifying. Omit center lines for clarity. Hidden line can be omitted without losing object information
Suggestion for practicing 1. Pick up 2 or 3 simple shape objects. 2. Choose a prefer combination method. 3. Sketch the result. Strategy 1 1. Pick up one simple shape object. 2. Identify a prefer modification. 3. Sketch the result. Strategy 2 Example Example = ? = ? = ?
Front Example :  object modification (strategy 2) Front Front Modify by adding a shallow hole Modify by adding a base
Oblique sketching Contents
Example :  Advantage of an oblique sketch Isometric Oblique  (cavalier) Easier Orthographic Same effort 1 2
Sketching concept 1. Sketch a  true  size and shape of a selected face on a square grid paper. 2. Extrude that surface to a required depth in a prefer inclined direction, e.g. 45 o .  Note  For a complex shape object, the above processes must be repeated until all features are sketched. Example
Guidelines The front face of an oblique sketch should display majority  of the features of an object. The longest dimension of an object should be parallel to  the frontal plane. Circular features should be parallel to the frontal plane.
Class activity Which one is an appropriate oblique sketch? 1 2 3 Answer Answer Answer
Example 1 :  Oblique sketch of an object  (cabinet) 1/2
Example 1 :  Oblique sketch of an object  (cabinet) 2/2
Example 2 :  Oblique sketch of an object (1/4) A B C D E
A B C D E Example 2 :  Oblique sketch of an object (2/4)
A B D E C Example 2 :  Oblique sketch of an object (3/4)
A B D E C Example 2 :  Oblique sketch of an object (4/4)

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Engineering Drawing: Chapter 05 pictorial sketching

  • 2.
  • 3. Freehand sketching techniques Sketching is one of the primary modes of communication in the initial stages of the design process. Sketching also is a means to creative thinking. It has been shown that your mind works more creatively when your hand is sketching as you are engaged in thinking about a problem. [Lieu & Sorby 2009] Contents
  • 4. 2-D geometry 1. Straight line (Horizontal, vertical and Inclined) 2. Arc, circle and curve A two-dimensional geometry is always composed of Example Use your experiences gained from the chapter “applied geometry”. Analyze the composition of 2-D geometry and list the construction steps. Suggestion for practicing
  • 5. Tools preparation & recommendations 2. Sketching paper 1. Pencil 3. Eraser Sharpen the lead . You don’t need to fix it to the table, i.e. let it moves and rotates freely while sketching. Use different lead grades pencils for each required line weight. Make sure it is clean.
  • 6. Techniques : Sketching a line Vertical lines should sketch from top to bottom . Horizontal lines should sketch from left to right . Inclined lines that are mostly vertical , sketch them from top to bottom . Inclined lines that are mostly horizontal , sketch them from left to right . Sketch the line in the following directions Focus on the end point. + + + + +
  • 7. Prefer horizontal line Prefer vertical line Techniques : Sketching a line You can rotate the paper on the desk to suit your preferences line tracing direction.
  • 8. Techniques : Sketching an arc To sketch an arc of a given radius it is necessary to use construction lines to locate its center and its tangent points . Explanation 1. Sketch two lines intersect at the center of an arc. 2. Sketch a square bounding box with the length of its sides equal to radius of an arc . 3. Sketch a diagonal line. [option] 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far from the center of an arc for a distance 2/3 of the length of the line. 5. Sketch an arc through the tangent points and marked point Play 1/3 2/3 Radius of an arc Radius of an arc
  • 9. Techniques : Sketching a small circle To sketch a circle of a given diameter it is necessary to use construction lines to locate its center and its tangent points . Explanation 1. Sketch two lines intersect at the center of a circle. 2. Sketch a square bounding box with the length of its sides equal to radius of a circle . 3. Sketch the diagonal lines. [option] 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far from the center of a circle for a distance 2/3 of the half -length of the line. 5. Sketch a circle through all marked points and tangent points. Play 1/3 2/3 Radius of a circle Radius of a circle
  • 10.
  • 12. Types of a pictorial projection Parallel & normal to picture plane Parallel & oblique to picture plane Axonometric Projection Oblique Projection A B C D Line of sight A B C D A B C D Line of sight A D C B
  • 13. Type of an axonometric projection 2. Di metric Two angles are equal. 1. Tri metric None of the angles are equal. 3. Iso metric All angles are equal. Axonometric axes a b c a b c b a c
  • 14. 1. Cavalier 2. Cabinet Type of an oblique projection This obliqued angle can be any angles but for convenient a 45 o is chosen 45 o 45 o Full scale Half scale
  • 15. Isometric projection vs. Isometric sketch Contents
  • 16. Isometric projection 45  The projected lengths of the edges parallel to the axonometric axes are approximately 81% of their true length . 3-D object (Cube) Axonometric projection 35 o 16 ' Isometric view a a a 0.8a 0.8a 0.8a
  • 17. Isometric sketch Isometric sketch has a similar shape as an isometric projection view except that their edges parallel to the axonometric axes are drawn in full size . Isometric projection Isometric sketching/drawing Foreshorten Full size
  • 18. Angle & distance in isometric sketch Angles in an isometric sketch distort from the actual angle found in the object . Actual or true distance can be measured along the isometric lines of the isometric sketch. Example 90 o angle appears as 120 o . 90 o angle appears as 60 o . Correct Wrong Isometric axes B A C D
  • 19. Orientation of isometric axes Isometric axes can be arbitrarily oriented to create different views of a single object. Regular isometric Reverse axis isometric Long axis isometric View point is looking down on the top of the object. View point is looking up on the bottom of the object. View point is looking from the right (or left) of the object.
  • 20.               Class activity : Identify the nonisometric lines Click on the following button that you think that it represents an nonisometric line. AB BC CD DE EF AF BG CH DI EI FJ GH HI IJ Isometric axes A B C D E F G H I J
  • 21. Isometric sketching From an orthographic views Contents
  • 22. Overview of the process 1. Analyze the alignment of a given orthographic views Procedures Examples 2. Select a suitable orientation of isometric axes. Front Front T F R B F R T F L Front 3. Interpret the lines/areas in orthographic views as a plane or surface. 4. Sketch that plane or surface in an isometric axes. Front Normal plane
  • 23. Sketching a normal plane Front-Right-Top Front-Right-Bottom Front Front Given Given
  • 24. Class activity : Sketching a normal plane Front-Right-Bottom Given 1. View alignment is 2. Identify the front view 3. Sketch the plane (1 min) Front Answer
  • 25. Sketch an inclined plane Front-Right-Top Front Given Did you see that the parallel lines in orthographic views still be the parallel lines in an isometric sketch?
  • 26. Front-Right-Top Given 1. View alignment is 2. Identify the front view 3. Sketch the plane (1 min) Answer Class activity : Sketching an inclined plane Front
  • 27. Sketching a circle and an arc (appeared on the normal plane ) Circle appears as ellipse in a pictorial sketch. In case of isometric sketch, the ellipse is called “ isometric ellipse ”. The square that circumscribes an isometric ellipse is called “ isometric square ”. Isometric ellipse Isometric square Tangent points Tangent points
  • 28. Isometric ellipses : Their orientations Front & Top Front & Top Front & Right Major axis Major axis Major axis
  • 29. Play 3. Sketch diagonal lines. 5. Draw the arcs through the marked and tangent points. Explanation 2. Sketch an isometric square. 1. Locate the center of an ellipse by two isometric lines . Isometric ellipses : Sketching method 4. Mark the point on diagonal line far from the center of an ellipse for a distance 3/4 of the half- length of the line. 1/4 3/4 1/4 3/4
  • 30. 3. Construct a perpendicular bisector from each tangent point. 4. Locate the four centers. 5. Draw the arcs with these centers and tangent to isometric square. Explanation Suitable for the case of instrumental drawing. 2. Sketch an isometric square. 1. Locate the center of an ellipse. Isometric ellipses : Four-center method Play
  • 31. Sketching an arc Isometric arc is a part of an isometric circle. Steps for sketching an isometric arc are 1. Locate its center by two isometric lines. 2. Create an isometric square circumscribes an arc. 3. Draw a radial diagonal line. 4. Divide the diagonal line into a ratio 1:4 5. Sketch an arc. 1/4 3/4 3/4 1/4 90 o arc 180 o arc Play Try to sketch an arc oriented on a different planes by yourself
  • 33. 1. In orthographic views, choose a finite number of points along the curve. 2. Plot these points in the isometric axes. 3. Sketch the curve. The concept used is similar to plotting a curve. Sketching an irregular curve (appeared on the normal plane )
  • 34. Isometric sketching of an object Contents
  • 35. Guidance 1 A parallel line always parallel to each other regardless of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views. The third dimension of an object is created by extruding a 2D geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch. Examples 1 1.Sketch the front view Explanation 2. There are parallel lines along the depth direction. 3. Extrude the front surface 4. Sketch the rear surface. In this example, hidden lines can be omitted.
  • 36. Guidance 1 Examples 2 A parallel line always parallel to each other regardless of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views. The third dimension of an object is created by extruding a 2D geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch. 1.Sketch the top view Explanation 2. There are parallel lines along the height direction. 3. Extrude the top surface 4. Sketch the bottom surface. In this example, hidden lines can be omitted.
  • 37. Guidance 1 Examples 3 A parallel line always parallel to each other regardless of the kind of views, i.e. orthographic and isometric views. The third dimension of an object is created by extruding a 2D geometry or surface. It helps us control the shape of the sketch.
  • 38. Guidance 2 Examples 4 Many of the complex shape objects come from a combination of a simple shape object. Strategy 1 : Sketch a group of simple objects before combining them. Strategy 2 : Sketch a main body of an object before gradually adding details or modifying. + Hidden line can be omitted without losing object information
  • 39. Guidance 2 Examples 5 Many of the complex shape objects come from a combination of a simple shape object. Strategy 1 : Sketch a group of simple objects before combining them. Strategy 2 : Sketch a main body of an object before adding details or modifying. Omit center lines for clarity. Hidden line can be omitted without losing object information
  • 40. Suggestion for practicing 1. Pick up 2 or 3 simple shape objects. 2. Choose a prefer combination method. 3. Sketch the result. Strategy 1 1. Pick up one simple shape object. 2. Identify a prefer modification. 3. Sketch the result. Strategy 2 Example Example = ? = ? = ?
  • 41. Front Example : object modification (strategy 2) Front Front Modify by adding a shallow hole Modify by adding a base
  • 43. Example : Advantage of an oblique sketch Isometric Oblique (cavalier) Easier Orthographic Same effort 1 2
  • 44. Sketching concept 1. Sketch a true size and shape of a selected face on a square grid paper. 2. Extrude that surface to a required depth in a prefer inclined direction, e.g. 45 o . Note For a complex shape object, the above processes must be repeated until all features are sketched. Example
  • 45. Guidelines The front face of an oblique sketch should display majority of the features of an object. The longest dimension of an object should be parallel to the frontal plane. Circular features should be parallel to the frontal plane.
  • 46. Class activity Which one is an appropriate oblique sketch? 1 2 3 Answer Answer Answer
  • 47. Example 1 : Oblique sketch of an object (cabinet) 1/2
  • 48. Example 1 : Oblique sketch of an object (cabinet) 2/2
  • 49. Example 2 : Oblique sketch of an object (1/4) A B C D E
  • 50. A B C D E Example 2 : Oblique sketch of an object (2/4)
  • 51. A B D E C Example 2 : Oblique sketch of an object (3/4)
  • 52. A B D E C Example 2 : Oblique sketch of an object (4/4)