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Whenever a body is subjected to an axial tension or compression, a direct stress comes into play at every section of body. We also know that whenever a body is subjected to a bending moment a bending moment a bending stress comes into play.

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Stiffness Matrix

1. The stiffness method is used to analyze the beam by determining its degree of kinematic indeterminacy, selecting unknown displacements, restraining the structure, and generating a stiffness matrix.
2. A 4m beam with supports at 1.5m and 3m is analyzed using a stiffness matrix approach. The displacements selected are the rotations at joints B and C.
3. The stiffness matrix is generated by applying unit rotations at each joint and calculating the actions. This matrix is then used along with the applied loads in a superposition equation to solve for the unknown displacements.

Direct and bending stress

This document summarizes key concepts related to structural analysis including:
1) The effects of axial and eccentric loading on columns including direct stress, bending stress, and maximum/minimum stresses.
2) Maximum and minimum pressures at the base of dams and retaining walls including calculations of total water/earth pressure, eccentricity, and stability conditions.
3) Forces and stresses on chimneys and walls due to wind pressure including calculations of direct stress from self-weight, wind force, induced bending moment, and maximum/minimum stresses.

column and strut difference between them

. Differentiate Between Column & strut
2. Buckling Load
3. Limitations of Euler’s Formula
CONTENTS
Strut
Column
Differentiate Between Column & Strut
Failure Of Column Or Strut
Long Column
Short Column
Buckling Load
Column End Condition And Effective Length
What Is Euler’s Formula
Some Assumptions Of The Euler’s Formula
Euler’s Formula
Limitation Of Euler’s Formula

Structural analysis 1

This document discusses structural analysis methods for statically indeterminate structures. It defines key terms like degree of static indeterminacy, internal and external redundancy, and methods for analyzing indeterminate structures. Specific methods discussed include the flexibility matrix method, consistent deformation method, and unit load method. Examples of statically indeterminate beams and frames are also provided.

Shear strength of soil

The document provides information about shear strength of soil. It defines shear strength and its components of cohesion and internal friction. It discusses Mohr's circle of stress and Mohr-Coulomb theory for shear strength. The types of soil are classified based on drainage conditions during shear testing. Common shear strength tests like direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test and vane shear test are also explained. Sample calculations for shear strength determination from test results are presented.

Deflection

This document discusses beam design criteria and deflection behavior of beams. It covers two key criteria for beam design:
1) Strength criterion - the beam cross section must be strong enough to resist bending moments and shear forces.
2) Stiffness criterion - the maximum deflection of the beam cannot exceed a limit and the beam must be stiff enough to resist deflections from loading.
It then defines deflection, slope, elastic curve, and flexural rigidity. It presents the differential equation that relates bending moment, slope, and deflection. Methods for calculating slope and deflection including double integration, Macaulay's method, and others are also summarized.

Design of steel structures Introduction

Basics of Steel Structures with diagrams of steel building. Introduction about design of connections with bolt, weld

Lacing, battening

This document provides guidance on the design of lacing and battens for built-up compression members. It discusses the key design considerations and calculations for both single and double lacing systems, including the angle of inclination, slenderness ratio, effective lacing length, bar width and thickness. Similar guidelines are given for battens, covering spacing, thickness, effective depth, transverse shear and overlap. The document also includes an example problem on designing a slab foundation for a column with given load and material properties.

Stiffness Matrix

1. The stiffness method is used to analyze the beam by determining its degree of kinematic indeterminacy, selecting unknown displacements, restraining the structure, and generating a stiffness matrix.
2. A 4m beam with supports at 1.5m and 3m is analyzed using a stiffness matrix approach. The displacements selected are the rotations at joints B and C.
3. The stiffness matrix is generated by applying unit rotations at each joint and calculating the actions. This matrix is then used along with the applied loads in a superposition equation to solve for the unknown displacements.

Direct and bending stress

This document summarizes key concepts related to structural analysis including:
1) The effects of axial and eccentric loading on columns including direct stress, bending stress, and maximum/minimum stresses.
2) Maximum and minimum pressures at the base of dams and retaining walls including calculations of total water/earth pressure, eccentricity, and stability conditions.
3) Forces and stresses on chimneys and walls due to wind pressure including calculations of direct stress from self-weight, wind force, induced bending moment, and maximum/minimum stresses.

column and strut difference between them

. Differentiate Between Column & strut
2. Buckling Load
3. Limitations of Euler’s Formula
CONTENTS
Strut
Column
Differentiate Between Column & Strut
Failure Of Column Or Strut
Long Column
Short Column
Buckling Load
Column End Condition And Effective Length
What Is Euler’s Formula
Some Assumptions Of The Euler’s Formula
Euler’s Formula
Limitation Of Euler’s Formula

Structural analysis 1

This document discusses structural analysis methods for statically indeterminate structures. It defines key terms like degree of static indeterminacy, internal and external redundancy, and methods for analyzing indeterminate structures. Specific methods discussed include the flexibility matrix method, consistent deformation method, and unit load method. Examples of statically indeterminate beams and frames are also provided.

Shear strength of soil

The document provides information about shear strength of soil. It defines shear strength and its components of cohesion and internal friction. It discusses Mohr's circle of stress and Mohr-Coulomb theory for shear strength. The types of soil are classified based on drainage conditions during shear testing. Common shear strength tests like direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test and vane shear test are also explained. Sample calculations for shear strength determination from test results are presented.

Deflection

This document discusses beam design criteria and deflection behavior of beams. It covers two key criteria for beam design:
1) Strength criterion - the beam cross section must be strong enough to resist bending moments and shear forces.
2) Stiffness criterion - the maximum deflection of the beam cannot exceed a limit and the beam must be stiff enough to resist deflections from loading.
It then defines deflection, slope, elastic curve, and flexural rigidity. It presents the differential equation that relates bending moment, slope, and deflection. Methods for calculating slope and deflection including double integration, Macaulay's method, and others are also summarized.

Design of steel structures Introduction

Basics of Steel Structures with diagrams of steel building. Introduction about design of connections with bolt, weld

Lacing, battening

This document provides guidance on the design of lacing and battens for built-up compression members. It discusses the key design considerations and calculations for both single and double lacing systems, including the angle of inclination, slenderness ratio, effective lacing length, bar width and thickness. Similar guidelines are given for battens, covering spacing, thickness, effective depth, transverse shear and overlap. The document also includes an example problem on designing a slab foundation for a column with given load and material properties.

Spillways components and types

A brief details about the component parts of spillways and also about the different types of spillways.

Design of slender columns as per IS 456-2000

The document discusses the design of slender columns. It defines a slender column as having a slenderness ratio (length to least lateral dimension) greater than 12. Slender columns experience appreciable lateral deflection even under axial loads alone. The design of slender columns can be done using three methods - the strength reduction coefficient method, additional moment method, or moment magnification method. The document outlines the step-by-step procedure for designing a slender column using the additional moment method, which involves determining the effective length, initial moments, additional moments, total moments accounting for a reduction coefficient, and redesigning the column for combined axial load and bending.

Design of compression members

Compression members are structural members subjected to axial compression or compressive forces. Their design is governed by strength and buckling capacity. Columns can fail due to local buckling, squashing, overall flexural buckling, or torsional buckling. Built-up columns use components like lacings, battens, and cover plates to help distribute stress more evenly and increase buckling resistance compared to a single member. Buckling occurs when a straight compression member becomes unstable and bends under a critical load.

Classification of bridges

This document provides a classification of bridges based on various criteria such as material, alignment, location, purpose, superstructure type, flood hazard level, span, navigation facilities, loading, and lifespan. Some of the main bridge types discussed include slab bridges, girder bridges, truss bridges, suspension bridges, arch bridges, swing bridges, bascule bridges, and lift bridges. Bridges are also classified based on their span length from minor bridges to long span bridges. Temporary bridges discussed include pontoon, boat, and flying bridges while permanent bridges include RCC, masonry, and steel bridges.

Design of beams

This document discusses the design of beams. It defines different types of beams like floor beams, girders, lintels, purlins, and rafters. It describes how beams are classified based on their support conditions as simply supported, cantilever, fixed, or continuous beams. Commonly used beam sections include universal beams, compound beams, and composite beams. The document also covers plastic analysis of beams, classification of beam sections, and failure modes of beams.

Centroid & Centre of Gravity

The document discusses the differences between centroid and center of gravity. The centroid is defined as a point about which the entire line, area or volume is assumed to be concentrated, and is related to the distribution of length, area and volume. The center of gravity is defined as the point about which the entire weight of an object is assumed to be concentrated, also known as the center of mass, and is related to the distribution of mass. Examples are provided to illustrate the concepts of centroid and center of gravity.

Well foundation

The document discusses different types of well foundations used in construction. It describes the key components of well foundations including the cutting edge, steining, bottom plug, top plug, and well cap. It explains the process of sinking well foundations, which involves excavating material inside the well curb to allow the well to sink vertically into the ground. Precautions like maintaining verticality and limiting tilt and shift are important during well sinking.

Shear force and bending moment

The document discusses beams, which are horizontal structural members that support applied loads. It defines applied and reactive forces, and describes different types of supports including roller, hinge, and fixed supports. It then defines and describes different types of beams, including cantilever, simply supported, overhanging, fixed, and continuous beams. It also discusses types of loads, including concentrated and distributed loads, and how beams experience both bending and shear forces from loads.

Railway Engineering-Curves and superelevation

This document discusses curves and superelevation on railways. It defines horizontal and vertical curves, and explains that superelevation involves raising the outer rail on a curve to provide a comfortable ride. Superelevation counters the effects of lateral forces when negotiating a curve. The key points are:
- Superelevation is the difference in height between the inner and outer rails and helps distribute load on both rails.
- Equilibrium speed is when the centrifugal force is balanced by the cant (superelevation), providing no unbalanced radial acceleration.
- Maximum permissible speed considers factors like radius, cant, cant deficiency/excess, and transition length.
- Examples are provided to calculate supere

Bending stresses in beams

This document discusses bending stresses in beams. It defines simple or pure bending as when a beam experiences zero shear force and constant bending moment over a length. For simple bending, the stress distribution can be calculated using beam theory. The key points are:
- Bending stresses are introduced due to bending moments and are highest at the extreme fibers furthest from the neutral axis.
- The neutral axis experiences no bending stress and its location is defined by the centroidal axis of the beam cross-section.
- Bending stress is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. The stress distribution follows σ = My/I, where M is the bending moment, y is the distance from neutral axis, and I is

Combined bending and direct stresses

1. The document discusses stresses in solids due to eccentric and combined loading, including bending and direct stresses.
2. It defines the core of a section as the area where a load can be applied without causing tensile stress. For a rectangular section, the core is a rhombus with diagonals of B/3 and D/3.
3. Wind loading on structures like walls and chimneys is also analyzed, calculating bending moments and resultant stresses. Maintaining compressive stresses only is important for structural integrity.

Simple stresses and strains

The document discusses stress and strain in engineering structures. It defines load, stress, strain and different types of each. Stress is the internal resisting force per unit area within a loaded component. Strain is the ratio of dimensional change to original dimension of a loaded body. Loads can be tensile, compressive or shear. Hooke's law states stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit. The elastic modulus defines this proportionality. A tensile test measures the stress-strain curve, identifying elastic limit and other failure points. Multi-axial stress-strain relationships follow Poisson's ratio definitions.

Analysis of Truss

Defination,Analysis of frames,stresses in frame,convention,
assumptions, solutions(analytical), Learning outcomes

Torsion

1. The document discusses torsion of circular shafts, including pure torsion, assumptions in the theory of pure torsion, torsion formula, polar modulus, torsional rigidity, power transmitted by shafts, and numerical problems and solutions.
2. Key concepts covered include shear stress distribution in shafts under torsion, relationship between applied torque, shear stress, polar moment of inertia, and angle of twist.
3. Formulas are derived for calculating torque, shear stress, polar modulus, and torsional rigidity of solid and hollow circular shafts.

Pile foundations

Pile foundation is important for construction of foundation where bearing capacity of soil is poor. Pile foundation is use for distribution of uneven load of superstructure.There are so many type of pile are use for construction. Here i present some of pile with suitable condition for construction and methods for construction.
Thank you.

Unsymmetrical bending.ppt

1. The document discusses unsymmetrical bending of beams. When a beam bends about an axis that is not perpendicular to a plane of symmetry, it is undergoing unsymmetrical bending.
2. Key aspects discussed include determining the principal axes, direct stress distribution, and deflection of beams under unsymmetrical bending. Equations are provided to calculate stresses and deflections.
3. An example problem is given involving finding the stresses at two points on a cantilever beam subjected to an unsymmetrical loading. The principal moments of inertia and neutral axis orientation are calculated.

Structural analysis 2

This document discusses various concepts related to structural analysis of arches:
1. An arch is a curved girder supported at its ends, allowing only vertical and horizontal displacements for arch action.
2. The general cable theorem relates the horizontal tension and vertical distance from any cable point to the cable chord moment.
3. Arches are classified based on support conditions (3, 2, or 1 hinged) or shape (curved, parabolic, elliptical, polygonal).
4. Horizontal thrust in arches reduces the bending moment and is calculated differently for various arch types (e.g. parabolic) and loading (e.g. UDL).

determinate and indeterminate structures

This topic I am uploading here contains some basic topics in structural analysis which includes types of supports, reactions for different support conditions, determinate and indeterminate structures, static and kinematic indeterminacy,external and internal static indeterminacy, kinematic indeterminacy for beams, frames, trusses.
need of finding indeterminacy, different methods available to formulate equations to solve unknowns.

Chapter 3

The document discusses frames and trusses, which are structures consisting of bars, rods, angles, and channels pinned or fastened together to support loads and transmit them to supports. Trusses contain only two-force members that experience either tension or compression, while frames can contain multi-force members and experience transverse forces as well. Common truss configurations include pinned, gusset plate, and bolted or welded joints. Trusses are analyzed using methods of joints or sections to determine member forces.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 2 MARKS (CE6306/CE8395)

1. The document defines various terms related to strength of materials including stress, strain, elastic limit, Hooke's law, shear stress, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, modulus of rigidity, factor of safety, strain energy, and bulk modulus.
2. It also defines terms related to beams such as types of beams, shear force, bending moment, bending stress, pure bending, neutral axis, and section modulus.
3. Terms related to torsion, springs, and deflection of beams are also defined. These include torsion equation, polar modulus, torsional rigidity, types of springs, spring rate, and methods to determine slope and deflection in beams.

Lecture 10 bending stresses in beams

This document discusses stresses in beams. It covers bending stresses, shear stresses, deflection in beams, and torsion in solid and hollow shafts. The key assumptions in beam bending theory are outlined. Bending stresses are explained, including the location of the neutral axis and how stresses vary through the beam cross-section based on the bending moment and geometry. Section modulus is defined as the ratio of the moment of inertia to the distance of the outermost fiber from the neutral axis. Composite beams made of different materials are also discussed.

Solving statically indeterminate structure slope deflection 10.01.03.019

This document summarizes the slope deflection method for analyzing statically indeterminate structures. It defines statically indeterminate structures as those where the equilibrium equations are insufficient to determine internal forces. The slope deflection method relates member end moments to end rotations and displacements using slope deflection equations. The analysis process involves expressing fixed end moments, developing member equations relating end moments to rotations/displacements, establishing joint equilibrium equations, solving the equations to find unknown rotations and displacements, and determining end moments. An example problem applies these steps to solve for end moments in a continuous beam using the slope deflection method.

Spillways components and types

A brief details about the component parts of spillways and also about the different types of spillways.

Design of slender columns as per IS 456-2000

The document discusses the design of slender columns. It defines a slender column as having a slenderness ratio (length to least lateral dimension) greater than 12. Slender columns experience appreciable lateral deflection even under axial loads alone. The design of slender columns can be done using three methods - the strength reduction coefficient method, additional moment method, or moment magnification method. The document outlines the step-by-step procedure for designing a slender column using the additional moment method, which involves determining the effective length, initial moments, additional moments, total moments accounting for a reduction coefficient, and redesigning the column for combined axial load and bending.

Design of compression members

Compression members are structural members subjected to axial compression or compressive forces. Their design is governed by strength and buckling capacity. Columns can fail due to local buckling, squashing, overall flexural buckling, or torsional buckling. Built-up columns use components like lacings, battens, and cover plates to help distribute stress more evenly and increase buckling resistance compared to a single member. Buckling occurs when a straight compression member becomes unstable and bends under a critical load.

Classification of bridges

This document provides a classification of bridges based on various criteria such as material, alignment, location, purpose, superstructure type, flood hazard level, span, navigation facilities, loading, and lifespan. Some of the main bridge types discussed include slab bridges, girder bridges, truss bridges, suspension bridges, arch bridges, swing bridges, bascule bridges, and lift bridges. Bridges are also classified based on their span length from minor bridges to long span bridges. Temporary bridges discussed include pontoon, boat, and flying bridges while permanent bridges include RCC, masonry, and steel bridges.

Design of beams

This document discusses the design of beams. It defines different types of beams like floor beams, girders, lintels, purlins, and rafters. It describes how beams are classified based on their support conditions as simply supported, cantilever, fixed, or continuous beams. Commonly used beam sections include universal beams, compound beams, and composite beams. The document also covers plastic analysis of beams, classification of beam sections, and failure modes of beams.

Centroid & Centre of Gravity

The document discusses the differences between centroid and center of gravity. The centroid is defined as a point about which the entire line, area or volume is assumed to be concentrated, and is related to the distribution of length, area and volume. The center of gravity is defined as the point about which the entire weight of an object is assumed to be concentrated, also known as the center of mass, and is related to the distribution of mass. Examples are provided to illustrate the concepts of centroid and center of gravity.

Well foundation

The document discusses different types of well foundations used in construction. It describes the key components of well foundations including the cutting edge, steining, bottom plug, top plug, and well cap. It explains the process of sinking well foundations, which involves excavating material inside the well curb to allow the well to sink vertically into the ground. Precautions like maintaining verticality and limiting tilt and shift are important during well sinking.

Shear force and bending moment

The document discusses beams, which are horizontal structural members that support applied loads. It defines applied and reactive forces, and describes different types of supports including roller, hinge, and fixed supports. It then defines and describes different types of beams, including cantilever, simply supported, overhanging, fixed, and continuous beams. It also discusses types of loads, including concentrated and distributed loads, and how beams experience both bending and shear forces from loads.

Railway Engineering-Curves and superelevation

This document discusses curves and superelevation on railways. It defines horizontal and vertical curves, and explains that superelevation involves raising the outer rail on a curve to provide a comfortable ride. Superelevation counters the effects of lateral forces when negotiating a curve. The key points are:
- Superelevation is the difference in height between the inner and outer rails and helps distribute load on both rails.
- Equilibrium speed is when the centrifugal force is balanced by the cant (superelevation), providing no unbalanced radial acceleration.
- Maximum permissible speed considers factors like radius, cant, cant deficiency/excess, and transition length.
- Examples are provided to calculate supere

Bending stresses in beams

This document discusses bending stresses in beams. It defines simple or pure bending as when a beam experiences zero shear force and constant bending moment over a length. For simple bending, the stress distribution can be calculated using beam theory. The key points are:
- Bending stresses are introduced due to bending moments and are highest at the extreme fibers furthest from the neutral axis.
- The neutral axis experiences no bending stress and its location is defined by the centroidal axis of the beam cross-section.
- Bending stress is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. The stress distribution follows σ = My/I, where M is the bending moment, y is the distance from neutral axis, and I is

Combined bending and direct stresses

1. The document discusses stresses in solids due to eccentric and combined loading, including bending and direct stresses.
2. It defines the core of a section as the area where a load can be applied without causing tensile stress. For a rectangular section, the core is a rhombus with diagonals of B/3 and D/3.
3. Wind loading on structures like walls and chimneys is also analyzed, calculating bending moments and resultant stresses. Maintaining compressive stresses only is important for structural integrity.

Simple stresses and strains

The document discusses stress and strain in engineering structures. It defines load, stress, strain and different types of each. Stress is the internal resisting force per unit area within a loaded component. Strain is the ratio of dimensional change to original dimension of a loaded body. Loads can be tensile, compressive or shear. Hooke's law states stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit. The elastic modulus defines this proportionality. A tensile test measures the stress-strain curve, identifying elastic limit and other failure points. Multi-axial stress-strain relationships follow Poisson's ratio definitions.

Analysis of Truss

Defination,Analysis of frames,stresses in frame,convention,
assumptions, solutions(analytical), Learning outcomes

Torsion

1. The document discusses torsion of circular shafts, including pure torsion, assumptions in the theory of pure torsion, torsion formula, polar modulus, torsional rigidity, power transmitted by shafts, and numerical problems and solutions.
2. Key concepts covered include shear stress distribution in shafts under torsion, relationship between applied torque, shear stress, polar moment of inertia, and angle of twist.
3. Formulas are derived for calculating torque, shear stress, polar modulus, and torsional rigidity of solid and hollow circular shafts.

Pile foundations

Pile foundation is important for construction of foundation where bearing capacity of soil is poor. Pile foundation is use for distribution of uneven load of superstructure.There are so many type of pile are use for construction. Here i present some of pile with suitable condition for construction and methods for construction.
Thank you.

Unsymmetrical bending.ppt

1. The document discusses unsymmetrical bending of beams. When a beam bends about an axis that is not perpendicular to a plane of symmetry, it is undergoing unsymmetrical bending.
2. Key aspects discussed include determining the principal axes, direct stress distribution, and deflection of beams under unsymmetrical bending. Equations are provided to calculate stresses and deflections.
3. An example problem is given involving finding the stresses at two points on a cantilever beam subjected to an unsymmetrical loading. The principal moments of inertia and neutral axis orientation are calculated.

Structural analysis 2

This document discusses various concepts related to structural analysis of arches:
1. An arch is a curved girder supported at its ends, allowing only vertical and horizontal displacements for arch action.
2. The general cable theorem relates the horizontal tension and vertical distance from any cable point to the cable chord moment.
3. Arches are classified based on support conditions (3, 2, or 1 hinged) or shape (curved, parabolic, elliptical, polygonal).
4. Horizontal thrust in arches reduces the bending moment and is calculated differently for various arch types (e.g. parabolic) and loading (e.g. UDL).

determinate and indeterminate structures

This topic I am uploading here contains some basic topics in structural analysis which includes types of supports, reactions for different support conditions, determinate and indeterminate structures, static and kinematic indeterminacy,external and internal static indeterminacy, kinematic indeterminacy for beams, frames, trusses.
need of finding indeterminacy, different methods available to formulate equations to solve unknowns.

Chapter 3

The document discusses frames and trusses, which are structures consisting of bars, rods, angles, and channels pinned or fastened together to support loads and transmit them to supports. Trusses contain only two-force members that experience either tension or compression, while frames can contain multi-force members and experience transverse forces as well. Common truss configurations include pinned, gusset plate, and bolted or welded joints. Trusses are analyzed using methods of joints or sections to determine member forces.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 2 MARKS (CE6306/CE8395)

1. The document defines various terms related to strength of materials including stress, strain, elastic limit, Hooke's law, shear stress, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, modulus of rigidity, factor of safety, strain energy, and bulk modulus.
2. It also defines terms related to beams such as types of beams, shear force, bending moment, bending stress, pure bending, neutral axis, and section modulus.
3. Terms related to torsion, springs, and deflection of beams are also defined. These include torsion equation, polar modulus, torsional rigidity, types of springs, spring rate, and methods to determine slope and deflection in beams.

Spillways components and types

Spillways components and types

Design of slender columns as per IS 456-2000

Design of slender columns as per IS 456-2000

Design of compression members

Design of compression members

Classification of bridges

Classification of bridges

Design of beams

Design of beams

Centroid & Centre of Gravity

Centroid & Centre of Gravity

Well foundation

Well foundation

Shear force and bending moment

Shear force and bending moment

Railway Engineering-Curves and superelevation

Railway Engineering-Curves and superelevation

Bending stresses in beams

Bending stresses in beams

Combined bending and direct stresses

Combined bending and direct stresses

Simple stresses and strains

Simple stresses and strains

Analysis of Truss

Analysis of Truss

Torsion

Torsion

Pile foundations

Pile foundations

Unsymmetrical bending.ppt

Unsymmetrical bending.ppt

Structural analysis 2

Structural analysis 2

determinate and indeterminate structures

determinate and indeterminate structures

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 2 MARKS (CE6306/CE8395)

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 2 MARKS (CE6306/CE8395)

Lecture 10 bending stresses in beams

This document discusses stresses in beams. It covers bending stresses, shear stresses, deflection in beams, and torsion in solid and hollow shafts. The key assumptions in beam bending theory are outlined. Bending stresses are explained, including the location of the neutral axis and how stresses vary through the beam cross-section based on the bending moment and geometry. Section modulus is defined as the ratio of the moment of inertia to the distance of the outermost fiber from the neutral axis. Composite beams made of different materials are also discussed.

Solving statically indeterminate structure slope deflection 10.01.03.019

This document summarizes the slope deflection method for analyzing statically indeterminate structures. It defines statically indeterminate structures as those where the equilibrium equations are insufficient to determine internal forces. The slope deflection method relates member end moments to end rotations and displacements using slope deflection equations. The analysis process involves expressing fixed end moments, developing member equations relating end moments to rotations/displacements, establishing joint equilibrium equations, solving the equations to find unknown rotations and displacements, and determining end moments. An example problem applies these steps to solve for end moments in a continuous beam using the slope deflection method.

solving statically indeterminate structure by slope deflection method

This document provides an overview of a presentation on solving statically indeterminate structures using the slope deflection method. The presentation covers the assumptions, sign convention, fundamental equations, and an example problem of determining support moments in a continuous beam. The slope deflection method represents end moments in terms of deflections. An example problem is worked through to determine the support moments in a continuous beam with three spans by writing member equations from the fundamental equation and applying joint equilibrium equations.

Unit 6: Bending and shear Stresses in beams

Unit 6: Bending and shear Stresses in beamsHareesha N Gowda, Dayananda Sagar College of Engg, Bangalore

This document gives the class notes of Unit 6: Bending and shear Stresses in beams. Subject: Mechanics of materials.
Syllabus contest is as per VTU, Belagavi, India.
Notes Compiled By: Hareesha N Gowda, Assistant Professor, DSCE, Bengaluru-78.Bc civil branch 2310607

This document defines and describes doors and windows. It discusses the definition and functions of doors, including providing access and connections within a building, as well as lighting, ventilation, noise control and aesthetics. It also describes common door components like frames and shutters. Standard door sizes for residential and public buildings are provided. The document also discusses window dimensions and types of both doors and windows.

Regresion lineal

Este documento trata sobre la regresión lineal. Explica que se estudiará el método de mínimos cuadrados para aproximar un polinomio a un conjunto de datos experimentales. Aborda las distribuciones bidimensionales donde se disponen los datos experimentales en dos columnas con la abscisa x y su ordenada y para investigar cómo una variable influye en la otra. Como ejemplo, menciona que la cantidad de lluvia puede dar lugar a un aumento de la producción agrícola.

02 influenceline inde_3

1) The document discusses influence lines for statically indeterminate beams and frames. It provides examples of calculating the influence lines for reactions, shear, and bending moment at various points on indeterminate beams.
2) The examples show how to use the method of conjugate beams to determine the influence lines by considering equilibrium in the conjugate beam system. Numerical values for influence lines are plotted at regular intervals along the beam.
3) Qualitative influence lines for typical frames are also shown, indicating the maximum and minimum values for shear and bending moment.

1

This document discusses the concepts of stability, determinacy, and consistent deformations as they relate to analyzing structures. It defines a stable structure as one that remains stable under any conceivable loading system. Determinacy refers to whether the internal forces in a structure can be fully determined from the available equilibrium equations. A structure is considered statically indeterminate if additional equations are needed beyond equilibrium to solve for all internal forces. The document outlines methods for assessing the external, internal, and total stability and determinacy of structures like trusses and frames through properties such as the number of members, joints, and reactions. Several examples are provided and worked through to demonstrate the application of these analytical methods.

Mix design of concrete

The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required, strength, durability, and workability as economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design.

Moment Distribution Method SA-2

The document provides an outline for a presentation on the moment distribution method for structural analysis. It includes:
- An introduction to the moment distribution method and its use for analyzing statically indeterminate beams and frames.
- Definitions of important terms used in the method like stiffness, carry over factor, and distribution factor.
- Sign conventions for support moments, member rotations, and sinking of supports.
- Expressions for fixed end moments under different load cases including centric loading, eccentric loading, uniform loads, support rotations, and sinking of supports.
- Examples of applying the method to a simply supported beam and fixed supported beam with sinking support.

M2l7

1. The document discusses the force method of analysis for statically indeterminate structures. It begins by introducing the force method and explaining that it involves writing compatibility equations for displacements and rotations, which are then used to calculate redundant forces.
2. The example problem presented involves a propped cantilever beam carrying a uniform load. It demonstrates solving the problem by treating either the reaction at the support or the moment at the fixed end as the redundant force.
3. The key steps of the force method are outlined, which are to identify the redundant forces, calculate displacements due to applied loads and redundant forces using superposition, apply compatibility conditions to determine redundant forces, and then use equilibrium equations to find the

10.01.03.128 ( statically indeterminate structure:moment coefficient method)

This document presents information on analyzing statically indeterminate structures using the moment coefficient method. It defines what a statically indeterminate structure is, provides an example, and discusses the moment coefficient method for analyzing continuous beams, ribs, and two-way slabs. It describes using tables of moment coefficients based on load cases and support conditions to determine maximum shear forces and bending moments. The document also discusses requirements for reinforcement spacing and minimum reinforcement in slabs.

Introduction to Computer Graphics

This document provides an introduction to CAD (Computer Aided Design) including its history, components, and benefits. CAD involves using computer software and hardware to aid in engineering design work. It allows for faster, more accurate design work compared to manual drafting. Key benefits of CAD include time savings, ability to store and modify designs digitally, and visualization of designs through modeling. Core components of CAD systems include design/drafting, analysis, and visualization capabilities. CAD has revolutionized engineering practice since the 1960s as software has become more advanced and hardware more affordable.

Slope Deflection Method

This document discusses the slope-deflection method for analyzing beams and frames. It provides the theory and equations of the slope-deflection method. Examples are included to demonstrate how to use the method to determine support reactions, member end moments, and draw bending moment and shear force diagrams.

Sd i-module4- rajesh sir

The document discusses the design of columns and footings in concrete structures. It covers various topics related to column design including classification of columns based on type of reinforcement, loading, and slenderness ratios. Short columns subjected to axial loads with or without eccentricity are analyzed. Design aspects such as effective length, minimum reinforcement requirements, cover and transverse tie spacing are described based on code specifications. Equations for equilibrium of uniformly loaded short columns are also presented.

column and it's types

1. The document discusses reinforcement in concrete columns. It lists group members for a project and provides information on different types of columns, their load transfer mechanisms, and failure modes.
2. Key points covered include defining short, long, and intermediate columns based on their slenderness ratio. It also discusses calculating the effective length and radius of gyration of a column.
3. The document provides guidelines for steel reinforcement in columns, including minimum bar diameter and concrete cover, as well as the design procedure and considerations for selecting the reinforcement ratio.

Mix Design of Concrete

This document discusses the process of concrete mix design. The goal of mix design is to produce concrete with the required strength, durability and workability at the lowest cost. It describes the factors that must be considered such as minimum strength, workability, water-cement ratio and aggregate size and grading. The different types of mixes are described as nominal, standard or design mixes. The key steps of mix design are outlined, including selecting the target strength, water-cement ratio, water content, cement content and aggregate volumes. Durability, aggregate properties and mix calculations are also summarized.

Slope deflection method

This document provides an overview of the slope deflection method for analyzing statically indeterminate structures. It describes that the slope deflection method was developed in 1914 and can be used to analyze beams and frames. Key assumptions of the method are that joints are rigid and distortions from axial/shear stresses are neglected. The document outlines the application, sign convention, procedure, slope deflection equations, and provides examples for analyzing beams and frames using this method.

Columns and struts

This document discusses columns and struts in structural engineering. It defines columns and struts, and the stresses they experience. It describes their common failures modes of crushing or buckling. It explains Euler's column formula for calculating the buckling load of a long column based on its effective length, modulus of elasticity, and moment of inertia. It discusses Rankine's empirical formula, which is valid for columns of any length and accounts for both buckling and crushing stresses. Common column designs used in architecture are also listed.

Structures and Materials- Section 8 Statically Indeterminate Structures

Structures and Materials- Section 8 Statically Indeterminate StructuresThe Engineering Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning

So far, all of the exercises presented in this module have been statically determinate, i.e. there have been enough equations of equilibrium available to solve for the unknowns. This final section will be concerned with statically indeterminate structures, and two methods used to solve these problems will be presented.Lecture 10 bending stresses in beams

Lecture 10 bending stresses in beams

Solving statically indeterminate structure slope deflection 10.01.03.019

Solving statically indeterminate structure slope deflection 10.01.03.019

solving statically indeterminate structure by slope deflection method

solving statically indeterminate structure by slope deflection method

Unit 6: Bending and shear Stresses in beams

Unit 6: Bending and shear Stresses in beams

Bc civil branch 2310607

Bc civil branch 2310607

Regresion lineal

Regresion lineal

02 influenceline inde_3

02 influenceline inde_3

1

1

Mix design of concrete

Mix design of concrete

Moment Distribution Method SA-2

Moment Distribution Method SA-2

M2l7

M2l7

10.01.03.128 ( statically indeterminate structure:moment coefficient method)

10.01.03.128 ( statically indeterminate structure:moment coefficient method)

Introduction to Computer Graphics

Introduction to Computer Graphics

Slope Deflection Method

Slope Deflection Method

Sd i-module4- rajesh sir

Sd i-module4- rajesh sir

column and it's types

column and it's types

Mix Design of Concrete

Mix Design of Concrete

Slope deflection method

Slope deflection method

Columns and struts

Columns and struts

Structures and Materials- Section 8 Statically Indeterminate Structures

Structures and Materials- Section 8 Statically Indeterminate Structures

Module 4 flexural stresses- theory of bending

This document provides an overview of flexural stresses and the theory of simple bending. It discusses key concepts such as:
- Assumptions in the derivation of the bending equation relating bending moment (M) to curvature (1/R) and stress (f)
- Determining the neutral axis where bending stress is zero
- Calculating bending stresses in beams undergoing simple bending and pure bending
- Deriving Bernoulli's bending equation relating stress (f) to distance from the neutral axis (y) and bending moment (M)
- Using the bending equation to locate the neutral axis and design beam cross-sections based on permissible stresses
Worked examples are provided to illustrate calculating load capacity based on beam geometry and material properties

Rammin presentation

presentation on
"Axial stress"
name : DM rammin
Ahsanulah university of science and technology
ID no:10.01.03.087

Chapter 1 stress and strain

The document discusses stress and strain in materials. It introduces the key concepts of normal stress, shear stress, bearing stress, and thermal stress. Normal stress acts perpendicular to a cross-section, shear stress acts tangentially, and bearing stress occurs at contact points. The relationships between stress, strain, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio are explained. Methods for calculating stress and strain in axial loading, torsion, bending and combined loading are presented through examples. The stress-strain diagram is discussed to show material properties like yield strength and ductility.

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

This document provides an overview of fundamental mechanical engineering concepts including stress, strain, Hooke's law, stress-strain diagrams, elastic constants, and mechanical properties. It defines stress as force per unit area and strain as the deformation of a material from stress. Hooke's law states that stress is directly proportional to strain within the elastic limit. Stress-strain diagrams are presented for ductile and brittle materials. Key elastic constants like Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are defined along with their relationships. Mechanical properties of materials like elasticity, plasticity, ductility, strength, brittleness, toughness, hardness, and stiffness are also summarized.

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

This document provides an overview of fundamental mechanical engineering concepts including stress, strain, Hooke's law, stress-strain diagrams, and elastic properties of materials. Key points include:
- Stress is defined as force per unit area. Normal stress acts perpendicular to the area while shear stress acts tangentially.
- Strain is the deformation from applied stress. Tensile and compressive strains refer to changes in length while shear and volumetric strains refer to other types of deformations.
- Hooke's law states that stress is directly proportional to strain within the elastic limit. The modulus of elasticity is the constant of proportionality.
- Stress-strain diagrams graphically show the relationship between stress and strain

Unit 1 (1)

This document provides information on stress, strain, elasticity, Hooke's law, and other fundamental concepts in strength of materials. Some key points:
- Stress is defined as the internal resisting force per unit area within a material when subjected to external forces. It is proportional to applied load and inversely proportional to cross-sectional area.
- Strain is the ratio of deformation to original dimension of a material. There are different types including tensile, compressive, and shear strains.
- Hooke's law states that within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain. The proportionality constant is known as modulus of elasticity.
- Materials behave elastically and return to their original shape when

Stress,strain,load

Loads can be tensile (pulling) or compressive (pushing) forces. Common types of loads include dead loads from structural weight, live loads from moving objects, impact loads from vibrations, and cyclic loads from repeated forces. When loads are applied, they cause stress in materials. Stress is the internal resisting force per unit area. Stresses can be tensile (pulling), compressive (pushing), or shear (tangential). Corresponding strains are the changes in dimensions from stresses. Hooke's law states that within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain by a constant modulus of elasticity.

Simple stresses and strain

Related to mechanics of Material in which study of stresses and strain, their types, Hooks law is given

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

Types of stresses include tensile, compressive, shear, torsional, and bearing. Stresses are caused by external forces and loads acting on a body. Stress is equal to force divided by cross-sectional area. Strain is the deformation or change in length caused by stresses. Hooke's law states stress is proportional to strain. Shear stress is caused by tangential forces across a section and shear strain is the resulting angular deformation. Torsional shear stress results from opposing torque or twisting moments.

Basic mechanical engineering (BMET-101/102) unit 5 part-1 simple stress and ...

Download Link: https://sites.google.com/view/varunpratapsingh/teaching-engagements
UNIT-5
Stress and Strain Analysis Simple stress and strain: Introduction, Normal shear stresses, Stress-strain diagrams for ductile and brittle materials, Elastic constants, One dimensional loading of members of varying cross section, Strain energy, Thermal stresses.
Compound stress and strains: Introduction, State of plane stress, Principal stress and strain, Mohr’s circle for stress and strain.
Pure Bending of Beams: Introduction, Simple bending theory, Stress in beams of different cross sections.
Torsion: Introduction, Torsion of Shafts of circular section, Torque and Twist, Shear stress due to Torque.

Review of mechanical concepts

Mechanical concept in MEMS
The presentation covers the topics in 1. Stress & strain
2.modulus of elasticity
3. yield strength
4. ultimate strength
5. compliances matrix

Mechanics of materials

This document provides an introduction and overview of mechanics of materials. It defines key terms like stress, strain, normal stress, shear stress, factor of safety, and allowable stress. It also gives examples of calculating stresses in structural members subjected to various loads. The document is an introductory reading for a mechanics of materials course that will analyze the relationship between external forces and internal stresses and strains in structural elements.

Som ppt

1. When a force is applied to a body, it causes the body to deform or change shape. This deformation is called strain. Direct stress is calculated as the applied force divided by the cross-sectional area.
2. Materials deform both elastically and plastically when stressed. Elastic deformation is reversible but plastic deformation causes a permanent change in shape. Hooke's law describes the linear elastic behavior of many materials, where stress is directly proportional to strain up to the elastic limit.
3. Thermal expansion and contraction can induce stress in materials as temperature changes unless deformation is unconstrained. The total strain is the sum of strain due to stress and strain due to temperature changes.

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

This document provides information about the Solid Mechanics course ME 302 taught by Dr. Nirmal Baran Hui at NIT Durgapur in West Bengal, India. It lists four required textbooks for the course and provides a detailed syllabus covering topics like stress, strain, elasticity, bending, deflection, columns, torsion, pressure vessels, combined loadings, springs, and failure theories. The document also includes examples of lecture content on stress analysis, stresses on oblique planes, and material subjected to pure shear.

Strength of Materials _Simple Strees and Stains _Unit-1.pptx

This document provides an overview of simple stresses and strains. It begins with prerequisites and contents, then defines stress and strain, describing normal and combined stresses like tensile, compressive, shear and torsional stresses. It discusses stress-strain diagrams for ductile materials like mild steel, showing regions like proportional limit, elastic limit, yielding points, ultimate stress and breaking point. It also covers Poisson's ratio, composite materials, thermal stresses and elastic constants. Measurement units and concepts like nominal vs true stress-strain curves, ductility measures, and factor of safety are summarized.

Strength of materials

The document provides an introduction to mechanics of deformable solids. It defines stress as force per unit area and distinguishes between normal and shear stresses. Normal stresses are stresses acting perpendicular to a surface, and can be tensile or compressive. Shear stresses act parallel to a surface. The general state of stress at a point involves six independent stress components - normal stresses on three perpendicular planes and shear stresses on those planes. Notation for stresses depends on the coordinate system used.

Megha.pdf

This document provides an overview of the syllabus and objectives for the course CE8395 Strength of materials for Mechanical Engineers. It outlines the 5 units that will be covered: 1) Stress, Strain and Deformation of Solids, 2) Transverse Loading on Beams and Stresses in Beam, 3) Torsion, 4) Deflection of Beams, and 5) Thin Cylinders, Spheres and Thick Cylinders. Key concepts that will be studied include stresses, strains, principal stresses, shear force and bending moment in beams, torsion, deflections, and stresses in thin shells and cylinders. The document also provides two mark questions and answers related to stress, strain, elastic properties

stress strain sm

Mohamad Redhwan Abd Aziz is a lecturer at the DEAN CENTER OF HND STUDIES who teaches the subject of Solid Mechanics (BME 2023). The 3 credit hour course involves 2 hours of lectures and 2 hours of labs/tutorials each week. Student assessment includes quizzes, assignments, tests, lab reports, and a final exam. The course objectives are to understand stress, strain, and forces in solid bodies through various principles and experiments. Topic areas covered include stress and strain, elasticity, shear, torsion, bending, deflection, and more. References for the course are provided.

Bending wikipedia

The document discusses bending, which refers to the behavior of a structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to its longitudinal axis. It describes Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, which assumes plane sections remain plane, and Timoshenko beam theory, which accounts for shear deformation. It also covers bending of plates, plastic bending, large bending deformations, and extensions of bending theories.

Module 4 flexural stresses- theory of bending

Module 4 flexural stresses- theory of bending

Rammin presentation

Rammin presentation

Chapter 1 stress and strain

Chapter 1 stress and strain

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

stressstrainppt-221103091641-788d72e2.ppt

stressstrainppt-221103091641-788d72e2.ppt

Unit 1 (1)

Unit 1 (1)

Stress,strain,load

Stress,strain,load

Simple stresses and strain

Simple stresses and strain

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

Basic mechanical engineering (BMET-101/102) unit 5 part-1 simple stress and ...

Basic mechanical engineering (BMET-101/102) unit 5 part-1 simple stress and ...

Review of mechanical concepts

Review of mechanical concepts

Mechanics of materials

Mechanics of materials

Som ppt

Som ppt

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

Strength of Materials _Simple Strees and Stains _Unit-1.pptx

Strength of Materials _Simple Strees and Stains _Unit-1.pptx

Strength of materials

Strength of materials

Megha.pdf

Megha.pdf

stress strain sm

stress strain sm

Bending wikipedia

Bending wikipedia

Wind Power Generation Schemes

WIND POWER GENERATION SCHEMES are Constant speed - Constant frequency systems (CSCF)
Variable speed - Constant frequency systems (VSCF)
Variable speed - Variable frequency systems (VSVF)

Ultimate Analysis of Coal

Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen. Ultimate analysis is also known as elemental analysis, it is the method to determine the Carbon,Hydrogen,Nitrogen,Sulphur and Oxygen content present in solid fuel.

Wastewater Recycling

Wastewater recycling is emerging as an integral part of
water demand management. Promoting as it does the preservation of high-quality fresh water supplies as well as potentially reducing the pollutant in the environment and reducing overall costs.

Treated wastewater for Irrigation

Irrigation with municipal waste water is a suitable disposal option in all regions where additional moisture can be effectively utilized for improved crop production. Waste water loading is to be based on the consumptive water use of the crop being grown. The primary objective should be enhancement of crop production. The root zone of productive soils can often serve as one of the most active media for the decomposition, immobilization, or utilization of wastes.

Systematic Roadmap Approach on Solar City

The Solar City aims at minimum % of reduction in projected demand of conventional energy through a combination of enhancing supply from renewable energy sources in the city and energy efficiency measures. In a Solar City all types of renewable energy based projects like solar, wind, bio mass, small hydro, waste to energy etc. May be installed along with possible energy efficiency measures depending on the need and resource availability in the city.

Project Proposal on 10 MW Solar PV Power Plant

By installing and successfully operating 10 MW photovoltaic (PV) power plants will deliver electricity for consumption by the owners, the relevant peoples in the project assessment place will be made aware of the technical and economic potential of solar power generation. Furthermore, the power required from the public grid will be reduced, and overall expenditure on electric power will be lowered & our project aims to create the necessary awareness among the population, and especially among policy-makers and large investors, Youngsters.....

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P2

To emphasize the reduced use of plastic and the beneficial management of plastic waste. Efficient transformation of plastic into energy and fuel. Making our environment an eco friendly zone. Modify the design of recycling Machines. Install the recycling unit at TNAU. Compare the envi.factors of Coimbatore with other cities. Making our Eco fest - 15------Plastic free & Models

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P1

The main objective of this presentation is to emphasise the reduced use of plastic and the beneficial management of plastic waste. This also includes alternative measures for the substitution of the synthetic polymers. Efficient transformation of plastic into energy and fuel. Controlling the impact of plastic waste on the environment. Making our environment an eco-friendly zone.

Mass and Flow duration curves

Hydrologic data generally consist of a sequence of observations of some phase of the hydrologic cycle made at a particular site. The data may be a record of the discharge of a stream at a particular place, or it may be a record of the amount of rainfall caught in a particular rain gage.
Although for most hydrologic purposes a long record is preferred to a short one, the user should recognize that the longer the record the greater the chance that there has been a change in the physical conditions of the basin or in the methods of data collection. If these are appreciable, the composite record would represent only a nonexistent condition and not one that existed either before or after the change. Such a record is inconsistent.

Industrial energy auditing and reporting

Industrial Energy Audit is defined as the verification, monitoring and analysis of energy use including submission of technical report containing all the recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost analysis and an action plan to reduce consumption

Hydro Power Plants

Most efficient means of producing electric energy & do not create the air- pollution, the fuel falling water is not consumed. This favourable conditions to make hydroelectric projects attractive sources of electric power.

Delineation and Comparison of Urban Heat Islands in Tamilnadu

An urban heat island is a city or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounded rural areas due to human activities. Whereas, the term heat island refers to any area, populated or not, which is consistently hotter than the surrounding area.
Project Objectives :
Conversion of thermal band data of LANDSAT 5 & 8 (Satellites) into Temperature contours in order to isolate and compare the Urban Heat Islands (UHI) of Tamil Nadu over a decade (i.e., 2005 & 2015) and over the different seasons of an year (2014
Identification of the factors responsible for UHI formation with reference to Land use
Intensity of the UHI formed
Suggestion of Mitigation Measures

Applications of GIS in Public Health Engineering

GIS can be used in many ways to support public health. It allows researchers to construct disease models, track disease spread over space and time, and identify high-risk areas. GIS is also used to plan infrastructure and services by analyzing data on roads, population statistics, and medical resources. It helps with site selection for facilities like reservoirs by integrating data layers like vegetation, soil type, and drainage patterns. Overall, GIS is a powerful tool for public health planning and decision-making by allowing spatial analysis and visualization of relevant data.

Applications of GIS in Municipal Solid Waste Management

Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data. In order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records.The Role of GIS is very large as many aspects of its planning and operations are highly dependent on spatial data & also provides a digital data bank for future monitoring program of the site…….etc

10 MW Solar PV power Plant - CPM & PERT, Design

This document discusses the design of a 10 MW solar PV power plant consisting of 20 sections of 500 kW each. It includes details of the number of solar panels, inverters, junction boxes, and other infrastructure needed. A critical path method (CPM) network diagram shows the key activities in the project, including site assessment, design, procurement, mounting structure erection, panel erection, cabling, commissioning, and their durations and dependencies. The critical path is shown to be either 14 or 18 weeks depending on the pathway taken.

Wind Power Generation Schemes

Wind Power Generation Schemes

Ultimate Analysis of Coal

Ultimate Analysis of Coal

Wastewater Recycling

Wastewater Recycling

Treated wastewater for Irrigation

Treated wastewater for Irrigation

Systematic Roadmap Approach on Solar City

Systematic Roadmap Approach on Solar City

Project Proposal on 10 MW Solar PV Power Plant

Project Proposal on 10 MW Solar PV Power Plant

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P2

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P2

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P1

Plastic Waste Management and Recycling Technology : P1

Mass and Flow duration curves

Mass and Flow duration curves

Industrial energy auditing and reporting

Industrial energy auditing and reporting

Hydro Power Plants

Hydro Power Plants

Delineation and Comparison of Urban Heat Islands in Tamilnadu

Delineation and Comparison of Urban Heat Islands in Tamilnadu

Applications of GIS in Public Health Engineering

Applications of GIS in Public Health Engineering

Applications of GIS in Municipal Solid Waste Management

Applications of GIS in Municipal Solid Waste Management

10 MW Solar PV power Plant - CPM & PERT, Design

10 MW Solar PV power Plant - CPM & PERT, Design

Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM

#Abstract:
- Learn more about the real-world methods for auditing AWS IAM (Identity and Access Management) as a pentester. So let us proceed with a brief discussion of IAM as well as some typical misconfigurations and their potential exploits in order to reinforce the understanding of IAM security best practices.
- Gain actionable insights into AWS IAM policies and roles, using hands on approach.
#Prerequisites:
- Basic understanding of AWS services and architecture
- Familiarity with cloud security concepts
- Experience using the AWS Management Console or AWS CLI.
- For hands on lab create account on [killercoda.com](https://killercoda.com/cloudsecurity-scenario/)
# Scenario Covered:
- Basics of IAM in AWS
- Implementing IAM Policies with Least Privilege to Manage S3 Bucket
- Objective: Create an S3 bucket with least privilege IAM policy and validate access.
- Steps:
- Create S3 bucket.
- Attach least privilege policy to IAM user.
- Validate access.
- Exploiting IAM PassRole Misconfiguration
-Allows a user to pass a specific IAM role to an AWS service (ec2), typically used for service access delegation. Then exploit PassRole Misconfiguration granting unauthorized access to sensitive resources.
- Objective: Demonstrate how a PassRole misconfiguration can grant unauthorized access.
- Steps:
- Allow user to pass IAM role to EC2.
- Exploit misconfiguration for unauthorized access.
- Access sensitive resources.
- Exploiting IAM AssumeRole Misconfiguration with Overly Permissive Role
- An overly permissive IAM role configuration can lead to privilege escalation by creating a role with administrative privileges and allow a user to assume this role.
- Objective: Show how overly permissive IAM roles can lead to privilege escalation.
- Steps:
- Create role with administrative privileges.
- Allow user to assume the role.
- Perform administrative actions.
- Differentiation between PassRole vs AssumeRole
Try at [killercoda.com](https://killercoda.com/cloudsecurity-scenario/)

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

原件一模一样【微信：95270640】【旧金山大学毕业证USF学位证成绩单】【微信：95270640】（留信学历认证永久存档查询）采用学校原版纸张、特殊工艺完全按照原版一比一制作（包括：隐形水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠，文字图案浮雕，激光镭射，紫外荧光，温感，复印防伪）行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备，十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，业务范围有加拿大、英国、澳洲、韩国、美国、新加坡，新西兰等学历材料，包您满意。
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留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份【微信：95270640】
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
→ 【关于价格问题（保证一手价格）
我们所定的价格是非常合理的，而且我们现在做得单子大多数都是代理和回头客户介绍的所以一般现在有新的单子 我给客户的都是第一手的代理价格，因为我想坦诚对待大家 不想跟大家在价格方面浪费时间
对于老客户或者被老客户介绍过来的朋友，我们都会适当给一些优惠。
选择实体注册公司办理，更放心，更安全！我们的承诺：可来公司面谈，可签订合同，会陪同客户一起到教育部认证窗口递交认证材料，客户在教育部官方认证查询网站查询到认证通过结果后付款，不成功不收费！
办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】外观非常精致，由特殊纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理旧金山大学毕业证USF学位证毕业证学位证【微信：95270640 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

Various architectural drawings presentation

Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD

This ppt gives detailed description of Object Oriented Analysis and design.

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

These are interview questions for the post of Assistant Engineer (Chemical)

Impartiality as per ISO /IEC 17025:2017 Standard

This document provides basic guidelines for imparitallity requirement of ISO 17025. It defines in detial how it is met and wiudhwdih jdhsjdhwudjwkdbjwkdddddddddddkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwioiiiiiiiiiiiii uwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwhe wiqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq gbbbbbbbbbbbbb owdjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj widhi owqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq uwdhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhwqiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiw0pooooojjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj whhhhhhhhhhh wheeeeeeee wihieiiiiii wihe
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原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样

原件一模一样【微信：bwp0011】《(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证》【微信：bwp0011】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问微bwp0011
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【微bwp0011】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【微bwp0011】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

Digital Twins Computer Networking Paper Presentation.pptx

A Digital Twin in computer networking is a virtual representation of a physical network, used to simulate, analyze, and optimize network performance and reliability. It leverages real-time data to enhance network management, predict issues, and improve decision-making processes.

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics

Prediction of Electrical Energy Efficiency Using Information on Consumer's Ac...

Energy efficiency has been important since the latter part of the last century. The main object of this survey is to determine the energy efficiency knowledge among consumers. Two separate districts in Bangladesh are selected to conduct the survey on households and showrooms about the energy and seller also. The survey uses the data to find some regression equations from which it is easy to predict energy efficiency knowledge. The data is analyzed and calculated based on five important criteria. The initial target was to find some factors that help predict a person's energy efficiency knowledge. From the survey, it is found that the energy efficiency awareness among the people of our country is very low. Relationships between household energy use behaviors are estimated using a unique dataset of about 40 households and 20 showrooms in Bangladesh's Chapainawabganj and Bagerhat districts. Knowledge of energy consumption and energy efficiency technology options is found to be associated with household use of energy conservation practices. Household characteristics also influence household energy use behavior. Younger household cohorts are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy saving for environmental reasons. Education also influences attitudes toward energy conservation in Bangladesh. Low-education households indicate they primarily save electricity for the environment while high-education households indicate they are motivated by environmental concerns.

An Introduction to the Compiler Designss

compiler material

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

Smart Pill Dispenser that boosts medication adherence, empowers patients, enables remote monitoring, enhances safety, reduces healthcare costs, and contributes to data-driven healthcare improvements

Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt

Introduction to Computer Networks

Transformers design and coooling methods

Transformer Design

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF CEILING BOARD USING SAWDUST AND WASTE CARTON MATERI...

The need for ecofriendly materials as building materials in this century cannot be overemphasized

Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...

* Registration is currently open *
Call for Research Papers!!!
Free – Extended Paper will be published as free of cost.
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
July 13 ~ 14, 2024, Virtual Conference
Webpage URL: https://aiad2024.org/index
Submission Deadline: June 22, 2024
Submission System URL:
https://aiad2024.org/submission/index.php
Contact Us:
Here's where you can reach us : aiad@aiad2024.org (or) aiadconference@yahoo.com
WikiCFP URL: http://wikicfp.com/cfp/servlet/event.showcfp?eventid=180509©ownerid=171656
#artificialintelligence #softcomputing #machinelearning #technology #datascience #python #deeplearning #tech #robotics #innovation #bigdata #coding #iot #computerscience #data #dataanalytics #engineering #robot #datascientist #software #automation #analytics #ml #pythonprogramming #programmer #digitaltransformation #developer #promptengineering #generativeai #genai #chatgpt #artificial #intelligence #datamining #networkscommunications #robotics #callforsubmission #submissionsopen #deadline #opencall #virtual #conference

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

Supermarket Management System Project Report.pdf

Supermarket management is a stand-alone J2EE using Eclipse Juno program.
This project contains all the necessary required information about maintaining
the supermarket billing system.
The core idea of this project to minimize the paper work and centralize the
data. Here all the communication is taken in secure manner. That is, in this
application the information will be stored in client itself. For further security the
data base is stored in the back-end oracle and so no intruders can access it.

UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS

UNIT 4 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS-DIGITAL ICS

Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM

Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD

Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

Impartiality as per ISO /IEC 17025:2017 Standard

Impartiality as per ISO /IEC 17025:2017 Standard

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样

Digital Twins Computer Networking Paper Presentation.pptx

Digital Twins Computer Networking Paper Presentation.pptx

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

Prediction of Electrical Energy Efficiency Using Information on Consumer's Ac...

Prediction of Electrical Energy Efficiency Using Information on Consumer's Ac...

An Introduction to the Compiler Designss

An Introduction to the Compiler Designss

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt

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- 1. Direct and Bending stresses Strength of Materials - AST 201 (2+1)
- 2. Introduction Whenever a body is subjected to an axial tension or compression, a direct stress comes into play at every section of body. We also know that whenever a body is subjected to a bending moment a bending moment a bending stress comes into play . A little consideration will show that since both these stresses act normal to a cross section, therefore the two stresses may be algebraically added into a single resultant stress.
- 3. Stress • Every material is elastic in nature. That is why, whenever some external system of forces acts on a body, it undergoes some deformation. As the body undergoes deformation, its molecules set up some resistance to deformation. This resistance per unit area to deformation is known as stress. • σ = P/A • Where, P - load or force acting on the body, and A - Cross-sectional area of the body. • In S.I system, the unit of stress is Pascal (Pa) which is equal to 1 N/m2
- 4. Combined Stress • We have studied a number of separate situations (tension, compression, direct, bending, torsion, pressure in cylinders and spheres.) • In order to find the combined effect we have to look at an element of material at particular locations, where both effects determine the stresses. We calculate the stresses as though they occurred separately, and then combine them to find the overall effect expressed as Principle stresses.
- 5. Torsion and Bending
- 8. Combined bending and direct of a stocky strut: • Consider a short column of rectangular cross section. The column carries an axial compressive load P, together with bending moment M, at some section, applied about the centroidal axis Cx The area of the column is A, and Ix is the second moment of the area about Cx . If P acts alone, the average longitudinal stress over the section is (–P/A)
- 9. The stress being compressive. If the couple M acts alone, and if the material remains elastic, the longitudinal stress in any fiber a distance from Cx is (-My/Iy) Clearly the greatest compressive stress occurs in the upper extreme fibers, and has the value,
- 10. Eccentric Loading: A load, whose line of action does not coincide with the axis of a column or a strut, is known as an eccentric load. Ex: A bucket full of water, carried by a person in his hand, then in addition to his carrying bucket, he has also to lean or bend on the other side of the bucket, so as to counteract any possibility of his falling towards the bucket. Thus we say that he is subjected to •Direct load, due to the weight of bucket • Moment due to eccentricity of the load.
- 11. Beam Mode •
- 12. Limit of Eccentricity • When an eccentric load is acting on a column, it produces direct stress as well as bending stress. On one side of the neutral axis there is maximum stress and on the other side of the neutral axis there is a minimum stress. • A little consideration will show that so long as the bending stress remains less than direct stress, the resultant stress is compressive. If the bending stress is equal to the direct stress, then there will be a tensile stress on one side.
- 13. ….continue • Though cement concrete can take up a small tensile stress, yet it is desirable that no tensile stress should come into play e ≤ Z/A • It means that for tensile condition, the eccentricity should be less than (Z/A) or equal to (Z/A). Now we shall discuss the limit for eccentricity in the following cases,
- 14. Limits Limit of eccentricity for a rectangular section • No tension condition, e ≤ d/6 Limit of eccentricity of a hollow rectangular section • No tension condition, Limit of eccentricity of a circular section, e ≤ d/8 Limit of eccentricity for hollow circular section e ≤
- 15. E - References: • www.cenfile.com • www.ebookee.com/Mechanics-and-strengh-of- materials_67103.html • www.typesofstresses.com