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Applications of GIS In Public Health
Engineering
SWE 353 (2+1)
Public Health Engineering
S.Meena, BTG-12-018
S.Vignesh, BTG-12-037
GIS
Geographic Information System (GIS) is an information system
that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and
output geographically referenced data.
In order to support decision making for planning and
management of land use, natural resources, environment,
transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records.
Public Health Practice
Research Tools and Planning
 Constructing mathematical models
Disease Tracking and Control
 Service planning and optimization
Locating areas with the greatest need
 Making predictions
Identifying what areas will need help next
Identifying where diseases might spread
Continued….
 Spatial Decision Support Systems
Infrastructure –roads, towns, services
Census –population statistics
Medical resource (hospitals, clinics)
 Response Systems
Medicare records,
Disease register systems
Site Selection of Reservoir
 Structure constructed across the river at a suitable site to develop
an artificial reservoir for the storage of water
 Satellite images on scale can be used to prepare thematic maps
depicting the
– Vegetation, soil cover, geomorphologic features, drainage
pattern and watershed areas ,contours.
 Can be integrated and using multi-criteria analysis we can find the
suitable site for the location of the reservoirs.
 In differ the localities, variety of plantation , People can
be made to migrate without impairing or imbalancing
ecosystem.
 Based on the latest available remote sensing
information on water and land resources, integrated
with the GIS provides an insight for planning the
rehabilitation without endangering the existing
environment.
SOURCE : Tiwari, R.S. and Garg, P.K. (1995) Land form and Land uses using GIS
Water Supply Systems
 Can be easily analyzed using GIS and RS.
 It facilitates the design of
– rural & urban drinking network
– positioning of the storage water tank
– assessment of the water quality
– selection of the source of water for the water supply system.
with consideration of ground surface properties, land use
changing and ownership.
Water Quality Assessment
 Quality assessment was done using GIS based on the existing wells
which are mapped as point features with supporting quality
attributes fields and known criteria.
 Point interpolation by moving average is used to find the spatial
pattern of water quality.
 Also, Static level of the purposed well is estimated by spatial
interpolation of the water table for existing wells.
SOURCE : ILWIS 3.0 User’s Guide,2001, Sector Remote Sensing & GIS, International
Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences ,The Netherlands.
Site Suitability Evaluation for Treatment
Plant
It is a major criteria for defending the
environmental degradation.
If proper location for the treatment plant is
not selected then it may lead to soil
degradation and ground water pollution.
Environ. Poll. & Public Health
 Population growth and unsustainable industrial and
agricultural developments degrade the long-existing
environmental balance of the globe.
 GIS can be used to map such pollutions and environmental
damages, then to compare and overlay them with the
locations of water resources, cultivation area and human
settlements.
Disease monitoring & Control
 Making such activities possible is to map and monitor
the time and location of the disease.
 Spatial data collected are either in the form of points for
individual persons, polygons for regions along with
disease statistical data.
 In a GIS using such geographical data and link the
statistical data then we can generate the many thematic
maps.
Case Study - Nagercoil
Tamil Nadu
SOURCE: K. Deepa, M. Krishnaveni (2012), “Suitable Site Selection of Decentralised
Treatment Plants Using Multicriteria Approach in GIS”
The weights are assigned to various classes in the thematic layers.
Area of Different Categories of sewage
treatment plant site
Sewage Network Map
Primary Sewer
Secondary Sewer
Tertiary Sewer
GIS – Coimbatore City
Zonal Ward map
Consists 4 Zones and each zones contains 18 wards, Each zone is
headed by an assist. commissioner who is delegated with adequate
powers to discharge his functions effectively .
The Arc view calculator was used to obtain the P.D value. It denotes that No of persons
Per Area of ward. More than 50% of the wards are identified with density b/w 9934 to
28727 persons per sq.km. These are the potential wards for development and high
growth rate is attributed to these wards About 20 wards densities ranging up to 9933
Persons/sq.km
Based on population of each ward and the waste generation of each ward
using this per capita waste generation map were prepared. Per capita solid
waste generation is denotes (Total weight of solid waste generated per day) Per
(Population served)
Advantages
 In-depth analysis shown on a single page –no
written explanation needed
 Audience needs no special knowledge or
training to understand maps
 Works perfectly with simple graphs and charts
to present study results or any data to decision
makers (legislators, community partners,
administration)
Disadvantages
 Expensive software
 Impossible without minimal training
 Time consuming Process
 Remote sensing and GIS makes easier to get valuable
information about the study area.
 GIS enables us to integrate different layers and to manage
large database.
 It gives more accurate results when compared to
conventional methods.
 Hence GIS is proved to be a powerful tool in managing
spatial and non spatial databases in suitability evaluation.
Conclusion
References
 www.coimbatoremunicipal.com
 Kusum Lata, 2004, GIS Based Monitoring System For Urban Water
Supply
 System, National Institute of Urban Affairs ,India Habitat Centre, New
Delhi Riner ME, Cunningham C, Johnson A. Public health education and
practice using geographic information system technology.
 ESRI, 1995, Using GRID with Arc/Info, Environmental Systems Research
Institute Inc., Redlands, California.
 LaScala EA, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FWPublic Health Nursing. January-
February 2004;21(1):57-65.
The possible applications for GIS are limitless.
If you can imagine it, then it can be
created
There are many ways to view the Earth…..

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Applications of GIS in Public Health Engineering

  • 1. Applications of GIS In Public Health Engineering SWE 353 (2+1) Public Health Engineering S.Meena, BTG-12-018 S.Vignesh, BTG-12-037
  • 2. GIS Geographic Information System (GIS) is an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data. In order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records.
  • 3. Public Health Practice Research Tools and Planning  Constructing mathematical models Disease Tracking and Control  Service planning and optimization Locating areas with the greatest need  Making predictions Identifying what areas will need help next Identifying where diseases might spread
  • 4. Continued….  Spatial Decision Support Systems Infrastructure –roads, towns, services Census –population statistics Medical resource (hospitals, clinics)  Response Systems Medicare records, Disease register systems
  • 5. Site Selection of Reservoir  Structure constructed across the river at a suitable site to develop an artificial reservoir for the storage of water  Satellite images on scale can be used to prepare thematic maps depicting the – Vegetation, soil cover, geomorphologic features, drainage pattern and watershed areas ,contours.  Can be integrated and using multi-criteria analysis we can find the suitable site for the location of the reservoirs.
  • 6.  In differ the localities, variety of plantation , People can be made to migrate without impairing or imbalancing ecosystem.  Based on the latest available remote sensing information on water and land resources, integrated with the GIS provides an insight for planning the rehabilitation without endangering the existing environment.
  • 7. SOURCE : Tiwari, R.S. and Garg, P.K. (1995) Land form and Land uses using GIS
  • 8. Water Supply Systems  Can be easily analyzed using GIS and RS.  It facilitates the design of – rural & urban drinking network – positioning of the storage water tank – assessment of the water quality – selection of the source of water for the water supply system. with consideration of ground surface properties, land use changing and ownership.
  • 9. Water Quality Assessment  Quality assessment was done using GIS based on the existing wells which are mapped as point features with supporting quality attributes fields and known criteria.  Point interpolation by moving average is used to find the spatial pattern of water quality.  Also, Static level of the purposed well is estimated by spatial interpolation of the water table for existing wells.
  • 10. SOURCE : ILWIS 3.0 User’s Guide,2001, Sector Remote Sensing & GIS, International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences ,The Netherlands.
  • 11. Site Suitability Evaluation for Treatment Plant It is a major criteria for defending the environmental degradation. If proper location for the treatment plant is not selected then it may lead to soil degradation and ground water pollution.
  • 12. Environ. Poll. & Public Health  Population growth and unsustainable industrial and agricultural developments degrade the long-existing environmental balance of the globe.  GIS can be used to map such pollutions and environmental damages, then to compare and overlay them with the locations of water resources, cultivation area and human settlements.
  • 13. Disease monitoring & Control  Making such activities possible is to map and monitor the time and location of the disease.  Spatial data collected are either in the form of points for individual persons, polygons for regions along with disease statistical data.  In a GIS using such geographical data and link the statistical data then we can generate the many thematic maps.
  • 14. Case Study - Nagercoil Tamil Nadu SOURCE: K. Deepa, M. Krishnaveni (2012), “Suitable Site Selection of Decentralised Treatment Plants Using Multicriteria Approach in GIS”
  • 15.
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  • 20. The weights are assigned to various classes in the thematic layers. Area of Different Categories of sewage treatment plant site
  • 21.
  • 26. GIS – Coimbatore City Zonal Ward map Consists 4 Zones and each zones contains 18 wards, Each zone is headed by an assist. commissioner who is delegated with adequate powers to discharge his functions effectively .
  • 27. The Arc view calculator was used to obtain the P.D value. It denotes that No of persons Per Area of ward. More than 50% of the wards are identified with density b/w 9934 to 28727 persons per sq.km. These are the potential wards for development and high growth rate is attributed to these wards About 20 wards densities ranging up to 9933 Persons/sq.km
  • 28. Based on population of each ward and the waste generation of each ward using this per capita waste generation map were prepared. Per capita solid waste generation is denotes (Total weight of solid waste generated per day) Per (Population served)
  • 29. Advantages  In-depth analysis shown on a single page –no written explanation needed  Audience needs no special knowledge or training to understand maps  Works perfectly with simple graphs and charts to present study results or any data to decision makers (legislators, community partners, administration)
  • 30. Disadvantages  Expensive software  Impossible without minimal training  Time consuming Process
  • 31.  Remote sensing and GIS makes easier to get valuable information about the study area.  GIS enables us to integrate different layers and to manage large database.  It gives more accurate results when compared to conventional methods.  Hence GIS is proved to be a powerful tool in managing spatial and non spatial databases in suitability evaluation. Conclusion
  • 32. References  www.coimbatoremunicipal.com  Kusum Lata, 2004, GIS Based Monitoring System For Urban Water Supply  System, National Institute of Urban Affairs ,India Habitat Centre, New Delhi Riner ME, Cunningham C, Johnson A. Public health education and practice using geographic information system technology.  ESRI, 1995, Using GRID with Arc/Info, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc., Redlands, California.  LaScala EA, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FWPublic Health Nursing. January- February 2004;21(1):57-65.
  • 33. The possible applications for GIS are limitless. If you can imagine it, then it can be created There are many ways to view the Earth…..