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Building Teacher Practice                         Let’s focus on two questions:
    Through Professional
     Learning Community                               What is a Professional Learning Community and
                                                       how can it strengthen the teaching profession?
           Scottish Learning Festival
             September 20, 2007
                    Glasgow
                                                      What is the role of classroom visitations and
                 Gary Bloom
  New Teacher Center @ University of California        examination of student work in PLC’s?
                 Santa Cruz
             gsbloom@ucsc.edu




A Short Experiment…                               The Moral of the Story….




                                                                                                        1
Changing Expectations
What Is a Profession?                    Changing our Profession
                                                                                           Professional
                                         Area              Traditional Model
                                                                                           Model
   Specialized body of knowledge        Teaching          Loosely coupled and             Standards based and

   Set of skills                        Content           idiosyncratic                   articulated


                                         Teaching          Teacher as artisan, isolated,
                                                                                           Teacher as professional,
                                                                                           standards based, public,
   Group mission or identity            Practice          idiosyncratic
                                                                                           collaborative


   Standards of behavior and practice   Accountability    De-emphasized, mystified        Public, prominent



                                         Equity            Implicit and input oriented     Explicit and outcome oriented




What Can Coronary Stents and             PLC’s are grounded in Etienne Wenger’s
Luxury Cars Tell Us About What it        Communities of Practice
Means to be a Profession?
                                         “ Communities   of practice are formed by people
                                          who engage in a process of collective learning in
                                          a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe
                                          learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new
                                          forms of expression, a group of engineers
                                          working on similar problems, a clique of pupils
                       Vs.                defining their identity in the school, a network of
                                          surgeons exploring novel techniques. In a
                                          nutshell, communities of practice are groups of
                                          people who share a concern or a passion for
                                          something they do and learn to do it better as
                                          they interact regularly.”




                                                                                                                           2
A Medical Model:
       Elements of
       Professional
                                   Content
                                   Content                               Clinical Oncology
       Development


             Job-
            Job-                                                                   Hospital rounds
          Embedded
         Embedded                   Reflective             Elaboration
                                                          Elaboration
            Work
           Work                      Practice
                                        &
                                    Personal
                                  Responsibility
                                                                                • Weekly Cancer
                                                                                Conference

                                                Communities of
                                               Communities of
                      Reading &
                     Reading &
                      Research
                     Research
                                                Practice:
                                               Practice:
                                                Networking and
                                                                                 • Mortality Review
                                               Networking and
                                                Benchmarking
                                               Benchmarking




                                                                         Attributes of PLC’s
Richard Elmore’s Definition                                              Southwest Educational Development Lab, 1997




                                                                             Collegial and facilitative participation of the
   High alignment among responsibility,                                      principal; shared leadership
    expectatons and accountability                                           Unswerving commitment to student learning
   High transparency of practice                                            Collective professional learning applied to
   Explicit norms, processes, structures of                                  practical solutions addressed to student
    accountability                                                            needs
                                                                             Visitation and review of each teacher’s
   High support: focused, individualized                                     classroom behaviors and results by peers
   High agency: “If I can’t do it, they will help                            with feedback directed at individual and
    me. If we can’t do it, we will learn how.”                                community improvement
                                                                             Physical conditions and human capacities
                                                                              that support such an operation




                                                                                                                                3
Grade-Level/


Nested
                                                  Department Teams

                                                              K
                                                                                   Let’s Visit a Classroom
                                  Instructional
                      Principal    Leadership                  1
Professional           Teams         Teams
                                                               2
                                                                      Classroom

Learning
                                                               3       Learning
                                                               4     Communities
                                                                                      First year teacher
Communities
                                    ES                         5
                                                                                      Kindergarten class
                                                              E
                                                              M                       English Language Learners
                                                              S
                                                              H
                                   MS                         FL
                                                              A
                                                                                      What do you see in this classroom?
                                                              E
                                                              M
                                                              S
                                   HS                         H
                                                              FL
                                                              A




 How Would You Discuss Your                                                        Some Thoughts on Adult
 Observation With Your Colleagues?                                                 Learners
    Non-judgmental statements                                                        Adults want to be the origin of their own learning
                                                                                       and should have some control over the what, who,
    Evidence v. opinion                                                               how, why, when of their learning.
    Focus on student engagement                                                      Adults come to the learning process with self-
                                                                                       direction and a wide range of previous knowledge,
    Focus on student learning                                                         interests,and competencies.
    Focus on cause & effect                                                          Adults will resist activities they see as an attack on
                                                                                       their competence.
    Safe and supportive
                                                                                                    Speck & Knipe, Professional Development; Why Can’t We Get it Right In Our Schools?




                                                                                                                                                                                         4
Learning Walks, Quick Visits,
                                                              A Typology of Collaborative Professional
Walkthroughs                                                  Classroom Visitations

                                                               Learning Walks
       Support professional learning communities              Informing school level professional learning communities
        focused upon teaching and learning
                                                               Data Walks
       Strengthen teaching as public practice informed        Gathering quantitative school and/or district data
        by standards
                                                               Peer Coaching
       Support the success of every teacher and every
                                                               Informing individual teacher professional development
        student
                                                               Principal Professional Learning Walks
       Are organized around evidence based processes,         Informing administrator professional development
        protocols and cycles of inquiry
                                                               Quick Visits
                                                               Informing the teacher supervision and support process




Learning Walks                                            Data Walks
   WHY: Informing school level PLC’s
                                                             WHY: Gathering quantitative school and/or district
   WHO: Teachers, teacher leaders, heads                     data for program evaluation purposes
   WHAT: Gather quantitative and qualitative                WHO: Teachers, teacher leaders, heads, central
    data to inform conversations and action                   leadership
    planning in site level PLC’s; to give feedback           WHAT: Gather quantitative data to assess needs
    to individuals and to groups                              and program implementation. Data are aggregated
                                                              to focus upon units, not individual teachers
   WHEN: Quarterly to monthly, usually
                                                             WHEN: One to four times a year, usually announced
    announced




                                                                                                                          5
Teacher Professional Learning Communities
Other Visitation Types                             Examine Student Work

   Peer Coaching
                                                           Looking for evidence of
   Principal (Head) Professional Learning Walks               Rigor
   Quick visits                                               Fidelity to standards
                                                               Learning!


                                                           What sorts of student work might PLC’s
                                                            examine?




                                                   Cultural Shifts in a Professional
                                                   Learning Community

                                                   A shift in purpose…
                                                      From a focus on teaching to a focus on learning
                                                   A shift in the work of teachers…
                                                      From isolation to collaboration
                                                   A shift in school culture…
                                                      From independence to interdependence
                                                   A shift in professional development…
                                                      From external training to job embedded learning
                                                                                             Adapted from Learning by Doing , DuFour




                                                                                                                                       6
Professional Learning Communities informed
by public practice can be the chassis that
professional development and school               Building Teacher Practice
improvement ride upon.
                                                      Through Professional
                                                       Learning Community
                                                               Scottish Learning Festival
                                                                  September 20, 2007
                                                                        Glasgow

                                                                     Gary Bloom
                                                   New Teacher Center @ University of California Santa
                                                                        Cruz
  What support do you need to strengthen the                     gsbloom@ucsc.edu
  establishment of PLC’s and learning walks and
  other public practice at your site?




                                                                                                         7

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Building Communities of Practice Tcm4 451018

  • 1. Building Teacher Practice Let’s focus on two questions: Through Professional Learning Community  What is a Professional Learning Community and how can it strengthen the teaching profession? Scottish Learning Festival September 20, 2007 Glasgow  What is the role of classroom visitations and Gary Bloom New Teacher Center @ University of California examination of student work in PLC’s? Santa Cruz gsbloom@ucsc.edu A Short Experiment… The Moral of the Story…. 1
  • 2. Changing Expectations What Is a Profession? Changing our Profession Professional Area Traditional Model Model  Specialized body of knowledge Teaching Loosely coupled and Standards based and  Set of skills Content idiosyncratic articulated Teaching Teacher as artisan, isolated, Teacher as professional, standards based, public,  Group mission or identity Practice idiosyncratic collaborative  Standards of behavior and practice Accountability De-emphasized, mystified Public, prominent Equity Implicit and input oriented Explicit and outcome oriented What Can Coronary Stents and PLC’s are grounded in Etienne Wenger’s Luxury Cars Tell Us About What it Communities of Practice Means to be a Profession? “ Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils Vs. defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques. In a nutshell, communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn to do it better as they interact regularly.” 2
  • 3. A Medical Model: Elements of Professional Content Content Clinical Oncology Development Job- Job-  Hospital rounds Embedded Embedded Reflective Elaboration Elaboration Work Work Practice & Personal Responsibility • Weekly Cancer Conference Communities of Communities of Reading & Reading & Research Research Practice: Practice: Networking and • Mortality Review Networking and Benchmarking Benchmarking Attributes of PLC’s Richard Elmore’s Definition Southwest Educational Development Lab, 1997  Collegial and facilitative participation of the  High alignment among responsibility, principal; shared leadership expectatons and accountability  Unswerving commitment to student learning  High transparency of practice  Collective professional learning applied to  Explicit norms, processes, structures of practical solutions addressed to student accountability needs  Visitation and review of each teacher’s  High support: focused, individualized classroom behaviors and results by peers  High agency: “If I can’t do it, they will help with feedback directed at individual and me. If we can’t do it, we will learn how.” community improvement  Physical conditions and human capacities that support such an operation 3
  • 4. Grade-Level/ Nested Department Teams K Let’s Visit a Classroom Instructional Principal Leadership 1 Professional Teams Teams 2 Classroom Learning 3 Learning 4 Communities  First year teacher Communities ES 5  Kindergarten class E M  English Language Learners S H MS FL A  What do you see in this classroom? E M S HS H FL A How Would You Discuss Your Some Thoughts on Adult Observation With Your Colleagues? Learners  Non-judgmental statements  Adults want to be the origin of their own learning and should have some control over the what, who,  Evidence v. opinion how, why, when of their learning.  Focus on student engagement  Adults come to the learning process with self- direction and a wide range of previous knowledge,  Focus on student learning interests,and competencies.  Focus on cause & effect  Adults will resist activities they see as an attack on their competence.  Safe and supportive Speck & Knipe, Professional Development; Why Can’t We Get it Right In Our Schools? 4
  • 5. Learning Walks, Quick Visits, A Typology of Collaborative Professional Walkthroughs Classroom Visitations Learning Walks  Support professional learning communities Informing school level professional learning communities focused upon teaching and learning Data Walks  Strengthen teaching as public practice informed Gathering quantitative school and/or district data by standards Peer Coaching  Support the success of every teacher and every Informing individual teacher professional development student Principal Professional Learning Walks  Are organized around evidence based processes, Informing administrator professional development protocols and cycles of inquiry Quick Visits Informing the teacher supervision and support process Learning Walks Data Walks  WHY: Informing school level PLC’s  WHY: Gathering quantitative school and/or district  WHO: Teachers, teacher leaders, heads data for program evaluation purposes  WHAT: Gather quantitative and qualitative  WHO: Teachers, teacher leaders, heads, central data to inform conversations and action leadership planning in site level PLC’s; to give feedback  WHAT: Gather quantitative data to assess needs to individuals and to groups and program implementation. Data are aggregated to focus upon units, not individual teachers  WHEN: Quarterly to monthly, usually  WHEN: One to four times a year, usually announced announced 5
  • 6. Teacher Professional Learning Communities Other Visitation Types Examine Student Work  Peer Coaching  Looking for evidence of  Principal (Head) Professional Learning Walks  Rigor  Quick visits  Fidelity to standards  Learning!  What sorts of student work might PLC’s examine? Cultural Shifts in a Professional Learning Community A shift in purpose…  From a focus on teaching to a focus on learning A shift in the work of teachers…  From isolation to collaboration A shift in school culture…  From independence to interdependence A shift in professional development…  From external training to job embedded learning Adapted from Learning by Doing , DuFour 6
  • 7. Professional Learning Communities informed by public practice can be the chassis that professional development and school Building Teacher Practice improvement ride upon. Through Professional Learning Community Scottish Learning Festival September 20, 2007 Glasgow Gary Bloom New Teacher Center @ University of California Santa Cruz What support do you need to strengthen the gsbloom@ucsc.edu establishment of PLC’s and learning walks and other public practice at your site? 7