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BIOMEDICAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTED BY;
HARIOM MEHTA
M.Sc. Nsg.
Previous
INTRODUCTION
The waste product in the course of health-
care activities carriers a higher potential
for infection and injury than any other type
of waste.Therefore, it is essential to have
safe and reliable method for handling.
Inadequate and inappropriate handling of
health-care waste may have serious public
health consequence and a significant
impact on the environment.
DEFINITION
According to Bio-Medical waste
(Management and Handling) :-
“Bio-Medical waste means any waste which is
generated during the diagnosis, treatment or
immunization of human beings or animals or
in research activities pertaining to or in the
production or testing of biological and
including categories.”
CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-MEDICAL
WASTE:-
 INFECTIOUS WASTE:- Waste suspected to
contain pathogenic,ex.laboratory cultures, waste
from isolation ward ,swabs, material or equipment
that have been in contact with infected patients and
excreta.
PATHOGENIC WASTE:- Human tissue or fluids ,
ex. body parts and other body fluids.
SHARP WASTE :- It includes needles, infusion
sets, scalpels, knives, blades, broken glass.
PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE :- Waste containing
pharmaceuticals eg. Pharmaceuticals that are
expired or no longer needed,bottels, boxes.
CONTI……….
 GENOTOXIC WASTE :- Waste containing substances with
genotoxic properties ex. waste containing cytostatic drugs
(often used in cancer therapy).
 CHEMICAL WASTE :- Waste containing chemical substances
eg. Laboratory reagent, disinfectants.
 WASTE WITH HIGH COTENT OF HEAVY METALS :- Batteries,
broken thermometer, blood-pressure gauges etc.
 PRESSURIZED CONTAINER :- Gas cylinders, gas cartilage,
aerosol cans.
 RADIATION WASTE :- Waste containing radioactive
substances, unused liquid from the radiotherapy or laboratory
research.
SOURCES OF HEALTH-CARE
WASTE
 Hospitals.
 Nursing homes.
 Physician office / clinics.
 Dentist’s offices / clinics.
 Dispensaries.
 Mortuaries.
 Blood-bank and collection centers.
 Laboratories.
 Research organization.
 Vaccinating centers.
 Bio-technology institution.
COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF
CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF
WASTE
 YELLOW :-Human tissues, organs,body
parts, animal tissue, waste from laboratory,
cultures, specimens of micro-
organisms.These waste are disposed by
incineration or deep burial.
 RED :-Microbiology or biotechnology
wastes, soiled waste(item contaminated with
blood and body fluids including cotton,
dressing).Solid waste (tubing, catheter,
infusion set).These waste are disposed by
autoclaving and microwaving.
 BLUE / WHITE TRANSLUCENT :- In this
container needles, syringes, blades, glass
are disposed. These waste are disposed by
autoclaving and chemical treatment.
 BLACK :- Discarded medicines and
cytotoxic drugs ash from incineration of any
biomedical waste, chemicals used in
production of biological chemicals.
TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
TECHNOLOGIES
• INCINERATION :- This is a high temperature, dry oxidant
process that reduces organic and combustible waste to
inorganic combustible matter and results in very significant
reduction of waste- volume and weight.
• CHEMICAL DISINFECTION :- Chemicals are added to waste to
kill or inactive the pathogen, this treatment usually results in
disinfection rather then sterilization.
• WET AND DRY THERMAL TREATMENT :- In this waste are
exposure of shredded infectious waste to high temperature,
high pressure steam, and is similar to the autoclave
sterilization process.
• MICROWAVE IRRADIATION :- Micro-organism are
destroyed by the action of microwave of a frequency
of about 2450 MHz.
• LAND DISPOSAL :- These are two type of land
disposal
1. Open dumps.
2. Sanitory landfills.
• INERTIZATION :- This process involve the mixing
waste with cement and other substances before
disposal in order to minimize the risk of toxic
substances contained in the waste migrating into
surface water or ground water.
HEALTH HAZARDS OF HEALTH CARE
WASTE
 HAZARDS FROM INFECTIOUS WASTE AND SHARPS :-
Pathogen in infectious waste may enter the human body
through a puncture, abrasion, or cut in skin, through mucous
membrane by inhalation or by ingestion.
 HAZARDS FROM CHEMICAL AND PHARMAECEUTICALS :-
Many of the chemicals and pharmaceutical used in health care
establishments are toxic, genotoxic, corrosive, flammable,
reactive, explosives, shock or sensitive's.
 HAZARDS FROM GENOTOXIC WASTE :- The severity of
hazards for the health-care worker responsible for handling or
disposal of genotoxic waste is governed by a combination of
the substance toxicity itself and the extent and duration of
exposure.
• HAZARDS FROM RADIOACTIVE WASTE :-
The type of disease caused by radioactive
waste determined by the type and extent of
exposure. It can range from headache,
dizziness and vomiting to much more
serious problems. Because it is genotoxic, it
may also affect genetic materials.
• PUBLIC SENSITIVITY :- Apart from health
hazards , the general public is very sensitive
to visual impact of health-care waste
particularly anatomical waste.
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
Bio-medical waste Management-Rule
1998,prescribed by ministry of Environment
and Forests, Govt.of India came into force on
28 July 1998.
This apply to those who generate,
collect,recive,store, dispose, treat or handle
biomedical waste in any manner.
The biomedical waste should be
segregated into container / bags at the point
of generation of waste.
CATEGORIES OF BIO-MEDICAL
WASTE IN INDIA
OPTION WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT AND
DISPOSAL
Category 1 Human anatomical waste Incineration / deep burial
Category 2 Animal waste Incineration / deep burial
Category 3 Microbiology and
Biotechnological waste
Local autoclaving /
microwaving / incineration
Category 4 Sharps waste Disinfection(chemical
treatment, autoclaving,
microwaving and mutilation
/ shredding)
Category 5 Discarded medicines and
Cytotoxic drugs
incineration, destruction and
drugs disposal in secured
landfills
Category 6 Soild waste (items
contaminated with blood
cotton, dressing etc.)
Incineration, autoclaving,
microwaving
OPTION WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT AND
DIPOSAL
Category 7 Soiled waste (tubing,
Catheter, intravenous sets
etc.)
Disinfection by chemical
treatment, autoclaving /
microwaving and mutilation
/ shredding.
Category 8 Liquid waste Disinfection by chemical
treatment and discharge
into drain.
Category 9 Incineration ash (ash from
incineration of any
biomedical waste)
Disposal in municipal
landfills.
Category 10 Chemical used in biological,
chemical used in
disinfection, as insecticides,
etc.
Chemical treatment and
discharge into drain for
liquid and secured landfills
for solids.
COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF
CONTAINER FOR DIPOSAL OF WASTE
COLOUR CODING TYPE OF
CONTINER
WASTE
CATEGORY
TREATMENT
OPTION
YELLOW Plastic bag Category 1,2,3,and
6
Incineration /deep
burial.
RED Disinfected
container /plastic
beg
Category 3,6 and 7 Autoclaving
/microwaving /
chemical treatment.
BLUE Plastic beg
/puncture proof
container
Category 4 and 7 Autoclaving /
microwaving /
treatment and
destruction /
shredding.
BLACK Plastic beg Category 5,9 and 10 Disposal in secured
landfills.
Biomedical waste management

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Biomedical waste management

  • 2. INTRODUCTION The waste product in the course of health- care activities carriers a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste.Therefore, it is essential to have safe and reliable method for handling. Inadequate and inappropriate handling of health-care waste may have serious public health consequence and a significant impact on the environment.
  • 3. DEFINITION According to Bio-Medical waste (Management and Handling) :- “Bio-Medical waste means any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining to or in the production or testing of biological and including categories.”
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE:-  INFECTIOUS WASTE:- Waste suspected to contain pathogenic,ex.laboratory cultures, waste from isolation ward ,swabs, material or equipment that have been in contact with infected patients and excreta. PATHOGENIC WASTE:- Human tissue or fluids , ex. body parts and other body fluids. SHARP WASTE :- It includes needles, infusion sets, scalpels, knives, blades, broken glass. PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE :- Waste containing pharmaceuticals eg. Pharmaceuticals that are expired or no longer needed,bottels, boxes.
  • 5. CONTI……….  GENOTOXIC WASTE :- Waste containing substances with genotoxic properties ex. waste containing cytostatic drugs (often used in cancer therapy).  CHEMICAL WASTE :- Waste containing chemical substances eg. Laboratory reagent, disinfectants.  WASTE WITH HIGH COTENT OF HEAVY METALS :- Batteries, broken thermometer, blood-pressure gauges etc.  PRESSURIZED CONTAINER :- Gas cylinders, gas cartilage, aerosol cans.  RADIATION WASTE :- Waste containing radioactive substances, unused liquid from the radiotherapy or laboratory research.
  • 6. SOURCES OF HEALTH-CARE WASTE  Hospitals.  Nursing homes.  Physician office / clinics.  Dentist’s offices / clinics.  Dispensaries.  Mortuaries.  Blood-bank and collection centers.  Laboratories.  Research organization.  Vaccinating centers.  Bio-technology institution.
  • 7. COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF WASTE  YELLOW :-Human tissues, organs,body parts, animal tissue, waste from laboratory, cultures, specimens of micro- organisms.These waste are disposed by incineration or deep burial.  RED :-Microbiology or biotechnology wastes, soiled waste(item contaminated with blood and body fluids including cotton, dressing).Solid waste (tubing, catheter, infusion set).These waste are disposed by autoclaving and microwaving.
  • 8.  BLUE / WHITE TRANSLUCENT :- In this container needles, syringes, blades, glass are disposed. These waste are disposed by autoclaving and chemical treatment.  BLACK :- Discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs ash from incineration of any biomedical waste, chemicals used in production of biological chemicals.
  • 9. TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGIES • INCINERATION :- This is a high temperature, dry oxidant process that reduces organic and combustible waste to inorganic combustible matter and results in very significant reduction of waste- volume and weight. • CHEMICAL DISINFECTION :- Chemicals are added to waste to kill or inactive the pathogen, this treatment usually results in disinfection rather then sterilization. • WET AND DRY THERMAL TREATMENT :- In this waste are exposure of shredded infectious waste to high temperature, high pressure steam, and is similar to the autoclave sterilization process.
  • 10. • MICROWAVE IRRADIATION :- Micro-organism are destroyed by the action of microwave of a frequency of about 2450 MHz. • LAND DISPOSAL :- These are two type of land disposal 1. Open dumps. 2. Sanitory landfills. • INERTIZATION :- This process involve the mixing waste with cement and other substances before disposal in order to minimize the risk of toxic substances contained in the waste migrating into surface water or ground water.
  • 11. HEALTH HAZARDS OF HEALTH CARE WASTE  HAZARDS FROM INFECTIOUS WASTE AND SHARPS :- Pathogen in infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture, abrasion, or cut in skin, through mucous membrane by inhalation or by ingestion.  HAZARDS FROM CHEMICAL AND PHARMAECEUTICALS :- Many of the chemicals and pharmaceutical used in health care establishments are toxic, genotoxic, corrosive, flammable, reactive, explosives, shock or sensitive's.  HAZARDS FROM GENOTOXIC WASTE :- The severity of hazards for the health-care worker responsible for handling or disposal of genotoxic waste is governed by a combination of the substance toxicity itself and the extent and duration of exposure.
  • 12. • HAZARDS FROM RADIOACTIVE WASTE :- The type of disease caused by radioactive waste determined by the type and extent of exposure. It can range from headache, dizziness and vomiting to much more serious problems. Because it is genotoxic, it may also affect genetic materials. • PUBLIC SENSITIVITY :- Apart from health hazards , the general public is very sensitive to visual impact of health-care waste particularly anatomical waste.
  • 13. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Bio-medical waste Management-Rule 1998,prescribed by ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt.of India came into force on 28 July 1998. This apply to those who generate, collect,recive,store, dispose, treat or handle biomedical waste in any manner. The biomedical waste should be segregated into container / bags at the point of generation of waste.
  • 14. CATEGORIES OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE IN INDIA OPTION WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Category 1 Human anatomical waste Incineration / deep burial Category 2 Animal waste Incineration / deep burial Category 3 Microbiology and Biotechnological waste Local autoclaving / microwaving / incineration Category 4 Sharps waste Disinfection(chemical treatment, autoclaving, microwaving and mutilation / shredding) Category 5 Discarded medicines and Cytotoxic drugs incineration, destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills Category 6 Soild waste (items contaminated with blood cotton, dressing etc.) Incineration, autoclaving, microwaving
  • 15. OPTION WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT AND DIPOSAL Category 7 Soiled waste (tubing, Catheter, intravenous sets etc.) Disinfection by chemical treatment, autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding. Category 8 Liquid waste Disinfection by chemical treatment and discharge into drain. Category 9 Incineration ash (ash from incineration of any biomedical waste) Disposal in municipal landfills. Category 10 Chemical used in biological, chemical used in disinfection, as insecticides, etc. Chemical treatment and discharge into drain for liquid and secured landfills for solids.
  • 16. COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DIPOSAL OF WASTE COLOUR CODING TYPE OF CONTINER WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT OPTION YELLOW Plastic bag Category 1,2,3,and 6 Incineration /deep burial. RED Disinfected container /plastic beg Category 3,6 and 7 Autoclaving /microwaving / chemical treatment. BLUE Plastic beg /puncture proof container Category 4 and 7 Autoclaving / microwaving / treatment and destruction / shredding. BLACK Plastic beg Category 5,9 and 10 Disposal in secured landfills.