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Basic Principles of
Industrial Hygiene
HAMIDI SAIDIN
hamidi@mohr.gov.my
Introduction to Industrial Hygiene
What is industrial hygiene?
• occupational hygiene; health hygiene.
• to prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases and
injuries in industries.
• Hazards- Anticipate,Recognize, Evaluate & Control
• sciences and arts: physics,chemistry, human anatomy,
mathematics and physiology; creativity, curiosity and
communication skills
History of industrial hygiene
4th century BC
Hippocrates
He recognised and
recorded the
problem of lead
poisoning among
miners.
1st century AD
Pliny the Elder
He described exposure
to zinc and sulphur
among labourers in the
“Natural History” series.
Besides that, he also
devised a protective
mask for miners made
from an animal bladder
to be tied over the
mouth to prevent
inhalation of dust and
lead.
2nd century AD
Galen
This Greek physician
recognised the
hazards of copper
mining as the miners
were exposed to acid
mist.
History of industrial hygiene
1473
Ulrich Ellenbog
He published a pamphlet
about occupational
diseases and illnesses
among gold miners. He
discussed toxic fumes
and vapours, and
described ways of coping
with the hazards.
1556
George Bauer
(Georgius Agricola)
This mining town physician in Joachimcal, a place where
silver mining was one of the primary occupations, wrote a
12-series volume set named De Re Metalicca (Latin for
On the Nature of Metals).
The book covered mining geology, environmental
contamination, management technique, mine ventilation,
ergonomics and illnesses suffered by miners. The book
described the injuries and sicknesses of the miners, and
it also discussed treatments and preventive measures for
the occupational diseases.
He also discussed silicosis, a lung disease caused by
inhaling silica dust.
History of industrial hygiene
1567
Theophrastus Bombastus von
Hohemheim (Paracelsus)
In Miners ‘Sickness and other Diseases
of Miners, Paracelsus described the
differences of the employees’ conditions
between “chronic” and “acute” poisoning.
He also described the physical and
behavioral effects of mercury exposure.
He uttered the phrase “All substance are
poisons; there is none which is not
poison. The right dose differentiates a
poison and a remedy”
1700
Bernardino Ramazzini
He is known as the Father of
Industrial Hygiene. He wrote a book
titled De Morbis Artificum (Diseases
of Employees). He is the first person
to make a connection between
occupations and diseases by urging
physicians to include important
questions such as “Of what trade are
you?”
History of industrial hygiene
Late 1770s
Sir George Baker
He correctly found
the link “Devonshire
Colic” to lead
poisoning in cider,
the traditional drink
of Devonians.
1833
Percival Pott
He is the first to link
cancer to chemical
exposure. He observed
the development of
scrotal cancer in London
chimney sweepers. He
found out that the cancer
was caused by the soot
that the sweepers rarely
washed away.
Early 1990s
British Government
English Factory Act
The Act focused on
compensation rather
than safety practices. It
led to improvements in
safety as the Act also
gave employers
financial incentives to
prevent accidents.
Alice Hamilton
History of industrial hygiene
Early 1990s
This American physician emphasised on
employees welfare. She identified hazards
and illnesses and recommended prevention
measures. She also raised public
consciousness about employee safety. Her
work can be found in these two publications:
Industrial Poisons in the United States (1925)
and Exploring the Dangerous Trades (1943).
2016
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene
• 2,000,000 work-related deaths per year.
• 386,000 deaths each year from exposure to airborne
particulates.
• 152,000 deaths per year from carcinogens in the
workplace.
• 37% of Lower Back Pain is attributed to occupation.
The World Health Organisation estimates that
globally there are:
Development of industrial hygiene in Malaysia
Definition of Industrial Hygiene
• According to OSHA (1998), industrial hygiene is
defined as the science and art devoted to the
anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of
environmental factors or stresses.
• Industrial hygienist is a person having college or
university degree(s) in engineering, chemistry,
physics, medicine, or related physical and biological
sciences, who has also received specialized training
in recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace
stressor and therefore achieved competence in
industrial hygiene.
Industrial Hygienist?
Factors or stresses :
 Chemical agents
 Dust, mists, vapours, gases, fumes.
 Physical agents
 Ionising, non-ionising radiation, noise, vibrations
and temperature extremes.
 Biological agents
 Insects, molds, yeast, fungi, bacteria, viruses.
 Ergonomic agents
 Monotony, fatique and repetative motion
Scope of Industrial Hygiene
Anticipation
/Recognitio
n
Evaluatio
n
Control
• Commitment
• Planning
• Design
• Training
• Hazard
Identification
• Exposure
Asessment
• Monitoring
• Studies
• Observations
• Elimination
• Substitution
• Engineering
• Administration
• Personal
protective
equipment
What is Industrial Hygiene
Exposure
Work Activity
Disease
Occupational
Hygiene
Occupational
Medicine
Occupational
Health
Industrial Hygiene Duties
Occupational Physician
• Utilize the exposure evaluation and workplace
assessments;
• Identify the possible impact on the employee; and
• Provide proper diagnosis and treatment.
Industrial Hygiene Profession
• Registered Competent Person
• Assessor
• Hygiene Technician
• IAQ Competent Person
• Noise Monitoring Competent Person
• Mineral Dust Competent Person
• Lead Competent Person
1) Examination of the industrial environment;
2) Interpretation of gathered data from studies
made in the industrial environment;
3) Preparation and proper implementation of
control measures;
4) Creation of regulatory standards for work
conditions;
Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
5) Presentation of competent and meaningful
testimony when called upon to do so by boards,
commissions, agencies, courts, or investigative
bodies;
6) Performance of epidemiological studies to uncover
the presence of occupation-related diseases;
7) Education of the working community in the field of
industrial hygiene; and
8) Preparation of adequate warnings and precautions
where dangers exist.
Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
Applied science and application of IH
Diciplines Application in IH
Physics, mathematics,
human anatomy, and
physiology
Hazard evaluation of noise, illumination,
lasers, non- ionising radiation, ionising
radiation, and ergonomics.
Chemistry, anatomy
and physiology,
toxicology
Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of
carcinogenic hazard assessments and
reproductive hazard assessments.
Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of
carcinogenic hazard assessments and
reproductive hazard assessments.
Applied science and application of IH
Diciplines Application in IH
Statistics,
epidemiology, physics,
chemistry, anatomy
and physiology,
toxicology, language
skills
Measuring exposures to chemical and
physical agents. Interpreting laboratory
analytical reports.
Using direct-reading instruments.
Language skills Interaction with employees, management,
and clients; report writing; preparing
manuscripts of original research studies for
publication; and design and delivery of
employee education programmes.
Industrial Hygiene Programme
• Programme for the employees health protection and safety.
• source of information for the physician or nurse relative to
the employees working conditions, including the possible
causes of, or factors contributing to, the employees
symptoms.
• medical surveillance programme.
1) Periodic hearing tests to detect noise-induced hearing
loss;
2) An examination of the respiratory system including a
chest x-ray; and
3) Lung capacity measurements to detect scarring of the
lungs due to asbestos exposure.
Basic elements of IH Programme
Elements Examples
Anticipation/ recognition of
health hazards
• Watching
• Asking questions
• Observing work practices
• Reviewing chemical inventories
Evaluation of health
hazards
• Air sampling
• Noise exposure
• Ergonomic stress
Control of health hazards • Determining appropriate and effective control
measures
Basic elements of IH Programme
Elements Examples
Recordkeeping • Keeping accurate and complete industrial hygiene
records
• Requiring regulation
• Source of information for trending exposure
Employee training • Hazard communication programme
• New employee orientation
• Industrial hygiene responding to specific questions
• Evaluating new materials proposed for use in a
process
Periodic programme
reviews, changes, and
updates
• Changes in regulatory requirements
• New information about the toxic properties of a
chemical or
• physical agent
• Changes in a process
Basic principles of Industrial Hygiene

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Basic principles of Industrial Hygiene

  • 1. Basic Principles of Industrial Hygiene HAMIDI SAIDIN hamidi@mohr.gov.my
  • 2. Introduction to Industrial Hygiene What is industrial hygiene? • occupational hygiene; health hygiene. • to prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases and injuries in industries. • Hazards- Anticipate,Recognize, Evaluate & Control • sciences and arts: physics,chemistry, human anatomy, mathematics and physiology; creativity, curiosity and communication skills
  • 3. History of industrial hygiene 4th century BC Hippocrates He recognised and recorded the problem of lead poisoning among miners. 1st century AD Pliny the Elder He described exposure to zinc and sulphur among labourers in the “Natural History” series. Besides that, he also devised a protective mask for miners made from an animal bladder to be tied over the mouth to prevent inhalation of dust and lead. 2nd century AD Galen This Greek physician recognised the hazards of copper mining as the miners were exposed to acid mist.
  • 4. History of industrial hygiene 1473 Ulrich Ellenbog He published a pamphlet about occupational diseases and illnesses among gold miners. He discussed toxic fumes and vapours, and described ways of coping with the hazards. 1556 George Bauer (Georgius Agricola) This mining town physician in Joachimcal, a place where silver mining was one of the primary occupations, wrote a 12-series volume set named De Re Metalicca (Latin for On the Nature of Metals). The book covered mining geology, environmental contamination, management technique, mine ventilation, ergonomics and illnesses suffered by miners. The book described the injuries and sicknesses of the miners, and it also discussed treatments and preventive measures for the occupational diseases. He also discussed silicosis, a lung disease caused by inhaling silica dust.
  • 5. History of industrial hygiene 1567 Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohemheim (Paracelsus) In Miners ‘Sickness and other Diseases of Miners, Paracelsus described the differences of the employees’ conditions between “chronic” and “acute” poisoning. He also described the physical and behavioral effects of mercury exposure. He uttered the phrase “All substance are poisons; there is none which is not poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy” 1700 Bernardino Ramazzini He is known as the Father of Industrial Hygiene. He wrote a book titled De Morbis Artificum (Diseases of Employees). He is the first person to make a connection between occupations and diseases by urging physicians to include important questions such as “Of what trade are you?”
  • 6. History of industrial hygiene Late 1770s Sir George Baker He correctly found the link “Devonshire Colic” to lead poisoning in cider, the traditional drink of Devonians. 1833 Percival Pott He is the first to link cancer to chemical exposure. He observed the development of scrotal cancer in London chimney sweepers. He found out that the cancer was caused by the soot that the sweepers rarely washed away. Early 1990s British Government English Factory Act The Act focused on compensation rather than safety practices. It led to improvements in safety as the Act also gave employers financial incentives to prevent accidents.
  • 7. Alice Hamilton History of industrial hygiene Early 1990s This American physician emphasised on employees welfare. She identified hazards and illnesses and recommended prevention measures. She also raised public consciousness about employee safety. Her work can be found in these two publications: Industrial Poisons in the United States (1925) and Exploring the Dangerous Trades (1943). 2016
  • 8. The Importance of Occupational Hygiene • 2,000,000 work-related deaths per year. • 386,000 deaths each year from exposure to airborne particulates. • 152,000 deaths per year from carcinogens in the workplace. • 37% of Lower Back Pain is attributed to occupation. The World Health Organisation estimates that globally there are:
  • 9. Development of industrial hygiene in Malaysia
  • 10. Definition of Industrial Hygiene • According to OSHA (1998), industrial hygiene is defined as the science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of environmental factors or stresses.
  • 11. • Industrial hygienist is a person having college or university degree(s) in engineering, chemistry, physics, medicine, or related physical and biological sciences, who has also received specialized training in recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace stressor and therefore achieved competence in industrial hygiene. Industrial Hygienist?
  • 12. Factors or stresses :  Chemical agents  Dust, mists, vapours, gases, fumes.  Physical agents  Ionising, non-ionising radiation, noise, vibrations and temperature extremes.  Biological agents  Insects, molds, yeast, fungi, bacteria, viruses.  Ergonomic agents  Monotony, fatique and repetative motion
  • 13. Scope of Industrial Hygiene Anticipation /Recognitio n Evaluatio n Control • Commitment • Planning • Design • Training • Hazard Identification • Exposure Asessment • Monitoring • Studies • Observations • Elimination • Substitution • Engineering • Administration • Personal protective equipment
  • 14. What is Industrial Hygiene Exposure Work Activity Disease Occupational Hygiene Occupational Medicine Occupational Health
  • 16. Occupational Physician • Utilize the exposure evaluation and workplace assessments; • Identify the possible impact on the employee; and • Provide proper diagnosis and treatment.
  • 17. Industrial Hygiene Profession • Registered Competent Person • Assessor • Hygiene Technician • IAQ Competent Person • Noise Monitoring Competent Person • Mineral Dust Competent Person • Lead Competent Person
  • 18. 1) Examination of the industrial environment; 2) Interpretation of gathered data from studies made in the industrial environment; 3) Preparation and proper implementation of control measures; 4) Creation of regulatory standards for work conditions; Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
  • 19. 5) Presentation of competent and meaningful testimony when called upon to do so by boards, commissions, agencies, courts, or investigative bodies; 6) Performance of epidemiological studies to uncover the presence of occupation-related diseases; 7) Education of the working community in the field of industrial hygiene; and 8) Preparation of adequate warnings and precautions where dangers exist. Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
  • 20. Applied science and application of IH Diciplines Application in IH Physics, mathematics, human anatomy, and physiology Hazard evaluation of noise, illumination, lasers, non- ionising radiation, ionising radiation, and ergonomics. Chemistry, anatomy and physiology, toxicology Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of carcinogenic hazard assessments and reproductive hazard assessments. Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of carcinogenic hazard assessments and reproductive hazard assessments.
  • 21. Applied science and application of IH Diciplines Application in IH Statistics, epidemiology, physics, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, toxicology, language skills Measuring exposures to chemical and physical agents. Interpreting laboratory analytical reports. Using direct-reading instruments. Language skills Interaction with employees, management, and clients; report writing; preparing manuscripts of original research studies for publication; and design and delivery of employee education programmes.
  • 22. Industrial Hygiene Programme • Programme for the employees health protection and safety. • source of information for the physician or nurse relative to the employees working conditions, including the possible causes of, or factors contributing to, the employees symptoms. • medical surveillance programme. 1) Periodic hearing tests to detect noise-induced hearing loss; 2) An examination of the respiratory system including a chest x-ray; and 3) Lung capacity measurements to detect scarring of the lungs due to asbestos exposure.
  • 23. Basic elements of IH Programme Elements Examples Anticipation/ recognition of health hazards • Watching • Asking questions • Observing work practices • Reviewing chemical inventories Evaluation of health hazards • Air sampling • Noise exposure • Ergonomic stress Control of health hazards • Determining appropriate and effective control measures
  • 24. Basic elements of IH Programme Elements Examples Recordkeeping • Keeping accurate and complete industrial hygiene records • Requiring regulation • Source of information for trending exposure Employee training • Hazard communication programme • New employee orientation • Industrial hygiene responding to specific questions • Evaluating new materials proposed for use in a process Periodic programme reviews, changes, and updates • Changes in regulatory requirements • New information about the toxic properties of a chemical or • physical agent • Changes in a process