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What is occupational hygiene?

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An introduction to occupational hygiene (also known as industrial hygiene)

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

What is occupational hygiene?

  1. 1. What is Occupational Hygiene? Mike Slater
  2. 2. OccupationalHygiene?
  3. 3. Occupational NO!Hygiene?
  4. 4. Occupational Hygiene?
  5. 5. Occupational Hygiene? NO!
  6. 6. Hygiene“Conditions or practices conduciveto maintaining health andpreventing disease”http://oxforddictionaries.com
  7. 7. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
  8. 8. According tothe WHO,globally, thereare:
  9. 9. 2,000,000work-relateddeaths peryear
  10. 10. 386,000 deathseach year fromexposure toairborneparticulates
  11. 11. 152,000deaths peryear fromcarcinogens inthe workplace
  12. 12. 37% of LowerBack Pain isattributed tooccupation
  13. 13. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
  14. 14. We do that by the
  15. 15. We do that by theRecognition
  16. 16. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation
  17. 17. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Control
  18. 18. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Controlof hazardous agents
  19. 19. Chemical hazards There are many thousands of hazardous chemicals commonly used at work.
  20. 20. Chemical hazards Chemical hazards also include:
  21. 21. Silica released during stone cutting activitiesDusts – in this case stone dust contains crystalline silicawhich causes silicosis, a serious lung disease Source: HSE
  22. 22. Now you see it Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a major cause of occupational asthma
  23. 23. Vapours are given off paints and other solventbased products such as inks and adhesives
  24. 24. Fume – very fine particulate matter
  25. 25. Physical agents Hazardous physical agents include noise,
  26. 26. Vibration (this hand grinder will also produce highnoise levels)
  27. 27. Non-ionising radiation like theultra-violet radiationgenerated by arc welding
  28. 28. The thermal environment – hot and cold
  29. 29. Biological hazardsBiological agents like the micro-organisms that cancause legionnaires’ disease and anthrax
  30. 30. Ergonomic hazards Back and muscular damage caused by poor manual handling practices
  31. 31. Tasks involving repetitive actions
  32. 32. The use of display screen equipment
  33. 33. ChemistryToxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law Biology Engineering
  34. 34. Chemistry Toxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law BiologyOccupational hygiene isEngineering a multi-disciplinary science
  35. 35. Recognition Evaluation Control
  36. 36. Recognition Evaluation ControlOccupational hygienists are trained to anticipate andrecognise health hazards at work
  37. 37. Bakers are exposedto flour dust whichcan causeoccupationalasthma
  38. 38. Bakers are about80 times morelikely to developoccupationalasthma than theaverage Britishworker
  39. 39. Coal miners andquarry workers areexposed to dustthat can causesilicosis – a seriousdebilitating lungdisease
  40. 40. Cleaning withsolvents can lead todermatitis andexposure to solventvapours.
  41. 41. And some solventscan be absorbedthrough the skin
  42. 42. This worker isexposed to dust,noise and vibration
  43. 43. Arc welders areexposed to metalfumes which cancause metal fumefever
  44. 44. and, in some cases,asthma and lungcancer
  45. 45. They’re alsoexposed to irritantgases and ultra-violet radiation
  46. 46. Recognition Evaluation Control
  47. 47. RISK =
  48. 48. RISK = Hazard x
  49. 49. RISK = Hazard x Exposure
  50. 50. RISK = Hazard x ExposureExposure assessment is an important part of theoccupational hygienist’s role
  51. 51. RISK = Hazard x ExposureThis can involve:
  52. 52. Personal exposure sampling
  53. 53. Exposure modelling
  54. 54. Observations
  55. 55. BiologicalMonitoringWhich may involve taking blood samples
  56. 56. But taking urine samples is usually preferable as it’seasier and more acceptable to the worker
  57. 57. Recognition Evaluation Control
  58. 58. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  59. 59. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEThis is the “hierarchy of control”
  60. 60. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  61. 61. Prevention ProcessElimination Substitution change
  62. 62. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  63. 63. Containment
  64. 64. A fume cupboard – an example of local exhaustventilayion
  65. 65. Photographcourtesy ofHSE
  66. 66. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  67. 67. Work practices / organisationTime Reduce exposure time Job rotation Work – rest regimes Work schedulingDistance Segregation Restrict access Rest areasOrganisation Reduce numbers exposed Good working practice Written procedures “Permits to work”
  68. 68. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEPersonal protective equipment – which should bethe last resort
  69. 69. Respiratory protection
  70. 70. Chemical protective clothing, glovesand eye protection
  71. 71. Management measures Maintenance of controls Supervision Exposure monitoring Screening & health surveillance Information, instruction, training Review and audit
  72. 72. www.bohs.org
  73. 73. www.bohs.orgThe organisation for anyone interested inoccupational hygiene in the UK
  74. 74. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermike@diamondenv.co.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter: @diamondenvMike Slater
  75. 75. Picture credits: Stock.XCHNG - www.sxc.hu/ Cirrus Research - www.cirrusresearch.co.uk The Health and Safety Executive – www.hse.gov.uk www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/victorian_britain/children_in_facto ries/ www.beautifulbritain.co.uk
  76. 76. Mike Slater, Diamond Environmental Ltd. (mike@diamondenv.co.uk) This presentation is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK:International Licence

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