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Sex Determination
from mandible, pelvis & skull
Presented by : 111,112,113,114,115,116
Introduction
Sex is a biological term, denoting the genetic,
physiologic and anatomical characteristics of an
individual based on which we can identify ourselves as
male or female.
Why is sex determination required?
● For the purpose of identification in living/dead.
● For deciding whether an individual can exercise
certain civil rights extended to one sex only.
● For deciding questions relating to legitimacy,
divorce, paternity, marriage,impotence, rape, and
affiliation.
● Participation in sports
Ways of sex determination :
● physical morphology
● Microscopic/sex chromatin test
● Gonadal biopsy
● Gene based test
● Essay of testosterone
In normal cases, sex determination is easy from external
examination, but it is difficult in case of :
● Hermaphroditism
● Concealed sex
● Advanced decomposition
● Skeleton
Skeleton
Human skeleton is both exo and endoskeleton.
Recognisable sex differences do not appear until puberty, except
in the pelvis, and the accuracy from this bone is about 75 to 80%
and without pelvis only 50%.
Sex determination is rarely based on any one skeleton feature
alone.
The determination of sex is based mainly upon the appearance of
pelvis, skull, sternum, and the long bones.
Determination
of sex
from mandible
Roll no. -111,112
Symphysis menti
Female Mandible
● It is generally smaller and thinner
with smooth attachment site for
muscles.
● Anteriorly rounded.
● Mean Intercondylar distance-
123.5mm.
Male Mandible
● It is larger and thicker.
● It have rough muscle attachment sites
● Anteriorly square or u-shaped.
● Mean Intercondylar distance
130.2mm.
Intercoronoid distance
Intercondylar distance
Difference
Male Female
1. General
appearance
larger, thicker smaller, thinner
2. Chin
(symphysis menti)
Square or u shaped rounded
3. Angle of mandible less obtuse, prominent
everted
more obtuse, not
prominent
inverted
4. Ramus flexure rearwars angulation of
the posterior border of
ramus
straight ramus
Male Female
Male Female
Male Female
5. Ascending Ramus Greater breadth smaller breadth
6. Mental tubercles large & prominent insignificant
7. Muscular marking prominent not prominent
Male Female
8. Condyles larger smallet
9. Inferior border of
mandible
irregular smooth
Male Female
10. Body height at
symphysis
greater smaller
Body of pubis Narrow, triangular, thick. Broad, square; pits on
posterior surface if borne
children.
Ramus of pubis It is like continuation of body
of pubis.
Has a constricted or narrowed
appearance and is short and
thick.
Ischiopubic rami More everted, thicker and
roughter.
Less everted, thinner an
smoother.
Symphysis Higher, bigger and narrow in
width. Margins of pubic arch
everted
Lower, wider and rounded.
Margins of pubic arch not
everted; distance bet ween
two pubic tubercles greater
Subpubic angle V-shaped, sharp angle 70 to
75°.
U-shaped, rounded, broa
angle, 90 to 100°
Male Female
Pelvic brim or inlet Heart shaped Circular or elliptical; more
spacious; diameters longer.
Pelvic cavity Conical and funnel-shaped Broad and round
Sacroiliac articulation Large, extends to 2 ½ to 3
vertebrae.
Small, oblique, extends to 2 to
2 ½ vertebrae.
Sacroiliac joint surface Large and less sharply
angulated.
L-shaped and elevated
anteriorly.
Sacrum Longer, narrower, with more
evenly distributed curvature;
promontory well marked,
Body of finst sacral vertebra
larger.
Shorter, wider; upper
half almost straight, curve
forward in lower half;
promontory less marked.
Body of first sacral vertebra
small.
Coccyx Less movable More moveable
Male Female
Ischiopubic index 73 to 94 91 to 115
Sciatic notch index 4 to 5 5 to 6
Pubic ramus ratio 1:1 2:1 or greater
Male Female
Pubic length in mm. x 100
Ischial length in mm.
Width of sciatic notch x 100
Depth of sciatic notch
Ischiopubic index:
Sciatic notch index:
Determination
of sex
from Skull
Roll no.- 115,116
Skull
1. Introduction
2. General appearance
3. Glabella
4. Orbits
5. Supraorbital ridges
6. Mastoid process
7. Cheek bone
8. Occipital bone
9. Palate
General appearance :
● Male : larger ,longer
● Female : small , lighter ,
walls thinner ,rounder and
smooth .
Capacity : m: 1500 - 1550 mL
F : 1350 -1400 mL
2 .Forehead Steeper , less rounded Vertical , rounded
3. Glabella Rough more prominent Smooth, small / absent
4. Orbit ● Square ,
● smaller with round
margins ,
● set lower on the
face
● Rounded
● larger with sharp
margin
● set higher on the
face
Male Female
Supraorbital ridges Prominent , rounded Less prominent ,sharp
Cheek bones Heavier, laterally
arched
Lighter, more
compressed
Nasal aperture ● Higher .
● Narrower
● sharp margin
Lower and broader
Frontal eminence Small Large
Parietal eminence
Small Large
3. Orbit
Square ,small
with round
margin
4.Supraorbital
ridge : prominent
5. Cheek
bones:
heavier
6. Nasal aperture
: higher ,
narrower , sharp
margin
7. Frontal
eminence -
small
8. Parietal
eminence:
small
Large
6.Lower and
broader
5. Lighter ,
more
compressed
4. Less prominent
3. Round
with sharp
margin
Zygomatic arch More prominent Less prominent
Frontonasal junction Distinct angulation Smoothly curved
External auditory meatus Bony ridge along upper border is
prominent
Absent
Mastoid process Wider, longer ,round and blunt Narrow ,short ,smooth and
pointed .
Occipital area Prominent protuberance and
muscle lines
Not prominent
Base Site of muscular insertions more
marked
Less marked
Diagastric groove More deep Less deep
Occipital condyle Larger Small
Palate Larger, broader and u shaped
Smaller and parabola shaped
Foramen magnum Relatively larger and longer Relatively small and round
Teeth Larger Small
Condylar facet
Digastric groove
Significance of Sex determination
● Living persons pertaining to:
Criminal cases Civil cases
1.Persons accused of assault,
murder, or rape
1.Marriage
2.Passport
2. Interchange of new born
babies in hospital
3. Insurance claim
4. Inheritance
3. Impersonation 5. Missing person
4. Absconding soldiers and
criminals
6.Disputed sex
● Dead people:
1.In case of fire, explosions, and accidents.
2.When an unknown dead body is found on the road,
fields, railway compartment or water.
3.In case of decomposed body.
4. In case of mutilated body.
5. Skeleton
THANK YOU!

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Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skull

  • 1. Sex Determination from mandible, pelvis & skull Presented by : 111,112,113,114,115,116
  • 2. Introduction Sex is a biological term, denoting the genetic, physiologic and anatomical characteristics of an individual based on which we can identify ourselves as male or female. Why is sex determination required? ● For the purpose of identification in living/dead. ● For deciding whether an individual can exercise certain civil rights extended to one sex only. ● For deciding questions relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, marriage,impotence, rape, and affiliation. ● Participation in sports
  • 3. Ways of sex determination : ● physical morphology ● Microscopic/sex chromatin test ● Gonadal biopsy ● Gene based test ● Essay of testosterone In normal cases, sex determination is easy from external examination, but it is difficult in case of : ● Hermaphroditism ● Concealed sex ● Advanced decomposition ● Skeleton
  • 4. Skeleton Human skeleton is both exo and endoskeleton. Recognisable sex differences do not appear until puberty, except in the pelvis, and the accuracy from this bone is about 75 to 80% and without pelvis only 50%. Sex determination is rarely based on any one skeleton feature alone. The determination of sex is based mainly upon the appearance of pelvis, skull, sternum, and the long bones.
  • 7.
  • 8. Female Mandible ● It is generally smaller and thinner with smooth attachment site for muscles. ● Anteriorly rounded. ● Mean Intercondylar distance- 123.5mm.
  • 9. Male Mandible ● It is larger and thicker. ● It have rough muscle attachment sites ● Anteriorly square or u-shaped. ● Mean Intercondylar distance 130.2mm.
  • 11. Difference Male Female 1. General appearance larger, thicker smaller, thinner 2. Chin (symphysis menti) Square or u shaped rounded
  • 12. 3. Angle of mandible less obtuse, prominent everted more obtuse, not prominent inverted 4. Ramus flexure rearwars angulation of the posterior border of ramus straight ramus Male Female
  • 14. Male Female 5. Ascending Ramus Greater breadth smaller breadth 6. Mental tubercles large & prominent insignificant 7. Muscular marking prominent not prominent
  • 15. Male Female 8. Condyles larger smallet 9. Inferior border of mandible irregular smooth
  • 16. Male Female 10. Body height at symphysis greater smaller
  • 17.
  • 18. Body of pubis Narrow, triangular, thick. Broad, square; pits on posterior surface if borne children. Ramus of pubis It is like continuation of body of pubis. Has a constricted or narrowed appearance and is short and thick. Ischiopubic rami More everted, thicker and roughter. Less everted, thinner an smoother. Symphysis Higher, bigger and narrow in width. Margins of pubic arch everted Lower, wider and rounded. Margins of pubic arch not everted; distance bet ween two pubic tubercles greater Subpubic angle V-shaped, sharp angle 70 to 75°. U-shaped, rounded, broa angle, 90 to 100° Male Female
  • 19.
  • 20. Pelvic brim or inlet Heart shaped Circular or elliptical; more spacious; diameters longer. Pelvic cavity Conical and funnel-shaped Broad and round Sacroiliac articulation Large, extends to 2 ½ to 3 vertebrae. Small, oblique, extends to 2 to 2 ½ vertebrae. Sacroiliac joint surface Large and less sharply angulated. L-shaped and elevated anteriorly. Sacrum Longer, narrower, with more evenly distributed curvature; promontory well marked, Body of finst sacral vertebra larger. Shorter, wider; upper half almost straight, curve forward in lower half; promontory less marked. Body of first sacral vertebra small. Coccyx Less movable More moveable Male Female
  • 21. Ischiopubic index 73 to 94 91 to 115 Sciatic notch index 4 to 5 5 to 6 Pubic ramus ratio 1:1 2:1 or greater Male Female Pubic length in mm. x 100 Ischial length in mm. Width of sciatic notch x 100 Depth of sciatic notch Ischiopubic index: Sciatic notch index:
  • 23. Skull 1. Introduction 2. General appearance 3. Glabella 4. Orbits 5. Supraorbital ridges 6. Mastoid process 7. Cheek bone 8. Occipital bone 9. Palate
  • 24.
  • 25. General appearance : ● Male : larger ,longer ● Female : small , lighter , walls thinner ,rounder and smooth . Capacity : m: 1500 - 1550 mL F : 1350 -1400 mL
  • 26. 2 .Forehead Steeper , less rounded Vertical , rounded 3. Glabella Rough more prominent Smooth, small / absent 4. Orbit ● Square , ● smaller with round margins , ● set lower on the face ● Rounded ● larger with sharp margin ● set higher on the face Male Female
  • 27. Supraorbital ridges Prominent , rounded Less prominent ,sharp Cheek bones Heavier, laterally arched Lighter, more compressed Nasal aperture ● Higher . ● Narrower ● sharp margin Lower and broader Frontal eminence Small Large Parietal eminence Small Large
  • 28.
  • 29. 3. Orbit Square ,small with round margin 4.Supraorbital ridge : prominent 5. Cheek bones: heavier 6. Nasal aperture : higher , narrower , sharp margin 7. Frontal eminence - small 8. Parietal eminence: small Large 6.Lower and broader 5. Lighter , more compressed 4. Less prominent 3. Round with sharp margin
  • 30. Zygomatic arch More prominent Less prominent Frontonasal junction Distinct angulation Smoothly curved External auditory meatus Bony ridge along upper border is prominent Absent Mastoid process Wider, longer ,round and blunt Narrow ,short ,smooth and pointed . Occipital area Prominent protuberance and muscle lines Not prominent Base Site of muscular insertions more marked Less marked
  • 31.
  • 32. Diagastric groove More deep Less deep Occipital condyle Larger Small Palate Larger, broader and u shaped Smaller and parabola shaped Foramen magnum Relatively larger and longer Relatively small and round Teeth Larger Small
  • 34. Significance of Sex determination ● Living persons pertaining to: Criminal cases Civil cases 1.Persons accused of assault, murder, or rape 1.Marriage 2.Passport 2. Interchange of new born babies in hospital 3. Insurance claim 4. Inheritance 3. Impersonation 5. Missing person 4. Absconding soldiers and criminals 6.Disputed sex
  • 35. ● Dead people: 1.In case of fire, explosions, and accidents. 2.When an unknown dead body is found on the road, fields, railway compartment or water. 3.In case of decomposed body. 4. In case of mutilated body. 5. Skeleton