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 Started in Rome (Italy), and then it
spread across Europe.
 Chronology: 17th Century
 Where does the name come from? Its not clear…
 It might come from the Portuguese word “barroco”  name given to irregular &
imperfect pearls.
 It might come from the word “verruga”  something that is considered defective.
It was first used in the 18th Century, by Neoclassical artists, in a
pejorative way to criticize the extravagant & distorted artistic
forms of the previous century.
CHARACTERISTICS:
• PROPAGANDISTIC ART: it tries to
impress, amaze & persuade
people.
 Catholic Church  used it to
promote its doctrines against
Protestantism.
 Absolute Monarchs  used it to
display their power & enhance their
authority.
 Bourgeoisie  used it to
demonstrate their economic success.
• Considered OPPOSITE TO THE RENAISSANCE, despite it also uses
element taken from the Classical art:
 Rejects Renaissance principles (proportion, symmetry, simplicity, order…). It rather
prefers theatrical, excessive, pretentious & complex forms.
 It tries to amaze & attract people appealing to their emotions, not their reasoning.
• Great interest in DEPICTING FEELINGS, and pursuits DYNAMISM,
MOVEMENT & TENSION.
ARCHITECTURE: ChAracteristics
• Use of classical elements (columns, arches,
pediments, entablatures…) but used with total
freedom  no proportion (giant order), balance, order,
simplicity… they rather pursue a visual & emotional
impact.
• Taste for curved lines to create sense of movement
& a theatrical effect:
 Curved walls to create chiaroscuro effects
(lights/shades)
 Broken pediments
 Solomonic column (twisted shaft)
 Elliptical plans
• Extensive decoration  specially the façades, as they
are considered “store windows” to attract people inside
the buildings.
VS
RENAISSANCE
“Villa Capra” or “Villa la Rotonda”
(Palladio)
BAROQUE
“Church of Saint Charles at the
Four Fountains” (Borromini)
Transformations of Saint Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city):
 Enlarged the central nave to convert its plan to one of Latin cross
Italy: CARLO MADERNO
Italy: CARLO MADERNO
Transformations of Saint Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city):
 Redesign of he façacde of the Basilica  use of giant order
Baldachin of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city)
Bronze covering structure over the altar supported by huge Salomonic columns
Italy: BERNINI
 Most renowned Baroque artist.
 Architect & sculptor.
 Sponsored by the Popes.
Italy: BERNINI
Baldachin of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city)
St. Peter’s Square
(Vatican city)
Italy: BERNINI
Theatrical effect  its’ shape symbolizes the big arms of
the Catholic Church that embrace the whole humanity.
St. Peter’s Square (Vatican city)
Italy: BERNINI
The Egyptian obelisk commemorates the martyrdom of St. Peter at the Circus of
the roman emperor Neron.
St. Peter’s Square (Vatican city)
Italy: BERNINI
Giant order
columns
San Andrés del Quirinal (Rome) Muro cóncavo, portada convexa
Italy: BERNINI
San Andrés del Quirinal (Rome)
Italy: BERNINI
San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes
(Rome)
Italy: BORROMINI
Famous for his great display
of movement
San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes
(Rome)
Italy: BORROMINI
San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes
(Rome)
Italy: BORROMINI
San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes
(Rome)
Italy: BORROMINI
Borromini:
Church of San Ivo della Sapienza (Rome)
Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
Borromini:
Church of San Ivo della
Sapienza (Rome)
OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
Borromini:
Façade of the Church of Santa Inés (Piazza
Navona, Rome)
Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
Borromini: Oratorio de San Felipe Neri
(Rome)
Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
Baltasar Longhena:
Church of Santa Maria della Salute
(Venice)
Pietro da Cortona:
Church of Santa Maria della Pace (Rome)
Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
Mansart:
Palace of Versailles (Paris)  comisioned by the “Roi Soleil”
France
French
Baroque
architecture
was less
complex:
• Straight lines
• Less decoration
France
Palace of Versailles (Paris)
HALL O MIRRORS
(Galería de los Espejos)
Creaban una escenografía auténticamente barroca
para exaltar la figura del Rey Sol:
• 17 ventanales… a los que corresponde otros tantos
espejos en la pared de enfrente.
• Abundancia decorativa.
• Bóveda con pinturas sobre las victorias de Luis XIV.
• Iluminación a base de 3.000 lámparas duplicada por
los espejos.
France
France
Palace of
Versailles
(Paris)
Palace of Schönbrunn (Viena)
Palace of “La Granja de
San Ildefonso” (Segovia)
• Versalles became the model of Royal palace in Europe.
France
“Les Invalides” (Paris)
France
• Commissioned by
Louis XIV, as a hospital
and a retirement
home for war
veterans.
• Burial place of
Napoleon Bonaparte.
ACTIVITY 1
1) What similarities & differences does Baroque art have
with Renaissance art?
2) Why do we say that Baroque art was propagandistic?
3) Who were the main patrons of Baroque art?
4) Devise a diagram to summarize Baroque architecture.
Include:
• Characteristics
• Artists
• Examples
 Naturalism
 Expression of feelings
 Movement  achieved by dynamic & complex compositions (“figura
serpentinata”), unstable poses, treatment of clothing, excessive gesticulation
 Strong chiaroscuro  big contrasts of lights & shades to increase dramatism.
 Topics:
 Mainly religious  in Catholic countries (Italy, France, Flanders, Spain...)
 New topics addressed to the bourgeoisie (especially in Protestant countries)
 Mythological
 Scenes of everyday life
 Portraits
 Landscapes
 Still lifes (bodegones)
SCULTURE & PAINTING:
GENERAL ChAracteristics
ACTIVITY 2
1) Fill in the chart as you follow the explanation:
2) Match the artists with their characteristics:
Artists Examples
SCULPTURE Italy
PAINTING
Italy
Flanders
Holland
Spain
Caravaggio
Rubens
Rembrandt
Velazquez
Court painter of Felipe IV
Master in painting portraits
Tenebrism & great realism
Movement, colour & voluptuous women
David
Italy: BERNINI
VS
RENAISSANCE
BAROQUE
David
Italy: BERNINI
Apolo & Dafne
Italy: BERNINI
Ecstasy of
Saint
Theresa
Italy: BERNINI
Tomb of Pope Urban VIII
(Vatican City)
Italy: BERNINI
Portrait bust of
Louis XIV
Italy: BERNINI
 Realism: no idealization; reality & nature are represented as they are
(ugliness, pain, deformity…)
 Triumph of color over line. Fluid brush-strokes.
 Illusion of depth & distance (3D) through aerial perspective & a
magnificent use of chiaroscuro.
 Main artists:
 Italy  Caravaggio
 Flanders  Rubens
 Holland  Rembrandt
 Spain  Velazquez
PAINTING:
specific characteristics
The Calling of St.
Mathew
(Vocación de San Mateo)
JesusSt. PeterSt. Mathew
Italy: CARAVAGGIO
 Tenebrism (very
pronounced form of
chiaroscuro)
 Great realism (total
absence of
idealization) 
humble people &
environments.
Conversion of Saint Paul
(La Conversión de San Pablo)
Crucifixion of St. Peter
(Crucifixión de San Pedro)
Italy: CARAVAGGIO
La Flagelación de
Cristo
La Decapitación de San Juan Bautista
Judit y
Holofernes
El entierro de
Cristo
Italy: CARAVAGGIO
Baco
• Still life (bodegón)
• Absence of idealization (vulgar
character, symptoms of
inebriation…)
Italy: CARAVAGGIO
Characterized by:
 Movement  curved lines,
complex & dynamic
compositions…
 Colour  clear triumph of
color over line. Fluid brush-
strokes. Brilliant colours.
 Curvy & voluptuose
women with white skin 
ideal of female beauty
The Three Graces
(Las tres Gracias)
Flanders: RUBENS
El juicio de Paris
Flanders: RUBENS
La adoración de los magos
Flanders: RUBENS
El alzamiento de la cruz
El Descendimiento
María de Medici
Retrato ecuestre del
Duque de Lerma
Flanders: RUBENS
The Night Watch
(La ronda de noche)
Holland: REMBRANDT
Famous for his portraits
Los síndicos del gremio de pañeros
Holland: REMBRANDT
Lección de anatomía del doctor Tulp
Selfportraits
Holland: REMBRANDT
Vermeer de Delft  everyday life
scenes, portraits, landscapes…
Holland: OTHER ARTISTS
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
La Fragua de Vulcano
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
La Rendición de Breda (Las lanzas)
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Portraits of Felipe IV
& his family
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
La Venus del Espejo
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Las hilanderas
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Spain: VELAZQUEZ
Las Meninas

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Baroque art

  • 1.
  • 2.  Started in Rome (Italy), and then it spread across Europe.  Chronology: 17th Century  Where does the name come from? Its not clear…  It might come from the Portuguese word “barroco”  name given to irregular & imperfect pearls.  It might come from the word “verruga”  something that is considered defective. It was first used in the 18th Century, by Neoclassical artists, in a pejorative way to criticize the extravagant & distorted artistic forms of the previous century.
  • 3. CHARACTERISTICS: • PROPAGANDISTIC ART: it tries to impress, amaze & persuade people.  Catholic Church  used it to promote its doctrines against Protestantism.  Absolute Monarchs  used it to display their power & enhance their authority.  Bourgeoisie  used it to demonstrate their economic success.
  • 4. • Considered OPPOSITE TO THE RENAISSANCE, despite it also uses element taken from the Classical art:  Rejects Renaissance principles (proportion, symmetry, simplicity, order…). It rather prefers theatrical, excessive, pretentious & complex forms.  It tries to amaze & attract people appealing to their emotions, not their reasoning.
  • 5. • Great interest in DEPICTING FEELINGS, and pursuits DYNAMISM, MOVEMENT & TENSION.
  • 6.
  • 7. ARCHITECTURE: ChAracteristics • Use of classical elements (columns, arches, pediments, entablatures…) but used with total freedom  no proportion (giant order), balance, order, simplicity… they rather pursue a visual & emotional impact. • Taste for curved lines to create sense of movement & a theatrical effect:  Curved walls to create chiaroscuro effects (lights/shades)  Broken pediments  Solomonic column (twisted shaft)  Elliptical plans • Extensive decoration  specially the façades, as they are considered “store windows” to attract people inside the buildings.
  • 8. VS RENAISSANCE “Villa Capra” or “Villa la Rotonda” (Palladio) BAROQUE “Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains” (Borromini)
  • 9. Transformations of Saint Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city):  Enlarged the central nave to convert its plan to one of Latin cross Italy: CARLO MADERNO
  • 10. Italy: CARLO MADERNO Transformations of Saint Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city):  Redesign of he façacde of the Basilica  use of giant order
  • 11. Baldachin of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city) Bronze covering structure over the altar supported by huge Salomonic columns Italy: BERNINI  Most renowned Baroque artist.  Architect & sculptor.  Sponsored by the Popes.
  • 12. Italy: BERNINI Baldachin of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican city)
  • 13. St. Peter’s Square (Vatican city) Italy: BERNINI Theatrical effect  its’ shape symbolizes the big arms of the Catholic Church that embrace the whole humanity.
  • 14. St. Peter’s Square (Vatican city) Italy: BERNINI The Egyptian obelisk commemorates the martyrdom of St. Peter at the Circus of the roman emperor Neron.
  • 15. St. Peter’s Square (Vatican city) Italy: BERNINI Giant order columns
  • 16. San Andrés del Quirinal (Rome) Muro cóncavo, portada convexa Italy: BERNINI
  • 17. San Andrés del Quirinal (Rome) Italy: BERNINI
  • 18. San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes (Rome) Italy: BORROMINI Famous for his great display of movement
  • 19. San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes (Rome) Italy: BORROMINI
  • 20. San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes (Rome) Italy: BORROMINI
  • 21. San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes (Rome) Italy: BORROMINI
  • 22. Borromini: Church of San Ivo della Sapienza (Rome) Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
  • 23. Borromini: Church of San Ivo della Sapienza (Rome) OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
  • 24. Borromini: Façade of the Church of Santa Inés (Piazza Navona, Rome) Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
  • 25. Borromini: Oratorio de San Felipe Neri (Rome) Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
  • 26. Baltasar Longhena: Church of Santa Maria della Salute (Venice) Pietro da Cortona: Church of Santa Maria della Pace (Rome) Italy: OTHER BAROQUE BUILDINGS
  • 27. Mansart: Palace of Versailles (Paris)  comisioned by the “Roi Soleil” France French Baroque architecture was less complex: • Straight lines • Less decoration
  • 29. HALL O MIRRORS (Galería de los Espejos) Creaban una escenografía auténticamente barroca para exaltar la figura del Rey Sol: • 17 ventanales… a los que corresponde otros tantos espejos en la pared de enfrente. • Abundancia decorativa. • Bóveda con pinturas sobre las victorias de Luis XIV. • Iluminación a base de 3.000 lámparas duplicada por los espejos. France
  • 31. Palace of Schönbrunn (Viena) Palace of “La Granja de San Ildefonso” (Segovia) • Versalles became the model of Royal palace in Europe. France
  • 32. “Les Invalides” (Paris) France • Commissioned by Louis XIV, as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans. • Burial place of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • 33. ACTIVITY 1 1) What similarities & differences does Baroque art have with Renaissance art? 2) Why do we say that Baroque art was propagandistic? 3) Who were the main patrons of Baroque art? 4) Devise a diagram to summarize Baroque architecture. Include: • Characteristics • Artists • Examples
  • 34.
  • 35.  Naturalism  Expression of feelings  Movement  achieved by dynamic & complex compositions (“figura serpentinata”), unstable poses, treatment of clothing, excessive gesticulation  Strong chiaroscuro  big contrasts of lights & shades to increase dramatism.  Topics:  Mainly religious  in Catholic countries (Italy, France, Flanders, Spain...)  New topics addressed to the bourgeoisie (especially in Protestant countries)  Mythological  Scenes of everyday life  Portraits  Landscapes  Still lifes (bodegones) SCULTURE & PAINTING: GENERAL ChAracteristics
  • 36. ACTIVITY 2 1) Fill in the chart as you follow the explanation: 2) Match the artists with their characteristics: Artists Examples SCULPTURE Italy PAINTING Italy Flanders Holland Spain Caravaggio Rubens Rembrandt Velazquez Court painter of Felipe IV Master in painting portraits Tenebrism & great realism Movement, colour & voluptuous women
  • 41. Tomb of Pope Urban VIII (Vatican City) Italy: BERNINI
  • 42. Portrait bust of Louis XIV Italy: BERNINI
  • 43.  Realism: no idealization; reality & nature are represented as they are (ugliness, pain, deformity…)  Triumph of color over line. Fluid brush-strokes.  Illusion of depth & distance (3D) through aerial perspective & a magnificent use of chiaroscuro.  Main artists:  Italy  Caravaggio  Flanders  Rubens  Holland  Rembrandt  Spain  Velazquez PAINTING: specific characteristics
  • 44. The Calling of St. Mathew (Vocación de San Mateo) JesusSt. PeterSt. Mathew Italy: CARAVAGGIO  Tenebrism (very pronounced form of chiaroscuro)  Great realism (total absence of idealization)  humble people & environments.
  • 45. Conversion of Saint Paul (La Conversión de San Pablo) Crucifixion of St. Peter (Crucifixión de San Pedro) Italy: CARAVAGGIO
  • 46. La Flagelación de Cristo La Decapitación de San Juan Bautista Judit y Holofernes El entierro de Cristo Italy: CARAVAGGIO
  • 47. Baco • Still life (bodegón) • Absence of idealization (vulgar character, symptoms of inebriation…) Italy: CARAVAGGIO
  • 48. Characterized by:  Movement  curved lines, complex & dynamic compositions…  Colour  clear triumph of color over line. Fluid brush- strokes. Brilliant colours.  Curvy & voluptuose women with white skin  ideal of female beauty The Three Graces (Las tres Gracias) Flanders: RUBENS
  • 49. El juicio de Paris Flanders: RUBENS
  • 50. La adoración de los magos Flanders: RUBENS El alzamiento de la cruz El Descendimiento
  • 51. María de Medici Retrato ecuestre del Duque de Lerma Flanders: RUBENS
  • 52. The Night Watch (La ronda de noche) Holland: REMBRANDT Famous for his portraits
  • 53. Los síndicos del gremio de pañeros Holland: REMBRANDT Lección de anatomía del doctor Tulp
  • 55. Vermeer de Delft  everyday life scenes, portraits, landscapes… Holland: OTHER ARTISTS
  • 58. Spain: VELAZQUEZ La Rendición de Breda (Las lanzas)
  • 59. Spain: VELAZQUEZ Portraits of Felipe IV & his family
  • 63. La Venus del Espejo Spain: VELAZQUEZ