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By: JONALYN M. SHENTON
Animals can inflict serious
injuries to humans and to
themselves as a result of
improper handling.
The use of proper restraint and handling
techniques reduces stress to animals and
also to the researcher.
Handling stress represents an
experimental variable and should
be minimized whenever possible.
General Principles
Four Types of Restraint
􀁺 Non-contact: Voice, eye contact, gesture.
􀁺 Manual or physical: Using body or devices.
􀁺 Chemical: Using tranquilizers or anesthetics.
􀁺 Combination methods: Using two or more of
the previous methods.
Approaching an
Unknown Animal
 Safety first
 Watch animal’s body language
-Cues to demeanor of animals
 Approach from the side
 Avoid cornering the animal
 Avoid direct eye contact
 Expect the unexpected
Dog Body Language:
Playful and Attentive
Just In Time Training 2013 Animal Behavior and Restraint: Companion Animals
Playful
Alert and Attentive
Graphic illustrations from FEMA CERT Animal Response Module I and II
Dog Body Language:
Fearful or Aggressive
Just In Time Training 2013
Graphic illustrations from FEMA CERT Animal Response Module I and II
Animal Behavior and Restraint: Companion
Animals
Fearful – Defensive Threat
Aggressive - Offensive
Threat
Cat Body Language
 Aggressive
 Rear elevated
 Ears out to side
 Direct eye contact
 Hair raised on back
 Relaxed
 Calm posture, relaxed tail
 Ears pointing up and out
Safe Animal Handling:
 Be aware of the special stressors for animals in the clinic
setting.
 Never put your face directly into the face of a dog or cat.
 Concentrate on the animal you are handling without
being distracted by other activities.
 NEVER sit on the floor while handling/examining a
dog. If the animal becomes aggressive or aroused you
will be unable to move away or protect yourself and risk
serious facial bites.
 Always be prepared to protect yourself or move away
quickly in the event an animal becomes aggressive
unexpectedly.
Safe and effective animal handling requires a
thorough understanding of the normal behavior and
responses of each species.
Communication
Any animal exhibiting potentially aggressive behavior should
have a kennel sign (CAUTION) posted to alert others who may
be handling the animal. Specific alerts or recommendations
should be written on the sign and in the medical record to
provide staff and other volunteers with as much information as
possible when handling the animal.
Handling
Before handling the animal get his/her attention.
Call the pet by name and encourage him/her to
come to you. If the pet doesn't come, slowly
approach from the front. Never surprise the animal
by approaching from behind. Extend your hand,
palm down. You may want to curl your fingers into
a fist to prevent nipping or biting of your digits. Let
the animal sniff your hand, then slowly move your
hand to touch the side of the face then stroke the
top of the head.
If the owner is holding the pet, don’t
take the pet from their arms. Instead
have the owner place the animal on
the exam table. Animals may be
protective to their owners and may
bite if they feel you are threatening
their owner.
Before attempting to restrain an animal
you should take a moment to allow the
animal to become comfortable with
you:
 Crouch down so that you are on their level. Do not
sit on the ground as you will be unable to move
away or protect yourself if necessary.
 Avoid direct eye contact but maintain safe visual
contact with the animal
 Talk in soothing tones. Avoid high-pitched,
excited talk.
MICE
 Tail restraint, as described below is adequate transferring
them to cage to cage.
Tail Restraint
Mice may be picked up by grasping the base of
the tail.
Do not grasp the tip of the tail, as this may
cause the skin to be stripped off.
This method is only used for brief restraint;
for example transferring animals from cage to
cage.
Never suspend the mouse for prolonged
periods of time by its tail.
Forceps Restraint
Mice may also be picked up with rubber-
tipped forceps by gently grasping the animal
by the scruff of the neck or the base of the
tail.
The forceps should be dipped in disinfectant
between cages.
This method of restraint should only be
used for short-term procedures such as
transferring animals to a new cage.
Never suspend the animal for a prolonged
period of time with the forceps.
Two-Handed Method
Place the mouse on a rough surface
while holding the tail firmly
Note:
Smooth surface will frighten the
mouse because it cannot get a
foothold. This may cause it to turn
around and bite in its attempt to
escape.
Grasp the nape gently and firmly
with your free hand and lift the
mouse
MICE
 This restraint is adequate for examining mice.
One Handed Method
Place the mouse’s tail between
the last two fingers of the
hand that is holding the nape
These methods may be used to perform minor, non-painful procedures such as
injections or ear tagging.
This method should be used to restrain a rat for
injections and other minor procedures.
 RATS may be handled by the tail,
with precautions similar to those
used for mice, with emphasis on
only grasping the tail base.
Holding the tail distal to the base can result
in a de-gloving injury to the tail that will
require surgical repair or euthanasia.
HAMSTERS
Because hamsters do not have tails, they must be grasped firmly
by the loose skin of its back, or handled in a manner similar to the rat.
 RABBITS are very susceptible to lumbar spinal luxation, resulting
in paralysis. It is necessary to support the animal's hindquarter at all
times. Although rabbits seldom bite, they can inflict painful scratches
with their hind legs. One way of lifting a rabbit is by grasping the skin
over the shoulder with one hand and gently lifting it with the other arm
cradling the body, the head nestled in the crook of your arm. Rabbits
must never by lifted by the ears.
Rabbits
 Grasp the scruff of the neck
 Lift quickly
 Always support the
hindquarters
 Never grab by ear or tail
 Carry a rabbit with feet
pointing away
from your body
 A light towel or blanket
covering the rabbit with a towel or blanket
can help to calm the animal
CATS are often cooperative enough to be restrained on a table by the loose skin
at the back of the neck and hips, or with one hand restraining the body and the
other restraining the head. A fractious cat may have to be wrapped in a heavy
towel for restraint with any needed limbs carefully withdrawn for treatment.
Throw a towel over the head of
cats and small dogs, then grasp
the scruff of the neck through
the towel, lifting the rear end
with a hand or arm behind the
rear legs to "scoop" them out of
the cage.
Turn the blanket to uncover the
cat. Then pick up the animal in
the usual manner.
HOW TO REMOVE A CAT FROM A CAGE
When you approach cat’s cage, all movements should slow and deliberate.
Cats are high- strung animals, and sudden movements might frighten
them.
Caution: Look for warning signs that indicate a cat is on the
defensive. They might include hissing or growling, flattering
the ears against the head and arching the back
This method in which the animal's rear
quarters are cradled in the handler's arm
and the front legs are loosely griped with
the same hand. The other hand is free to
pet and stroke the cat's head but can also
quickly grab the zygomatic arches to
control the head if the animal attempts to
escape.
Cat's will try to hide when frightened. You
can carry a cat with one hand under the hind
quarters and the other holding the scruff of
the neck, letting the cat hide it's head.
Use of a cat restraint bag
Restraint bags can be used to restrain cats and small dogs. The bags are
made of canvas or nylon, with a hook or other type of fastener at the
neck opening and one or more zippers (or strips of Velcro) to allow
selective exposure of a body part. Instead of a restraint bag, a heavy
towel can be used to wrap the cats body, leaving the head exposed but
use of a towel is not nearly as effective as a bag.
The open bag is draped over the cats back
and the neck closure is fastened. The neck
fastener should be tight enough that the cat
cannot insert a front foot through the neck
opening.
The cat is either flipped into dorsal
decumbency or held off the table so the
longest zipper can be zipped. As you close
the zipper, take care not to catch the cat's fur
in the zipper.
Zippers are strategically placed around the
bag to allow selective exposure of a body
part.
Dog Restraint Devices
 Slip leashes
 Only if non-aggressive
 Loop around neck,
slip to tighten
 Do not attach leash
to the collar
 Do not drag dog on leash
 Do not leave dog in
slip leash unattended or tied to any object
Dog Restraint Devices
 Muzzles
 Cloth, leather
 Gauze, rope, twine
 To prevent bites
 Do not restrict
open-mouth breathing
Especially in hot weather
 Do not leave muzzled
dog unattended
 Should not be on for
long periods of time
Lifting and Carrying Dogs
 Support chest and hindquarters
 If bite potential,
muzzle prior to lifting
 Small dogs
 Lift under abdomen
 Hand between front legs
 Medium dogs
-Cradle arms around
chest and haunches
 Large dogs
-Two people
A large dog may require 2 people
to lift. One person lifts behind
the front legs and the other
under the abdomen.
Decide BEFORE picking up the
animal if it will be placed in sternal
or or lateral recumbancy and if
lateral, if the legs will be directed
toward or away from the holders.
Lateral Restraint for Dogs
 Gently lay dog on its side
 Stand against dog’s back
 Place arms across
the dog’s neck
and hindquarter
 Grasp bottom
legs
Standing Restraint for Dogs
 Place one arm under the dog’s neck
 Other arm behind the rear legs or under dog’s
abdomen
 Pull dog’s head snug against shoulder
Different Methods in giving pill
:FoodPill, CrushPill ,PushDrop on the FloorP,ill Hidden in a Hot
Dog/Wiener
1
Hide the pill in a meatball. Hide it in the
dog food.
2
Roll the pill into a thin strip of sliced
lunch meat.
3
Sometimes simply rubbing the pill with
butter will work.
1
Crush the pill. The easiest way to do this is
with a mortar and pestle.
2
Thoroughly mix the pill powder that you
created with a teaspoon of a soft, creamy
treat your dog loves: a spoon-full of
canned dog food, peanut butter, or yogurt.
3
Let your dog lick the spoon-full of
food/pill mixture.
Pill Crush Method
Pills are given for several reasons, for instance, to rid them of worms or to
experiment with new drugs
Step 1
Have some one restrain the dog in
sitting position. Face the dog. Place one
hand over the upper jaw, with thumb
and fingers applying pressure to fold the
lips inside the mouth. This will force the
dog’s mouth open part away.
Step 2
Pick up the pill between your index
finger and thumb. Place the middle
finger of free hand on the lower
incisors. These are short teeth in the
front end of the lower jaw. Press
down, forcing the dog to open its
mouth wider.
How to Get Your Dog to Swallow a Pill
Step 3
Push the head back, so that its muzzle
points up. This will give you a clear
view down its throat. Drop the pill on
the back of the tounge
Step 4
Close the dog’s mouth and hold
it shut. Stoke the throat until the
dog swallow the pill. You will be
able to feel the throat move in
swallowing
Remember
 You have an ethical and legal responsibility to treat all
animals in a humane manner.
 All personnel must be appropriately trained.
 Always consult your veterinarian if you need
assistance.
Thank You
43

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Animal Handling and Restraint

  • 1. By: JONALYN M. SHENTON
  • 2. Animals can inflict serious injuries to humans and to themselves as a result of improper handling.
  • 3. The use of proper restraint and handling techniques reduces stress to animals and also to the researcher. Handling stress represents an experimental variable and should be minimized whenever possible. General Principles
  • 4. Four Types of Restraint 􀁺 Non-contact: Voice, eye contact, gesture. 􀁺 Manual or physical: Using body or devices. 􀁺 Chemical: Using tranquilizers or anesthetics. 􀁺 Combination methods: Using two or more of the previous methods.
  • 5. Approaching an Unknown Animal  Safety first  Watch animal’s body language -Cues to demeanor of animals  Approach from the side  Avoid cornering the animal  Avoid direct eye contact  Expect the unexpected
  • 6. Dog Body Language: Playful and Attentive Just In Time Training 2013 Animal Behavior and Restraint: Companion Animals Playful Alert and Attentive Graphic illustrations from FEMA CERT Animal Response Module I and II
  • 7. Dog Body Language: Fearful or Aggressive Just In Time Training 2013 Graphic illustrations from FEMA CERT Animal Response Module I and II Animal Behavior and Restraint: Companion Animals Fearful – Defensive Threat Aggressive - Offensive Threat
  • 8. Cat Body Language  Aggressive  Rear elevated  Ears out to side  Direct eye contact  Hair raised on back  Relaxed  Calm posture, relaxed tail  Ears pointing up and out
  • 9. Safe Animal Handling:  Be aware of the special stressors for animals in the clinic setting.  Never put your face directly into the face of a dog or cat.  Concentrate on the animal you are handling without being distracted by other activities.  NEVER sit on the floor while handling/examining a dog. If the animal becomes aggressive or aroused you will be unable to move away or protect yourself and risk serious facial bites.  Always be prepared to protect yourself or move away quickly in the event an animal becomes aggressive unexpectedly.
  • 10. Safe and effective animal handling requires a thorough understanding of the normal behavior and responses of each species. Communication Any animal exhibiting potentially aggressive behavior should have a kennel sign (CAUTION) posted to alert others who may be handling the animal. Specific alerts or recommendations should be written on the sign and in the medical record to provide staff and other volunteers with as much information as possible when handling the animal.
  • 11. Handling Before handling the animal get his/her attention. Call the pet by name and encourage him/her to come to you. If the pet doesn't come, slowly approach from the front. Never surprise the animal by approaching from behind. Extend your hand, palm down. You may want to curl your fingers into a fist to prevent nipping or biting of your digits. Let the animal sniff your hand, then slowly move your hand to touch the side of the face then stroke the top of the head.
  • 12. If the owner is holding the pet, don’t take the pet from their arms. Instead have the owner place the animal on the exam table. Animals may be protective to their owners and may bite if they feel you are threatening their owner.
  • 13. Before attempting to restrain an animal you should take a moment to allow the animal to become comfortable with you:  Crouch down so that you are on their level. Do not sit on the ground as you will be unable to move away or protect yourself if necessary.  Avoid direct eye contact but maintain safe visual contact with the animal  Talk in soothing tones. Avoid high-pitched, excited talk.
  • 14. MICE  Tail restraint, as described below is adequate transferring them to cage to cage. Tail Restraint Mice may be picked up by grasping the base of the tail. Do not grasp the tip of the tail, as this may cause the skin to be stripped off. This method is only used for brief restraint; for example transferring animals from cage to cage. Never suspend the mouse for prolonged periods of time by its tail.
  • 15. Forceps Restraint Mice may also be picked up with rubber- tipped forceps by gently grasping the animal by the scruff of the neck or the base of the tail. The forceps should be dipped in disinfectant between cages. This method of restraint should only be used for short-term procedures such as transferring animals to a new cage. Never suspend the animal for a prolonged period of time with the forceps.
  • 16. Two-Handed Method Place the mouse on a rough surface while holding the tail firmly Note: Smooth surface will frighten the mouse because it cannot get a foothold. This may cause it to turn around and bite in its attempt to escape. Grasp the nape gently and firmly with your free hand and lift the mouse MICE  This restraint is adequate for examining mice.
  • 17. One Handed Method Place the mouse’s tail between the last two fingers of the hand that is holding the nape These methods may be used to perform minor, non-painful procedures such as injections or ear tagging.
  • 18. This method should be used to restrain a rat for injections and other minor procedures.  RATS may be handled by the tail, with precautions similar to those used for mice, with emphasis on only grasping the tail base. Holding the tail distal to the base can result in a de-gloving injury to the tail that will require surgical repair or euthanasia.
  • 19.
  • 20. HAMSTERS Because hamsters do not have tails, they must be grasped firmly by the loose skin of its back, or handled in a manner similar to the rat.
  • 21.
  • 22.  RABBITS are very susceptible to lumbar spinal luxation, resulting in paralysis. It is necessary to support the animal's hindquarter at all times. Although rabbits seldom bite, they can inflict painful scratches with their hind legs. One way of lifting a rabbit is by grasping the skin over the shoulder with one hand and gently lifting it with the other arm cradling the body, the head nestled in the crook of your arm. Rabbits must never by lifted by the ears.
  • 23. Rabbits  Grasp the scruff of the neck  Lift quickly  Always support the hindquarters  Never grab by ear or tail  Carry a rabbit with feet pointing away from your body  A light towel or blanket covering the rabbit with a towel or blanket can help to calm the animal
  • 24. CATS are often cooperative enough to be restrained on a table by the loose skin at the back of the neck and hips, or with one hand restraining the body and the other restraining the head. A fractious cat may have to be wrapped in a heavy towel for restraint with any needed limbs carefully withdrawn for treatment. Throw a towel over the head of cats and small dogs, then grasp the scruff of the neck through the towel, lifting the rear end with a hand or arm behind the rear legs to "scoop" them out of the cage. Turn the blanket to uncover the cat. Then pick up the animal in the usual manner.
  • 25. HOW TO REMOVE A CAT FROM A CAGE When you approach cat’s cage, all movements should slow and deliberate. Cats are high- strung animals, and sudden movements might frighten them. Caution: Look for warning signs that indicate a cat is on the defensive. They might include hissing or growling, flattering the ears against the head and arching the back
  • 26.
  • 27. This method in which the animal's rear quarters are cradled in the handler's arm and the front legs are loosely griped with the same hand. The other hand is free to pet and stroke the cat's head but can also quickly grab the zygomatic arches to control the head if the animal attempts to escape. Cat's will try to hide when frightened. You can carry a cat with one hand under the hind quarters and the other holding the scruff of the neck, letting the cat hide it's head.
  • 28. Use of a cat restraint bag Restraint bags can be used to restrain cats and small dogs. The bags are made of canvas or nylon, with a hook or other type of fastener at the neck opening and one or more zippers (or strips of Velcro) to allow selective exposure of a body part. Instead of a restraint bag, a heavy towel can be used to wrap the cats body, leaving the head exposed but use of a towel is not nearly as effective as a bag. The open bag is draped over the cats back and the neck closure is fastened. The neck fastener should be tight enough that the cat cannot insert a front foot through the neck opening. The cat is either flipped into dorsal decumbency or held off the table so the longest zipper can be zipped. As you close the zipper, take care not to catch the cat's fur in the zipper.
  • 29. Zippers are strategically placed around the bag to allow selective exposure of a body part.
  • 30. Dog Restraint Devices  Slip leashes  Only if non-aggressive  Loop around neck, slip to tighten  Do not attach leash to the collar  Do not drag dog on leash  Do not leave dog in slip leash unattended or tied to any object
  • 31. Dog Restraint Devices  Muzzles  Cloth, leather  Gauze, rope, twine  To prevent bites  Do not restrict open-mouth breathing Especially in hot weather  Do not leave muzzled dog unattended  Should not be on for long periods of time
  • 32.
  • 33. Lifting and Carrying Dogs  Support chest and hindquarters  If bite potential, muzzle prior to lifting  Small dogs  Lift under abdomen  Hand between front legs  Medium dogs -Cradle arms around chest and haunches  Large dogs -Two people
  • 34. A large dog may require 2 people to lift. One person lifts behind the front legs and the other under the abdomen. Decide BEFORE picking up the animal if it will be placed in sternal or or lateral recumbancy and if lateral, if the legs will be directed toward or away from the holders.
  • 35. Lateral Restraint for Dogs  Gently lay dog on its side  Stand against dog’s back  Place arms across the dog’s neck and hindquarter  Grasp bottom legs
  • 36. Standing Restraint for Dogs  Place one arm under the dog’s neck  Other arm behind the rear legs or under dog’s abdomen  Pull dog’s head snug against shoulder
  • 37. Different Methods in giving pill :FoodPill, CrushPill ,PushDrop on the FloorP,ill Hidden in a Hot Dog/Wiener 1 Hide the pill in a meatball. Hide it in the dog food. 2 Roll the pill into a thin strip of sliced lunch meat. 3 Sometimes simply rubbing the pill with butter will work.
  • 38. 1 Crush the pill. The easiest way to do this is with a mortar and pestle. 2 Thoroughly mix the pill powder that you created with a teaspoon of a soft, creamy treat your dog loves: a spoon-full of canned dog food, peanut butter, or yogurt. 3 Let your dog lick the spoon-full of food/pill mixture. Pill Crush Method
  • 39. Pills are given for several reasons, for instance, to rid them of worms or to experiment with new drugs Step 1 Have some one restrain the dog in sitting position. Face the dog. Place one hand over the upper jaw, with thumb and fingers applying pressure to fold the lips inside the mouth. This will force the dog’s mouth open part away. Step 2 Pick up the pill between your index finger and thumb. Place the middle finger of free hand on the lower incisors. These are short teeth in the front end of the lower jaw. Press down, forcing the dog to open its mouth wider. How to Get Your Dog to Swallow a Pill
  • 40. Step 3 Push the head back, so that its muzzle points up. This will give you a clear view down its throat. Drop the pill on the back of the tounge Step 4 Close the dog’s mouth and hold it shut. Stoke the throat until the dog swallow the pill. You will be able to feel the throat move in swallowing
  • 41.
  • 42. Remember  You have an ethical and legal responsibility to treat all animals in a humane manner.  All personnel must be appropriately trained.  Always consult your veterinarian if you need assistance.