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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND
FACTORS INFLUENCING THEM
By: JONALYN M.
SHENTON
No two individuals can be exactly alike in their
resulting development and adjustments. The unique
characteristics and traits emerges as children pass
from one stage to another.
The rate of development is not the same for all
individuals. Some develop and learn faster than the
others. Sometimes the gap is wide.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Learning is most effective when differences in
learner‟s language, cultural, and social behaviour
are taken into account.
TWO MAJOR FACTORS
Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences
4
EnvironmentHeredity
Personality
Individual Differences is the uneven rate of growth and
development among individuals.
Environment modifies to a
certain extent the effects of
hereditary.
Environment provides the
direction of the growth and
development of an
individual .
We inherit almost all the
things we need for growth
and development
Heredity gives all potentials
for growth and
development.
TWO MAJOR FACTORS
Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences
5 EnvironmentHeredity
6
A. Heredity
1. Intelligence ( mental ability)- Some are more intelligent
than the others. And those who are more intelligent progress and grow
faster than those who are less intelligent.
People differ in intellectual abilities and capacities like reasoning and
thinking, power of imagination, creative expression, concentration etc. • On
the basis of these differences they are usually classified as idiot, imbecile,
moron, border line, normal, very superior and genius
Recent psychologists viewed intelligence as multiple abilities. It is
necessary for a teacher to have a thorough understanding of intellectual
abilities of students.
7
A. Heredity
2. Physical condition – It has been observed that some people are
born bigger, healthier, and stronger than the others. Naturally, healthier, and
stronger than the others.
Difference in motor ability • There exist wide differences in motor abilities such
as reacting time, speed of action, steadiness, rate of muscular moment, manual
dexterity and resistance to fatigue etc.
But there are also people who are born with handicaps such as deafness,
muteness, defective arms or legs, and the like.
Naturally, normal people develop faster and better and are able to attain higher
status than the handicapped people.
Physical differences: individual differ in height, weight,
colour of skin, colour of eyes and hair, size of hands and
heads, arms, feet, mouth and nose, length of waistline,
structure and functioning of internal organs, facial
expression, mannerisms of speech and walk, and other such
native or acquired physical characteristics.
9
A. Heredity
3. Aptitude and special talent- gifted with special aptitudes and
talents in music, painting, acting, science, mathematics and the like.
These children often show excellence of performance and leadership in their
respective fields of specializations far above the ordinary individuals. Variations
occur among the individuals in relation to the specific tastes and interests.
In a similar way, people are found to have different aptitudes. Some have
mechanical aptitude, while the others have scholastic, musical or artistic
aptitudes.
4. Sex – Males are expected to be aggressive, fearless, and capable of doing
heavier work. Females are expected to be passive, demure, prim, and the like.
Hence, to a large extent, sex determines the direction of the growth and
development of individuals.
10
A. Heredity
5. Age – age is a big factor in making one different from another. Generally ,
older learners have more physical strength and higher level of comprehension
than younger ones.
Maturation and readiness are important in learning. Mature learners have greater
capacity to receive instruction.
11
A. Heredity
6. Temperament ( emotional maturity and stability )-
those who are easily irritated and tensed even with trivial things, symptomatic of
emotional immaturity and stability.
In some individuals, positive emotions like love, affection and amusement and the
like are prominent whereas, in some negative emotions are more powerful.
Individuals also differ in the manner they express their emotions. Some are
emotionally stable and mature, while others are emotionally unstable and
immature.
Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable are more patient
in studying their lessons, hence, learn faster than those who are more
temperamental.
Emotional stability is the capacity to maintain ones emotional balance under
stressful circumstances. It is the opposite of emotional instability and neuroticism
12
A. Heredity
Emotional stability is the capacity to maintain ones emotional balance under
stressful circumstances. It is the opposite of emotional instability and neuroticism
Individuals who score low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less
reactive to stress. They tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel
tense or rattled. Although they are low in negative emotion, they are not
necessarily high on positive emotion. Being high on positive emotion is an
element of the independent trait of extraversion. Neurotic extraverts, for
example, would experience high levels of both positive and negative emotional
states, a kind of "emotional roller coaster". Individuals who score low on
neuroticism (particularly those who are also high on extraversion) generally
report more happiness and satisfaction with their lives.
13
A. Heredity
7. Introversion- extroversion, dominance-
submissiveness –
Extroverts are usually gregarious and like the dominants, enjoy interacting with
people
Introverts prefer to work/ jobs that can performed in peace, quiet, and with less
contact with other people
The Socializes ( Extrovert)
Positive traits
The socializers would love to travel and
be a part of the groups, and are often
the centre of attention. They are often
excited and demanding as a result of
being high energy type. They love the
limelight and the hype. They are direct
in their approach.
Negative traits
It is important for the personality to
be liked by others and can hurt
easily if they think someone doesn’t
care for them. They can be fickle
minded and emotionally weak.
The hermit ( Introvert)
Positive traits
The typical introvert personality doesn’t like
change. They prefer to have set of guidelines to
follow and they won’t mind doing the same
things over and over. They often are very happy
and content with themselves and life in general.
They are usually punctual and consistent.
Negative traits
As they tend to keep to themselves,
such people come across as shy and
arrogant. They are usually disturbed
by new challenges which can affect
the efficiency of their work.
17
A. Heredity
8. Effort – making capacity – an important trait , one with much
effort- making capacity studies and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits
steadiness in his work.
Those who have more of this trait usually ahead faster than those who have less.
9. Criminal tendency – Psychologists can prove that criminal tendency
is inherited.
Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble makers, and they
commit many anti-social acts, in or out of school.
Usually end up in early death, or in prison, or in perpetual hiding from the agents
of the law unless the criminal tendency is redirected or softened by the
environment.
More of the more well known explanations
of inherited criminal behaviour is the
‘super male syndrome’ or the XYY
chromosome defect. The addition of the
extra Y chromosome ion males make can
make them more likely to be aggressive
and violent. This also can contribute to
other disabilities such as ADHD and
behavioural problems as a child. This can
lead to lack of concentration and a grown
frustration in a child which can reduce
their chances of doing well in school,
increasing the likelihood of becoming
involved in criminal behaviour. A study by
Morely and Hall (2003) showed that
children with Antisocial-personality
disorder (ASPD) where an individual
shows a persistent disregard for the rights
of others, increasing the chance of criminal
behaviour by 70%.
Many people would argue that
criminal offend because of inherited
traits or genes. This was a
particularly popular viewpoint in the
past, however many studies in recent
years have shown that we cannot
blame criminal activity purely on
genetics.
21
B. Environment
1. Family background – includes level of
education and value orientation of parents is an
other determinant.
If the parents suffer from ignorance and wrong
values, the children likewise suffer and the adverse
consequences because such parents with the right
values can grow and develop more progressively than
children coming from poor families.
Naturally, children of affluent families can pursue
higher education which is usually denied to children
of poor families
22
B. Environment
2. Community background – It can be observed that children of
individuals coming from these different types of communities differ markedly in
their values, manners, actions, and thinking.
Children coming from squatter or
slum areas and from crime-infested
areas have a very slim chance of
growing progressively because of the
bad influence of neighborhood.
Barkada influence is especially
strong in these places.
The city children are more exposed
to modern conveniences such as the
telephone, television, light rail
transit, museums, libraries, big
commercial establishments, malls,
and the like.
23
B. Environment
2. Community background – It can be observed that children of
individuals coming from these different types of communities differ markedly in
their values, manners, actions, and thinking.
The city children has an edge over the rural
children in the field of informal learning
24
B. Environment
3. School – It is very important factors in learning
and development. Good school can
develop pupils better than the poor ones.
There are three components make the
difference between the good and poor
schools.
1.Teachers
2.Facilities
3.Location
Role of schools in meeting the individual differences
• “Since we supposedly are teaching individuals, not
groups of individuals, it is the function of the school
within its budgetary personnel and curricular
limitations to provide adequate schooling for every
learner no matter how much he differs from every
other learner.” -crow and crow
Role of school…
1. Proper knowledge of the individual’s potentialities
2. Ability grouping
3. Adjusting the curriculum
4. Adjusting the method of teaching
5. Adopting special programmes or methods for
individualizing instruction
27
B. Environment
3. School
There are three components make the difference between the good and
poor schools.
Teachers- If teachers are efficiently in
the true sense of the word, the pupils
learn remarkably well than when the
teachers are inefficient, in which case
the pupils suffer setback
Qualities of an Effective Teacher
An effective teacher loves to teach. The single
most important quality that every teacher should
possess is a love and passion for teaching young
people.
An effective teacher demonstrates a caring
attitude. Even teachers who love their job can
struggle in this area, not because they don’t care,
but because they get caught up so much in the day
to day routine of teaching that they can forget that
their students have lives outside of school.
An effective teacher can relate to his or her
students. The best teachers work hard to figure out
how to relate to each of their students.
An effective teacher is willing to think
outside the box.
What makes teaching so exciting is that kids learn
differently, and we have to find and utilize different
strategies and differentiated learning to reach every
student.
Qualities of an Effective Teacher
An effective teacher is an excellent
communicator. To be the best possible teacher you
must be an effective communicator.
An effective teacher is proactive rather than
reactive.
proactively looking for solutions to solve those
problems will have less stress on them, than those
teachers who wait until a problem arises and then tries to
address it.
An effective teacher strives to be better.
A teacher who is looking for new and better teaching
strategies is an effective teacher. No matter how long you
have taught, you should always want to grow as a teacher.
Seek out professional development opportunities and try
to apply something new like technology and tools in class
every year.
An effective teacher uses a variety of media in
their lessons. Like it or not we are in the 21st
century, and this generation of students was born in
the digital age. These students have been bombarded
by technological advances unlike any other
generation. They have embraced it, and if we as
teachers do not, then we are falling behind.
An effective teacher challenges their
students. The most effective teachers, are often
the ones that many students think are the most
difficult. This is because they challenge their
students and push them harder than the average
teacher does.
An effective teacher understands the content
that they teach and knows how to explain that
content in a manner that their students
understand.
There are teachers who are truly experts on the
content, but struggle to effectively explain it to their
students. The highly effective teacher both
understands the content and explains it on level.
31
B. Environment
3. School
There are three components make the difference between the good and
poor schools.
Facilities - adequate and serviceable, the pupils
learn well and progress rapidly, otherwise pupils will
be retarded in learning.
32
B. Environment
3. School
There are three components make the difference between the good and
poor schools.
Location - Children studying in a school
located in a very quiet place find learning
conducive.
1. Family background
2. Community background
3. School
Three component
a. Teachers
b. Facilities
c. Location
1. Intelligence ( mental ability)
2. Physical condition
3. Aptitude and special talent
4. Sex
5. Age
6. Temperament ( emotional
maturity and stability )
7. Introversion- extroversion,
dominance- submissiveness
8. Effort – making capacity
9. Criminal tendency
Summary
TWO MAJOR FACTORS
Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences
33 EnvironmentHeredity
Educational implications of individual differences…
• It is wrong to expect uniformity in gaining proficiency or success in a
particular field from a group of students. On account of their subnormal
intelligence, previous background, lack of proper interest, aptitude and
attitude etc. some students lag behind in one or the other area of
achievement.
• All students cannot be benefited by a particular method of instruction
and a uniform and rigid curriculum.
A teacher should be sensitive to individual differences.
A teacher’s challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences
among children and work to maximize the growth in each child.
References:
1. Foundation of Education, Ed. D by: Jose F. Calderon
2. Educational Psychology by: Adelaida C. Gines, Priscile B. Dizon, Aurora
B. Fulgencio, Peter Howard R. Obias, Furtunato G. Vendivel , Jr.
3. http://teaching.about.com/od/pd/a/Qualities-Of-An-Effective-
Teacher.htm
4. http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Emotional_stability

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Individual differences

  • 1. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THEM By: JONALYN M. SHENTON
  • 2. No two individuals can be exactly alike in their resulting development and adjustments. The unique characteristics and traits emerges as children pass from one stage to another. The rate of development is not the same for all individuals. Some develop and learn faster than the others. Sometimes the gap is wide. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
  • 3. Learning is most effective when differences in learner‟s language, cultural, and social behaviour are taken into account.
  • 4. TWO MAJOR FACTORS Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences 4 EnvironmentHeredity Personality Individual Differences is the uneven rate of growth and development among individuals.
  • 5. Environment modifies to a certain extent the effects of hereditary. Environment provides the direction of the growth and development of an individual . We inherit almost all the things we need for growth and development Heredity gives all potentials for growth and development. TWO MAJOR FACTORS Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences 5 EnvironmentHeredity
  • 6. 6 A. Heredity 1. Intelligence ( mental ability)- Some are more intelligent than the others. And those who are more intelligent progress and grow faster than those who are less intelligent. People differ in intellectual abilities and capacities like reasoning and thinking, power of imagination, creative expression, concentration etc. • On the basis of these differences they are usually classified as idiot, imbecile, moron, border line, normal, very superior and genius Recent psychologists viewed intelligence as multiple abilities. It is necessary for a teacher to have a thorough understanding of intellectual abilities of students.
  • 7. 7 A. Heredity 2. Physical condition – It has been observed that some people are born bigger, healthier, and stronger than the others. Naturally, healthier, and stronger than the others. Difference in motor ability • There exist wide differences in motor abilities such as reacting time, speed of action, steadiness, rate of muscular moment, manual dexterity and resistance to fatigue etc. But there are also people who are born with handicaps such as deafness, muteness, defective arms or legs, and the like. Naturally, normal people develop faster and better and are able to attain higher status than the handicapped people.
  • 8. Physical differences: individual differ in height, weight, colour of skin, colour of eyes and hair, size of hands and heads, arms, feet, mouth and nose, length of waistline, structure and functioning of internal organs, facial expression, mannerisms of speech and walk, and other such native or acquired physical characteristics.
  • 9. 9 A. Heredity 3. Aptitude and special talent- gifted with special aptitudes and talents in music, painting, acting, science, mathematics and the like. These children often show excellence of performance and leadership in their respective fields of specializations far above the ordinary individuals. Variations occur among the individuals in relation to the specific tastes and interests. In a similar way, people are found to have different aptitudes. Some have mechanical aptitude, while the others have scholastic, musical or artistic aptitudes. 4. Sex – Males are expected to be aggressive, fearless, and capable of doing heavier work. Females are expected to be passive, demure, prim, and the like. Hence, to a large extent, sex determines the direction of the growth and development of individuals.
  • 10. 10 A. Heredity 5. Age – age is a big factor in making one different from another. Generally , older learners have more physical strength and higher level of comprehension than younger ones. Maturation and readiness are important in learning. Mature learners have greater capacity to receive instruction.
  • 11. 11 A. Heredity 6. Temperament ( emotional maturity and stability )- those who are easily irritated and tensed even with trivial things, symptomatic of emotional immaturity and stability. In some individuals, positive emotions like love, affection and amusement and the like are prominent whereas, in some negative emotions are more powerful. Individuals also differ in the manner they express their emotions. Some are emotionally stable and mature, while others are emotionally unstable and immature. Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable are more patient in studying their lessons, hence, learn faster than those who are more temperamental. Emotional stability is the capacity to maintain ones emotional balance under stressful circumstances. It is the opposite of emotional instability and neuroticism
  • 12. 12 A. Heredity Emotional stability is the capacity to maintain ones emotional balance under stressful circumstances. It is the opposite of emotional instability and neuroticism Individuals who score low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress. They tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. Although they are low in negative emotion, they are not necessarily high on positive emotion. Being high on positive emotion is an element of the independent trait of extraversion. Neurotic extraverts, for example, would experience high levels of both positive and negative emotional states, a kind of "emotional roller coaster". Individuals who score low on neuroticism (particularly those who are also high on extraversion) generally report more happiness and satisfaction with their lives.
  • 13. 13 A. Heredity 7. Introversion- extroversion, dominance- submissiveness – Extroverts are usually gregarious and like the dominants, enjoy interacting with people Introverts prefer to work/ jobs that can performed in peace, quiet, and with less contact with other people
  • 14. The Socializes ( Extrovert) Positive traits The socializers would love to travel and be a part of the groups, and are often the centre of attention. They are often excited and demanding as a result of being high energy type. They love the limelight and the hype. They are direct in their approach. Negative traits It is important for the personality to be liked by others and can hurt easily if they think someone doesn’t care for them. They can be fickle minded and emotionally weak.
  • 15. The hermit ( Introvert) Positive traits The typical introvert personality doesn’t like change. They prefer to have set of guidelines to follow and they won’t mind doing the same things over and over. They often are very happy and content with themselves and life in general. They are usually punctual and consistent. Negative traits As they tend to keep to themselves, such people come across as shy and arrogant. They are usually disturbed by new challenges which can affect the efficiency of their work.
  • 16.
  • 17. 17 A. Heredity 8. Effort – making capacity – an important trait , one with much effort- making capacity studies and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits steadiness in his work. Those who have more of this trait usually ahead faster than those who have less. 9. Criminal tendency – Psychologists can prove that criminal tendency is inherited. Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble makers, and they commit many anti-social acts, in or out of school. Usually end up in early death, or in prison, or in perpetual hiding from the agents of the law unless the criminal tendency is redirected or softened by the environment.
  • 18. More of the more well known explanations of inherited criminal behaviour is the ‘super male syndrome’ or the XYY chromosome defect. The addition of the extra Y chromosome ion males make can make them more likely to be aggressive and violent. This also can contribute to other disabilities such as ADHD and behavioural problems as a child. This can lead to lack of concentration and a grown frustration in a child which can reduce their chances of doing well in school, increasing the likelihood of becoming involved in criminal behaviour. A study by Morely and Hall (2003) showed that children with Antisocial-personality disorder (ASPD) where an individual shows a persistent disregard for the rights of others, increasing the chance of criminal behaviour by 70%.
  • 19.
  • 20. Many people would argue that criminal offend because of inherited traits or genes. This was a particularly popular viewpoint in the past, however many studies in recent years have shown that we cannot blame criminal activity purely on genetics.
  • 21. 21 B. Environment 1. Family background – includes level of education and value orientation of parents is an other determinant. If the parents suffer from ignorance and wrong values, the children likewise suffer and the adverse consequences because such parents with the right values can grow and develop more progressively than children coming from poor families. Naturally, children of affluent families can pursue higher education which is usually denied to children of poor families
  • 22. 22 B. Environment 2. Community background – It can be observed that children of individuals coming from these different types of communities differ markedly in their values, manners, actions, and thinking. Children coming from squatter or slum areas and from crime-infested areas have a very slim chance of growing progressively because of the bad influence of neighborhood. Barkada influence is especially strong in these places. The city children are more exposed to modern conveniences such as the telephone, television, light rail transit, museums, libraries, big commercial establishments, malls, and the like.
  • 23. 23 B. Environment 2. Community background – It can be observed that children of individuals coming from these different types of communities differ markedly in their values, manners, actions, and thinking. The city children has an edge over the rural children in the field of informal learning
  • 24. 24 B. Environment 3. School – It is very important factors in learning and development. Good school can develop pupils better than the poor ones. There are three components make the difference between the good and poor schools. 1.Teachers 2.Facilities 3.Location
  • 25. Role of schools in meeting the individual differences • “Since we supposedly are teaching individuals, not groups of individuals, it is the function of the school within its budgetary personnel and curricular limitations to provide adequate schooling for every learner no matter how much he differs from every other learner.” -crow and crow
  • 26. Role of school… 1. Proper knowledge of the individual’s potentialities 2. Ability grouping 3. Adjusting the curriculum 4. Adjusting the method of teaching 5. Adopting special programmes or methods for individualizing instruction
  • 27. 27 B. Environment 3. School There are three components make the difference between the good and poor schools. Teachers- If teachers are efficiently in the true sense of the word, the pupils learn remarkably well than when the teachers are inefficient, in which case the pupils suffer setback
  • 28. Qualities of an Effective Teacher An effective teacher loves to teach. The single most important quality that every teacher should possess is a love and passion for teaching young people. An effective teacher demonstrates a caring attitude. Even teachers who love their job can struggle in this area, not because they don’t care, but because they get caught up so much in the day to day routine of teaching that they can forget that their students have lives outside of school. An effective teacher can relate to his or her students. The best teachers work hard to figure out how to relate to each of their students. An effective teacher is willing to think outside the box. What makes teaching so exciting is that kids learn differently, and we have to find and utilize different strategies and differentiated learning to reach every student.
  • 29. Qualities of an Effective Teacher An effective teacher is an excellent communicator. To be the best possible teacher you must be an effective communicator. An effective teacher is proactive rather than reactive. proactively looking for solutions to solve those problems will have less stress on them, than those teachers who wait until a problem arises and then tries to address it. An effective teacher strives to be better. A teacher who is looking for new and better teaching strategies is an effective teacher. No matter how long you have taught, you should always want to grow as a teacher. Seek out professional development opportunities and try to apply something new like technology and tools in class every year.
  • 30. An effective teacher uses a variety of media in their lessons. Like it or not we are in the 21st century, and this generation of students was born in the digital age. These students have been bombarded by technological advances unlike any other generation. They have embraced it, and if we as teachers do not, then we are falling behind. An effective teacher challenges their students. The most effective teachers, are often the ones that many students think are the most difficult. This is because they challenge their students and push them harder than the average teacher does. An effective teacher understands the content that they teach and knows how to explain that content in a manner that their students understand. There are teachers who are truly experts on the content, but struggle to effectively explain it to their students. The highly effective teacher both understands the content and explains it on level.
  • 31. 31 B. Environment 3. School There are three components make the difference between the good and poor schools. Facilities - adequate and serviceable, the pupils learn well and progress rapidly, otherwise pupils will be retarded in learning.
  • 32. 32 B. Environment 3. School There are three components make the difference between the good and poor schools. Location - Children studying in a school located in a very quiet place find learning conducive.
  • 33. 1. Family background 2. Community background 3. School Three component a. Teachers b. Facilities c. Location 1. Intelligence ( mental ability) 2. Physical condition 3. Aptitude and special talent 4. Sex 5. Age 6. Temperament ( emotional maturity and stability ) 7. Introversion- extroversion, dominance- submissiveness 8. Effort – making capacity 9. Criminal tendency Summary TWO MAJOR FACTORS Chapter 2: Understanding Individual Differences 33 EnvironmentHeredity
  • 34. Educational implications of individual differences… • It is wrong to expect uniformity in gaining proficiency or success in a particular field from a group of students. On account of their subnormal intelligence, previous background, lack of proper interest, aptitude and attitude etc. some students lag behind in one or the other area of achievement. • All students cannot be benefited by a particular method of instruction and a uniform and rigid curriculum. A teacher should be sensitive to individual differences. A teacher’s challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences among children and work to maximize the growth in each child.
  • 35.
  • 36. References: 1. Foundation of Education, Ed. D by: Jose F. Calderon 2. Educational Psychology by: Adelaida C. Gines, Priscile B. Dizon, Aurora B. Fulgencio, Peter Howard R. Obias, Furtunato G. Vendivel , Jr. 3. http://teaching.about.com/od/pd/a/Qualities-Of-An-Effective- Teacher.htm 4. http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Emotional_stability