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The Role of Motivation in
the Teaching-Learning
Process
By: JONALYN M. SHENTON
What is motivation?
Motivation is a process in which the individual’s
attention and interest are aroused and directed
toward definite goals.
Pique: aroused somebody’s interest
Incite: stir up feeling in or provoke action of somebody
Pursue: follow something or route or direction
: strive for something
Induce: persuade somebody to do something
Propel: push somebody in something interested
Impel: cause to move/force to do
Provoke: stir somebody to an emotion or response
Motive
: a reason for doing something
: something (as a need or
desire) that causes a person
to act
 Motivation is used in Psychology as education to
boost and direct student behavior. It points students
in the right direction and attempts to keep them
going in that direction.
 Because students are not always internally
motivated, they sometimes need situated
motivation, which is found in environmental
conditions that the teacher creates.
 Direct activities toward the achievement of a goal
 Controls and directs human behavior
 Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of
the young
 Gives satisfaction and happiness to the individual
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
"The teacher has to have the energy
of the hottest volcano, the memory of
an
elephant, and the diplomacy of an
ambassador“
Escalante, Jaime : The Best Teacher in America (1998)
Motivation: A Key to Effective
Teaching
Since motivation play an important role in
teaching, it is important for teachers to become
familiar with various aspects of motivation.
Motivation Through Teacher Personality
Motivation Through Interaction and Worthwhile
Tasks
Motivation Due to Environment
8
Personality is what we perceive
in our minds. What is inside, the
thought, or the conflict inside
contribute greatly to our physical
appearance. There’s a certain
image that we hold on ourselves,
that is what we projected outside.
Personality is what you are and
your identity
Motivation: A Key to Effective
Teaching
Motivation Through Teacher Personality
 Various characteristics of teachers are perceived
as important for motivating students to learn.
 "Student perceptions of whether the teacher
cares for them have meaningful effects on their
performance and behavior" several studies and
sources that indicate the importance of caring in a
teacher who motivates students to learn.
 While love and caring seem to be the most
important characteristics for a teacher to exhibit,
some writers also include humor and high
expectations of students.
Weaver and Cotrell (1987) established a ten-step, systematic sequence for
becoming more comfortable using humor in the classroom:
1. Smile/Be lighthearted.
2. Be spontaneous/natural.
a. Relax control a little/break the routine occasionally.
b. Be willing to laugh at yourself/don't take yourself so seriously.
3. Foster an informal climate/be conversational and loose.
4. Begin class with a thought for the day, a poem, a short anecdote, or a
humorous example.
5. Use stories and experiences that emerge from the subject matter.
Use personal
experiences.
6. Relate things to the everyday life of students. Read the student
newspaper. Listen to "their" music; see "their" movies.
7. Plan lectures/presentations in short segments with humor injected.
Plan a
commercial break. Use a slide or overhead.
8. Encourage a give-and-take climate between yourself and students.
Play off Their comments. Learn their names.
9. Ask students to supply you with some of their jokes, stories, or
anecdotes.
Motivation: A Key to Effective
Teaching
Motivation Through Interaction and Worthwhile
Tasks
 Teachers must be comfortable with themselves as
well as with the tasks they are using in their
lessons. As a teacher attains sincere concern for
the students while allowing humor and
expectations to increase, students' restlessness
will decrease and learning tasks will motivate
students more easily.
 The reason many teachers cannot interact with
students is that they have not developed respect
for the students.
Brown (1988) presented five postulates for
establishing and maintaining an atmosphere of
mutual respect between teachers and students:
· Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning.
· Differences must not only be tolerated, they must
be affirmed.
· Values are neither right nor wrong; they simply exist
in all of us.
· Freedom to choose is one of the most precious
rights we have.
· Those who dare to teach must never cease to
learn.
Motivation: A Key to Effective
Teaching
Motivation Due to Environment
A teacher who truly cares for the students will maintain consistent discipline
because of its effects on learning, regardless of the students' dislike for such
discipline. Many techniques can be used. Among these techniques is the use
of preventative strategies that focus students' attention on behaviors to attain
rather than on behaviors to avoid. Palardy and Palardy (1987)
discuss nine preventative strategies:
1. Teachers must feel comfortable with themselves, their pupils,
and their subject matter.
2. Teachers must believe in their students' capacity and
propensity for
appropriate classroom conduct.
3. Teachers must ensure that their instructional activities are
interesting and
relevant.
4. Teachers must match their instructional activities with their
Motivation: A Key to Effective
Teaching
Motivation Due to Environment
5. Teachers must involve their pupils in setting up "the
rules".
6. Teachers must make certain that their pupils know and
understand "the routine.".
7. Teachers must identify their problem times.
8. Teachers must remember that pupils are not "little
adults".
9. Teachers must give evidence that they genuinely like
and respect their pupils.
Most of these techniques can be seen as caring actions
taken by a teacher whose
role goes far beyond merely being a school district
Intrinsic motivation
 Motivation associated with activities that are their
own reward
 No need for incentives or punishments
 Examples:
 Sarah loves studying math
 John plays for the football team
 Laura spends time with her family
There are two different kinds of motivation.
1. Intrinsic motivation- is an internal stimulus that
arouse one to action. It is based on motive, which
is always intrinsic.
The learners work not for the medals or anything
tangible, but for the personal satisfaction for
accomplishing their work and attaining their goal.
Intrinsic occurs when a person is internally
motivated to do something because it either brings
them pleasure, they think it is important, or they
feel that what they are learning is ethically
significant.
There are two different kinds of motivation.
2. Extrinsic motivation- is an external stimulus that
arouse one to action. It is based on incentive.
Motivation come from outside the individual, that
is from the external environment.
Extrinsic motivation comes in the forms of praise
and other forms of social approval, high grades,
medals, scholarship, etc.
 Motivation created by external such as rewards or
punishments
 Examples:
 Jack wants to get an A+ on the test
 Tim aims to break a school record in track
 Performing at the Olympics? Are the athletes
extrinsically motivated by a medal or intrinsically
motivated to achieve a personal goal (personal
record, the act of competing, etc.)
Extrinsic Motivation
CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES
1. Biological and physiological drives. These
are innate or inborn stimuli such as desire for
food, water, shelter, and other comfort of the
body.
In hierarchy of motives, biological drives are
the lowest but the most important.
2. Psychological drives. These are social drives
which required, learned or derived. These are
for social approval, security, safety,
belongingness, love, esteem, prestige and
power.
3. Creativity or self-actualization drives. These
are general or unconscious drives or motives.
The desire to do something not necessity but
simply the urge to achieve something
exceptional for the good humanity is
actualization.
Theories Of Motivation And Learning
1. Attribution Theory And Motivation
Weiner's theory has been widely applied in education, law, clinical
psychology, and the mental health domain.
1.Attribution is a three stage process: (1) behavior is observed, (2) behavior is
determined to be deliberate, and (3) behavior is attributed to internal or
external causes.
2. Achievement can be attributed to (1) effort, (2) ability, (3) level of task
difficulty, or (4) luck.
3. Causal dimensions of behavior are (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3)
controllability.
2. Theories Humanistic
Psychology
 Concerned with how learners can
develop their human potential
 Humanist Psychologist:
 Gestalt – theory where in learning
can be explained in terms of the
wholeness of the problem and where
the environment is changing and the
learner is continuously reorganizing
his perceptions.
 Abraham Maslow – theory of human
needs for self-actualizing person
Maslow’s Chart
 Lower Level Needs: For Survival and Safety
 Higher Level Needs: For Intellectual achievement
and self-actualization
Self- Actualization: Maslow’s term for self-
fulfillment, the realization of personal potential
 All LOWER LEVEL NEEDS must be met before
HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS are addressed
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
 Also known as Deficiency Needs and consist of:
survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem
 When these needs are met, the motivation for
fulfilling them decreases
Lower Level Needs
 Also known as Being Needs and consist of:
Intellectual achievement
aesthetic appreciation
self-actualization
 When these needs are met, a persons motivation
increases to seek further fulfillment.
 These needs are NEVER completely filled.
 Ex) The more successful you are in your efforts
as a teacher, the harder you are likely to strive for
even greater improvement.
Higher Level Needs
3. Cognitive Psychology
 Focus their attention on how individuals process
information and how they monitor and manage
thinking.
 Advocates of cognitive psychology are:
 Jean Piaget –Cognitive Development stages
 Lev Vygostky – Social constructivism
 Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences
 Felder and Silverman – Learning Styles
 Daniel Goleman – Emotional Intelligences
 To the cognitive theorist:
 Learning constitutes a logical method
for organizing and interpreting
learning.
 It is rooted in the tradition of subject
matter and is similar to the cognitive
development theory.
 Teachers uses a lot of problem and
thinking skills which are exemplified by
practices like:
 reflective thinking
 creative thinking
 intuitive thinking
 discovery learning
Discovery Learning
Jerome Bruner
Student should discover what to learn. Learning involves
rearrangement and transformation of materials that led to insight
Acquisition – obtaining new info..it is replace and refined
Transformation – manipulating info.. To fit new situation
Evaluation – if info, has been manipulated
Integrate materials to existing cognitive structures
4. Behavioral Psychology
classical conditioning – Ivan Pavlov’s
Behaviorist Learning Theory . Its main influences
were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical
conditioning
 operant conditioning – B.F. Skinner’s
 Skinner believed that positive reinforcement is
an important component of learning
all includes classical and
operant.
Learning consists of new stimuli-
response connections through
practice and strengthened through
association with external rewards.
Behaviorism theory
Classical Conditioning
Theory
Pavlov/Watson
Stimulus generalization- stimulus transfer to another stimuli.
Discrimination- not to respond with the same stimulus/manner
Extinction- conditioned response lost.
Recovery- recover lost responded
Applied to classroom:
Providing positive classroom environment
Help student s to experience success
Presenting lesson in gradual and keeping student relaxed and happy
--Conditioning with neutral (conditioned
stimulus) gains a response result to its
paring with natural stimulus
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is a type of
learning in which an animal’s
natural response to one object or
sensory stimulus transfers to
another stimulus. This illustration
shows how a dog can learn to
salivate to the sound of a tuning
fork, an experiment first carried
out in the early 1900s by Russian
physiologist Ivan Pavlov. For
conditioning to occur, the pairing
of the food with the tuning fork
(step 3 in the illustration) must be
repeated many times, so that the
dog eventually learns to associate
the two items.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. ©
1993-2008 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights
reserved.
Operant conditioning/
Instrumental
B. F. Skinner
SO-REWARD AND
PUNISHMENT
Consequences of behavior based upon its environment whether
reinforce or eliminates the behavior.
Reinforcement not synonymous to rewards it is given after, motivation
give before
Positive reinforcement- strengthen behavior
Negative reinforcement- weakens behavior
Applied to classroom by:
Providing more opportunities for practice
Reinforcing (praise, incentives etc)if desirable
Providing more rewards than punishment
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is a type of
learning in which an animal’s
natural response to one object or
sensory stimulus transfers to
another stimulus. This illustration
shows how a dog can learn to
salivate to the sound of a tuning
fork, an experiment first carried
out in the early 1900s by Russian
physiologist Ivan Pavlov. For
conditioning to occur, the pairing
of the food with the tuning fork
(step 3 in the illustration) must be
repeated many times, so that the
dog eventually learns to associate
the two items.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. ©
1993-2008 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights
reserved.
4. Social Cognitive Learning Motivation
 modeling and observation theory – Albert Bandura
 The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the
importance of observing and modeling the behaviors,
attitudes, and emotional reactions of others
 Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky)
Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction
plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.
Vygotsky's theory is complementary to Bandura's work
on social learningand a key component of situated
learning theory as well.
Social Cognitive Learning Theory/ Imitation
Bandura/ Wallace SB
LEARNED by individual observe from
other. It affects the way people act
Attention- exposing/ observing a model
Retention- learn symbolically, reproduction of desired behavior
Reproduction- produce internal model of the environment guide
observer behavior
Motivation no performance unless conditioned are favorable
Observational learning- individual recombine previously learned behavior
to produce newly response.
Inhibitory effect- strengthen for weakens
Social facilitation- acting
Applied to classroom by;
Modeling desirable behavior
Make sure that students are physically capable of doing the modeled
behavior and that they can demonstrate this behavior.
Exposing student to a variety of exemplary behavior/models
Educational Implications
When a students are not actively involved in their work, they are
unmotivated to learn, but they may be motivated to do something
else.
Teachers should help focus students’ attention . Many students fail
to realize and understand their objective in coming to school.
Classroom activities can help arouse curiosity and direct students’
attention toward school.
Initiate and stimulating environment will be of great help to motivate
and focus students attention and priorities.
Referrences:
Weaver II, R. L. & Cotrell, H. W. (1987). Ten specific techniques for developing
humor in the classroom. Education, 108, 144-169.
Mathews, J. (1988). Escalante: The best teacher in America. New York: Holt.
Meek, A. (1989). On creating ganas: A conversation with Jaime Escalante.
Educational Leadership, 46(5), 46-47.
Foundation of Education, Ed. D by: Jose F. Calderon
Educational Psychology by: Adelaida C. Gines, Priscile B. Dizon, Aurora B.
Fulgencio, Peter Howard R. Obias, Furtunato G. Vendivel , Jr.
http://teaching.about.com/od/pd/a/Qualities-Of-An-Effective-Teacher.htm
Thank You43

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Role of motivation

  • 1. The Role of Motivation in the Teaching-Learning Process By: JONALYN M. SHENTON
  • 2. What is motivation? Motivation is a process in which the individual’s attention and interest are aroused and directed toward definite goals. Pique: aroused somebody’s interest Incite: stir up feeling in or provoke action of somebody Pursue: follow something or route or direction : strive for something Induce: persuade somebody to do something Propel: push somebody in something interested Impel: cause to move/force to do Provoke: stir somebody to an emotion or response
  • 3. Motive : a reason for doing something : something (as a need or desire) that causes a person to act
  • 4.  Motivation is used in Psychology as education to boost and direct student behavior. It points students in the right direction and attempts to keep them going in that direction.  Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.
  • 5.  Direct activities toward the achievement of a goal  Controls and directs human behavior  Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of the young  Gives satisfaction and happiness to the individual IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
  • 6. "The teacher has to have the energy of the hottest volcano, the memory of an elephant, and the diplomacy of an ambassador“ Escalante, Jaime : The Best Teacher in America (1998)
  • 7. Motivation: A Key to Effective Teaching Since motivation play an important role in teaching, it is important for teachers to become familiar with various aspects of motivation. Motivation Through Teacher Personality Motivation Through Interaction and Worthwhile Tasks Motivation Due to Environment
  • 8. 8 Personality is what we perceive in our minds. What is inside, the thought, or the conflict inside contribute greatly to our physical appearance. There’s a certain image that we hold on ourselves, that is what we projected outside. Personality is what you are and your identity
  • 9. Motivation: A Key to Effective Teaching Motivation Through Teacher Personality  Various characteristics of teachers are perceived as important for motivating students to learn.  "Student perceptions of whether the teacher cares for them have meaningful effects on their performance and behavior" several studies and sources that indicate the importance of caring in a teacher who motivates students to learn.  While love and caring seem to be the most important characteristics for a teacher to exhibit, some writers also include humor and high expectations of students.
  • 10. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) established a ten-step, systematic sequence for becoming more comfortable using humor in the classroom: 1. Smile/Be lighthearted. 2. Be spontaneous/natural. a. Relax control a little/break the routine occasionally. b. Be willing to laugh at yourself/don't take yourself so seriously. 3. Foster an informal climate/be conversational and loose. 4. Begin class with a thought for the day, a poem, a short anecdote, or a humorous example. 5. Use stories and experiences that emerge from the subject matter. Use personal experiences. 6. Relate things to the everyday life of students. Read the student newspaper. Listen to "their" music; see "their" movies. 7. Plan lectures/presentations in short segments with humor injected. Plan a commercial break. Use a slide or overhead. 8. Encourage a give-and-take climate between yourself and students. Play off Their comments. Learn their names. 9. Ask students to supply you with some of their jokes, stories, or anecdotes.
  • 11. Motivation: A Key to Effective Teaching Motivation Through Interaction and Worthwhile Tasks  Teachers must be comfortable with themselves as well as with the tasks they are using in their lessons. As a teacher attains sincere concern for the students while allowing humor and expectations to increase, students' restlessness will decrease and learning tasks will motivate students more easily.  The reason many teachers cannot interact with students is that they have not developed respect for the students.
  • 12. Brown (1988) presented five postulates for establishing and maintaining an atmosphere of mutual respect between teachers and students: · Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning. · Differences must not only be tolerated, they must be affirmed. · Values are neither right nor wrong; they simply exist in all of us. · Freedom to choose is one of the most precious rights we have. · Those who dare to teach must never cease to learn.
  • 13. Motivation: A Key to Effective Teaching Motivation Due to Environment A teacher who truly cares for the students will maintain consistent discipline because of its effects on learning, regardless of the students' dislike for such discipline. Many techniques can be used. Among these techniques is the use of preventative strategies that focus students' attention on behaviors to attain rather than on behaviors to avoid. Palardy and Palardy (1987) discuss nine preventative strategies: 1. Teachers must feel comfortable with themselves, their pupils, and their subject matter. 2. Teachers must believe in their students' capacity and propensity for appropriate classroom conduct. 3. Teachers must ensure that their instructional activities are interesting and relevant. 4. Teachers must match their instructional activities with their
  • 14. Motivation: A Key to Effective Teaching Motivation Due to Environment 5. Teachers must involve their pupils in setting up "the rules". 6. Teachers must make certain that their pupils know and understand "the routine.". 7. Teachers must identify their problem times. 8. Teachers must remember that pupils are not "little adults". 9. Teachers must give evidence that they genuinely like and respect their pupils. Most of these techniques can be seen as caring actions taken by a teacher whose role goes far beyond merely being a school district
  • 15. Intrinsic motivation  Motivation associated with activities that are their own reward  No need for incentives or punishments  Examples:  Sarah loves studying math  John plays for the football team  Laura spends time with her family There are two different kinds of motivation.
  • 16. 1. Intrinsic motivation- is an internal stimulus that arouse one to action. It is based on motive, which is always intrinsic. The learners work not for the medals or anything tangible, but for the personal satisfaction for accomplishing their work and attaining their goal. Intrinsic occurs when a person is internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is ethically significant. There are two different kinds of motivation.
  • 17. 2. Extrinsic motivation- is an external stimulus that arouse one to action. It is based on incentive. Motivation come from outside the individual, that is from the external environment. Extrinsic motivation comes in the forms of praise and other forms of social approval, high grades, medals, scholarship, etc.
  • 18.  Motivation created by external such as rewards or punishments  Examples:  Jack wants to get an A+ on the test  Tim aims to break a school record in track  Performing at the Olympics? Are the athletes extrinsically motivated by a medal or intrinsically motivated to achieve a personal goal (personal record, the act of competing, etc.) Extrinsic Motivation
  • 19. CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES 1. Biological and physiological drives. These are innate or inborn stimuli such as desire for food, water, shelter, and other comfort of the body. In hierarchy of motives, biological drives are the lowest but the most important.
  • 20. 2. Psychological drives. These are social drives which required, learned or derived. These are for social approval, security, safety, belongingness, love, esteem, prestige and power. 3. Creativity or self-actualization drives. These are general or unconscious drives or motives. The desire to do something not necessity but simply the urge to achieve something exceptional for the good humanity is actualization.
  • 21. Theories Of Motivation And Learning 1. Attribution Theory And Motivation Weiner's theory has been widely applied in education, law, clinical psychology, and the mental health domain. 1.Attribution is a three stage process: (1) behavior is observed, (2) behavior is determined to be deliberate, and (3) behavior is attributed to internal or external causes. 2. Achievement can be attributed to (1) effort, (2) ability, (3) level of task difficulty, or (4) luck. 3. Causal dimensions of behavior are (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability.
  • 22. 2. Theories Humanistic Psychology  Concerned with how learners can develop their human potential  Humanist Psychologist:  Gestalt – theory where in learning can be explained in terms of the wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing and the learner is continuously reorganizing his perceptions.  Abraham Maslow – theory of human needs for self-actualizing person
  • 24.  Lower Level Needs: For Survival and Safety  Higher Level Needs: For Intellectual achievement and self-actualization Self- Actualization: Maslow’s term for self- fulfillment, the realization of personal potential  All LOWER LEVEL NEEDS must be met before HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS are addressed Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 25.  Also known as Deficiency Needs and consist of: survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem  When these needs are met, the motivation for fulfilling them decreases Lower Level Needs
  • 26.  Also known as Being Needs and consist of: Intellectual achievement aesthetic appreciation self-actualization  When these needs are met, a persons motivation increases to seek further fulfillment.  These needs are NEVER completely filled.  Ex) The more successful you are in your efforts as a teacher, the harder you are likely to strive for even greater improvement. Higher Level Needs
  • 27.
  • 28. 3. Cognitive Psychology  Focus their attention on how individuals process information and how they monitor and manage thinking.  Advocates of cognitive psychology are:  Jean Piaget –Cognitive Development stages  Lev Vygostky – Social constructivism  Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences  Felder and Silverman – Learning Styles  Daniel Goleman – Emotional Intelligences
  • 29.  To the cognitive theorist:  Learning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning.  It is rooted in the tradition of subject matter and is similar to the cognitive development theory.  Teachers uses a lot of problem and thinking skills which are exemplified by practices like:  reflective thinking  creative thinking  intuitive thinking  discovery learning
  • 30. Discovery Learning Jerome Bruner Student should discover what to learn. Learning involves rearrangement and transformation of materials that led to insight Acquisition – obtaining new info..it is replace and refined Transformation – manipulating info.. To fit new situation Evaluation – if info, has been manipulated Integrate materials to existing cognitive structures
  • 31. 4. Behavioral Psychology classical conditioning – Ivan Pavlov’s Behaviorist Learning Theory . Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning  operant conditioning – B.F. Skinner’s  Skinner believed that positive reinforcement is an important component of learning
  • 32. all includes classical and operant. Learning consists of new stimuli- response connections through practice and strengthened through association with external rewards. Behaviorism theory
  • 33. Classical Conditioning Theory Pavlov/Watson Stimulus generalization- stimulus transfer to another stimuli. Discrimination- not to respond with the same stimulus/manner Extinction- conditioned response lost. Recovery- recover lost responded Applied to classroom: Providing positive classroom environment Help student s to experience success Presenting lesson in gradual and keeping student relaxed and happy --Conditioning with neutral (conditioned stimulus) gains a response result to its paring with natural stimulus
  • 34. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an animal’s natural response to one object or sensory stimulus transfers to another stimulus. This illustration shows how a dog can learn to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, an experiment first carried out in the early 1900s by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. For conditioning to occur, the pairing of the food with the tuning fork (step 3 in the illustration) must be repeated many times, so that the dog eventually learns to associate the two items. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Operant conditioning/ Instrumental B. F. Skinner SO-REWARD AND PUNISHMENT Consequences of behavior based upon its environment whether reinforce or eliminates the behavior. Reinforcement not synonymous to rewards it is given after, motivation give before Positive reinforcement- strengthen behavior Negative reinforcement- weakens behavior Applied to classroom by: Providing more opportunities for practice Reinforcing (praise, incentives etc)if desirable Providing more rewards than punishment
  • 36. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an animal’s natural response to one object or sensory stimulus transfers to another stimulus. This illustration shows how a dog can learn to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, an experiment first carried out in the early 1900s by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. For conditioning to occur, the pairing of the food with the tuning fork (step 3 in the illustration) must be repeated many times, so that the dog eventually learns to associate the two items. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 37. 4. Social Cognitive Learning Motivation  modeling and observation theory – Albert Bandura  The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others  Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky) Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky's theory is complementary to Bandura's work on social learningand a key component of situated learning theory as well.
  • 38. Social Cognitive Learning Theory/ Imitation Bandura/ Wallace SB LEARNED by individual observe from other. It affects the way people act Attention- exposing/ observing a model Retention- learn symbolically, reproduction of desired behavior Reproduction- produce internal model of the environment guide observer behavior Motivation no performance unless conditioned are favorable Observational learning- individual recombine previously learned behavior to produce newly response. Inhibitory effect- strengthen for weakens Social facilitation- acting Applied to classroom by; Modeling desirable behavior Make sure that students are physically capable of doing the modeled behavior and that they can demonstrate this behavior. Exposing student to a variety of exemplary behavior/models
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  • 41. Educational Implications When a students are not actively involved in their work, they are unmotivated to learn, but they may be motivated to do something else. Teachers should help focus students’ attention . Many students fail to realize and understand their objective in coming to school. Classroom activities can help arouse curiosity and direct students’ attention toward school. Initiate and stimulating environment will be of great help to motivate and focus students attention and priorities.
  • 42. Referrences: Weaver II, R. L. & Cotrell, H. W. (1987). Ten specific techniques for developing humor in the classroom. Education, 108, 144-169. Mathews, J. (1988). Escalante: The best teacher in America. New York: Holt. Meek, A. (1989). On creating ganas: A conversation with Jaime Escalante. Educational Leadership, 46(5), 46-47. Foundation of Education, Ed. D by: Jose F. Calderon Educational Psychology by: Adelaida C. Gines, Priscile B. Dizon, Aurora B. Fulgencio, Peter Howard R. Obias, Furtunato G. Vendivel , Jr. http://teaching.about.com/od/pd/a/Qualities-Of-An-Effective-Teacher.htm