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Topic:Tissues(Human)
Anatomy and Physiology
Presented by:
MR VIJAYREDDY VANDALI
M.SC(N), PGDHA,PGCDE,.
ASSOCIATE PROF CUM I/C PRINCIPAL
SCHOOL OF NURSING
P P SAVANI UNIVERSITY, GUJARAT.
Tissues(Human)
Anatomy and Physiology
Key Terms
• Histology:
• the study of tissues.
• Tissues:
• groups of cells which are similar in
structure and which perform common
or related functions.
Four Basic Kinds of Tissues
•Epithelial Tissue
•Connective Tissue
•Muscle Tissue
•Nervous Tissue
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
• Epithelial Tissue Locations:
• Covers the body
• Lines the cavities, tubes, ducts and blood vessels inside the body
• Covers the organs inside body cavities
• Epithelial Tissue Functions:
• Protection from physical & chemical injury,
• Protection against microbial invasion,
• Contains receptors which respond to stimuli,
• Filters, secretes & reabsorbs materials and
• Secretes serous fluids to lubricate structures.
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
• Connective Tissue:
• Most abundant & widely distributed tissue
• Connective Tissue Functions:
• Connects, binds and supports structures,
• Tendons, ligaments, etc.
• Protects & cushions organs and tissues,
• Insulates (fat) and
• Transports substances (blood).
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
MUSCLE TISSUE
• Muscle Tissue:
• Associated with the bones of the skeleton, the heart and in the walls
of the hollow organs of the body.
• Muscle Tissue Functions:
• Movement
• Locomotion
• Maintains posture
• Produces heat
• Facial expressions
• Pumps blood
• Peristalsis
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
NERVOUS TISSUE
• Nervous Tissue:
• Main component of the nervous system,
ie., brain, spinal cord & nerves.
• Nervous Tissue Functions:
• Regulates & controls body functions
• Generates & transmits nerve impulses
• Supports, insulates and protects impulse generating neurons.
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx
Identify the following cell organelles
• Cell Organelles
• cell membrane
• cytoplasm
• nucleus
• nuclear membrane
• nucleolus
• chromosomes
• chromatin
Identify the five stages of mitosis
• Stages of Mitosis, or the Cell Cycle:
• interphase
• prophase
• metaphase
• anaphase
• telophase
Interphase
• Metabolic phase
• Cell growth
• DNA replication
• Centriole replication
• Protein Synthesis
• Visible Nucleus &
nuclear membrane
• Visible nucleoli
• Chromatin
Prophase
• Nuclear membrane
disappears
• Nucleoli disappear
• Chromsomes appear
• Centrioles move to
opposite sides of cell
• Spindle fibers from
centrioles connect with
chromosomes
Metaphase
• Chromosomes line up on
equator of the cell
Anaphase
• Chromatids from each
chromosome separate &
are pulled to opposite
sides of the cell.
Telophase
• Chromatids reach
extremes of cell
 Nuclear membraneNuclear membrane
reappears around eachreappears around each
chromatid clusterchromatid cluster
 Nucleoli reappearNucleoli reappear
 Cell plate appearsCell plate appears
between nucleibetween nuclei
 Cytokinesis occursCytokinesis occurs
• Specific tissue types & representative cell types we will
review:
• EPITHELIAL
• Squamous
• Cuboidal
• Columnar
• CONNECTIVE
• Adipose
• Bone
• Hyaline cartilage
• MUSCLE
• NERVOUS
Squamous Epithelium
• Simple – one cell thick
 Forms solid layer ofForms solid layer of
cells which line bloodcells which line blood
vessels, body cavitiesvessels, body cavities
& cover organs in body& cover organs in body
cavitiescavities
 Stratified – multipleStratified – multiple
layerslayers
 Forms epidermisForms epidermis
Cuboidal Epithelium
• Simple – one cell thick
• Roughly cube shaped
 Line ducts in kidneys,Line ducts in kidneys,
etc, where reabsorptionetc, where reabsorption
and secretory activitiesand secretory activities
take place.take place.
Duct
Cuboid Cells
Duct
Cuboid Cells
Columnar Epithelium
• Simple – one cell thick
• Column shaped (long &
narrow)
• Line digestive tract where
reabsorption & secretion
occurs.
 Pseudostratified – givesPseudostratified – gives
the appearance ofthe appearance of
more than one layer ofmore than one layer of
columnar epithelialcolumnar epithelial
cellscells
• Specific Connective Tissue Types:
• Adipose
• Bone
• Hyalaine cartilage
Connective - Adipose
• Honeycomb or
chickenwire appearance
 Stores energy (fat)Stores energy (fat)
 InsulatesInsulates
 Supports & protectsSupports & protects
organsorgans
Connective - Bone
• Tree ring-like appearance
 Supports & protectsSupports & protects
 Mineral storageMineral storage
 Fat storageFat storage
 Blood cell productionBlood cell production
Connective – Hyaline Cartilage
 Supports whileSupports while
providing flexibilityproviding flexibility
 Absorbs compressionAbsorbs compression
between bones inbetween bones in
joints (articularjoints (articular
cartilage)cartilage)
 Holds open respiratoryHolds open respiratory
passagespassages
 Most abundant type ofMost abundant type of
cartilage in bodycartilage in body
• Specific Muscle Tissue Types:
• muscle (skeletal)
Muscle - Skeletal
• Muscle fibers (cells) long,
parallel & cylindrical
• With many nuclei
(multinucleate)
 Striations (cross stripes runStriations (cross stripes run
perpendicular to the cellsperpendicular to the cells
 Produce voluntary movementProduce voluntary movement
 LocomotionLocomotion
 HeatHeat
Specific Nervous Tissue Types
Nervous – Neuron Branching cells with manyBranching cells with many
long processeslong processes
 Large central nucleusLarge central nucleus
 Transmit impulses from oneTransmit impulses from one
area of the body to otherarea of the body to other
areasareas
 Regulate activities throughRegulate activities through
neuron impulsesneuron impulses
THANK YOU

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Anatomy and physiology of human tissues.pptx

  • 1. Topic:Tissues(Human) Anatomy and Physiology Presented by: MR VIJAYREDDY VANDALI M.SC(N), PGDHA,PGCDE,. ASSOCIATE PROF CUM I/C PRINCIPAL SCHOOL OF NURSING P P SAVANI UNIVERSITY, GUJARAT.
  • 3. Key Terms • Histology: • the study of tissues. • Tissues: • groups of cells which are similar in structure and which perform common or related functions.
  • 4. Four Basic Kinds of Tissues •Epithelial Tissue •Connective Tissue •Muscle Tissue •Nervous Tissue
  • 7. EPITHELIAL TISSUE • Epithelial Tissue Locations: • Covers the body • Lines the cavities, tubes, ducts and blood vessels inside the body • Covers the organs inside body cavities • Epithelial Tissue Functions: • Protection from physical & chemical injury, • Protection against microbial invasion, • Contains receptors which respond to stimuli, • Filters, secretes & reabsorbs materials and • Secretes serous fluids to lubricate structures.
  • 12. CONNECTIVE TISSUE • Connective Tissue: • Most abundant & widely distributed tissue • Connective Tissue Functions: • Connects, binds and supports structures, • Tendons, ligaments, etc. • Protects & cushions organs and tissues, • Insulates (fat) and • Transports substances (blood).
  • 16. MUSCLE TISSUE • Muscle Tissue: • Associated with the bones of the skeleton, the heart and in the walls of the hollow organs of the body. • Muscle Tissue Functions: • Movement • Locomotion • Maintains posture • Produces heat • Facial expressions • Pumps blood • Peristalsis
  • 20. NERVOUS TISSUE • Nervous Tissue: • Main component of the nervous system, ie., brain, spinal cord & nerves. • Nervous Tissue Functions: • Regulates & controls body functions • Generates & transmits nerve impulses • Supports, insulates and protects impulse generating neurons.
  • 23. Identify the following cell organelles • Cell Organelles • cell membrane • cytoplasm • nucleus • nuclear membrane • nucleolus • chromosomes • chromatin
  • 24. Identify the five stages of mitosis • Stages of Mitosis, or the Cell Cycle: • interphase • prophase • metaphase • anaphase • telophase
  • 25. Interphase • Metabolic phase • Cell growth • DNA replication • Centriole replication • Protein Synthesis • Visible Nucleus & nuclear membrane • Visible nucleoli • Chromatin
  • 26. Prophase • Nuclear membrane disappears • Nucleoli disappear • Chromsomes appear • Centrioles move to opposite sides of cell • Spindle fibers from centrioles connect with chromosomes
  • 27. Metaphase • Chromosomes line up on equator of the cell
  • 28. Anaphase • Chromatids from each chromosome separate & are pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
  • 29. Telophase • Chromatids reach extremes of cell  Nuclear membraneNuclear membrane reappears around eachreappears around each chromatid clusterchromatid cluster  Nucleoli reappearNucleoli reappear  Cell plate appearsCell plate appears between nucleibetween nuclei  Cytokinesis occursCytokinesis occurs
  • 30. • Specific tissue types & representative cell types we will review: • EPITHELIAL • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar • CONNECTIVE • Adipose • Bone • Hyaline cartilage • MUSCLE • NERVOUS
  • 31. Squamous Epithelium • Simple – one cell thick  Forms solid layer ofForms solid layer of cells which line bloodcells which line blood vessels, body cavitiesvessels, body cavities & cover organs in body& cover organs in body cavitiescavities  Stratified – multipleStratified – multiple layerslayers  Forms epidermisForms epidermis
  • 32. Cuboidal Epithelium • Simple – one cell thick • Roughly cube shaped  Line ducts in kidneys,Line ducts in kidneys, etc, where reabsorptionetc, where reabsorption and secretory activitiesand secretory activities take place.take place. Duct Cuboid Cells Duct Cuboid Cells
  • 33. Columnar Epithelium • Simple – one cell thick • Column shaped (long & narrow) • Line digestive tract where reabsorption & secretion occurs.  Pseudostratified – givesPseudostratified – gives the appearance ofthe appearance of more than one layer ofmore than one layer of columnar epithelialcolumnar epithelial cellscells
  • 34. • Specific Connective Tissue Types: • Adipose • Bone • Hyalaine cartilage
  • 35. Connective - Adipose • Honeycomb or chickenwire appearance  Stores energy (fat)Stores energy (fat)  InsulatesInsulates  Supports & protectsSupports & protects organsorgans
  • 36. Connective - Bone • Tree ring-like appearance  Supports & protectsSupports & protects  Mineral storageMineral storage  Fat storageFat storage  Blood cell productionBlood cell production
  • 37. Connective – Hyaline Cartilage  Supports whileSupports while providing flexibilityproviding flexibility  Absorbs compressionAbsorbs compression between bones inbetween bones in joints (articularjoints (articular cartilage)cartilage)  Holds open respiratoryHolds open respiratory passagespassages  Most abundant type ofMost abundant type of cartilage in bodycartilage in body
  • 38. • Specific Muscle Tissue Types: • muscle (skeletal)
  • 39. Muscle - Skeletal • Muscle fibers (cells) long, parallel & cylindrical • With many nuclei (multinucleate)  Striations (cross stripes runStriations (cross stripes run perpendicular to the cellsperpendicular to the cells  Produce voluntary movementProduce voluntary movement  LocomotionLocomotion  HeatHeat
  • 40. Specific Nervous Tissue Types Nervous – Neuron Branching cells with manyBranching cells with many long processeslong processes  Large central nucleusLarge central nucleus  Transmit impulses from oneTransmit impulses from one area of the body to otherarea of the body to other areasareas  Regulate activities throughRegulate activities through neuron impulsesneuron impulses