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By Avijit Biswas
1
Aim of
Total Productive
Maintenance
(TPM)
By Avijit Biswas
2
TPM aims at . . .
Improving equipment
Improving human resources
By Avijit Biswas
3
TPM aims at . . .
1. Establishing a corporate culture that will maximize production
system effectiveness,
2. Achieving “zero-accidents”, “zero-defects”, and
“zero-breakdowns” in the entire production system life-cycle,
3. Involving all functions of an organization including production,
development, sales and management,
4. Involving every member of an organization, from top
management to front-line operators, and
5. Achieving zero losses through the activities of overlapping
small groups.
By Avijit Biswas
4
What is TPM?
1. Taking as a prime objective a company structure that pursues production
efficiency to its ultimate limits.
2. Putting together a practical shop-floor system to prevent losses before
they occur throughout the entire production system’s life cycle :
Zero Accidents, Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown etc.
3. Involving all functions, including Production, Development, Sales and
Management.
4. Having all employees participate from top executives to front-line workers.
5. Achieving Zero losses through overlapping small groups.
TPM means . . .
By Avijit Biswas
5
Effectiveness of TPM
P . . . . . Productivity improvement …………...………… 1.5 to 2 times
• Reduction in Number of Sporadic Failures .... 1/10 to 1/250
• Equipment Operating ……………………...... 1.5 to 2 times
Q . . . . . Reduction in Product Defects …...…...………… 1/10 to 1/250
Reduction in Customer Claims ………….……... 1/4
C . . . . . Reduction in Maintenance Cost ……….……….. 30%
D . . . . . Product Inventories …..……….………………... 0
S . . . . . Accidents, Pollution …..……….………………... 0
M . . . . Increase in Number of Kaizens ……….……….. 5 to 10 times
By Avijit Biswas
6
Intangible Effects of TPM
1. After introduction of autonomous maintenance activity, operators take care
of machines by themselves without being ordered to.
2. With achievement of zero breakdowns and zero defects, operators get new
confidence in their own abilities.
3. Workplace that used to be covered with oil and chips are now so clean and
pleasant and cheerful as to be almost unrecognisable.
4. Improved image of the company, leading to higher customer satisfaction
and the possibility of increased orders.
5. We eliminate all losses in the resources and energy to conserve the Earth’s
environment.
By Avijit Biswas
7
KK
IndividualImprovement
(KobetsuKaizen)
E&T
Education&Training
DM
Development
Management
PM
PlannedMaintenance
JH
AutonomousMaintenance
(JishuHozen)
QM
QualityMaintenance
(HinshitsuHozen)
OTPMAdministration
(OfficeTPM)
SHE
Safety,Hygiene&
Environment
TPM
8 pillars in TPM
By Avijit Biswas
8
8 Activities & Loss
Kobetsu
Kaizen
Jishu
Hozen
Planned
Maintenance
Education &
Training
Development
Management
Quality
Maintenance
Office
TPM
Safety, Hygiene,
Environment
LOSS
By Avijit Biswas
9
Management Index
and
Activity Index
By Avijit Biswas
10
Jishu Hozen
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Time reduction of
C, I, L, T.
2. Breakdown reduction due
to JH.
3. Defect reduction due to
JH.
4. Downtime reduction.
5. Total saved money by
preventing leakage of oil.
6. Elimination of parts which
drop during processing.
Activity Index
1. No. of tags attached &
removed.
2. No.of One Point Lessons.
3. No. of JH kaizens.
4. No. of repairs by operator.
5. 1S & 2S activity.
6. No. of repaired malfunctions
by operator.
7. Trends of JH step.
8. No. of visual controls.
9. Upgraded skills.
10. Education time by using
One Point Lesson.
11. No. of suggestions.
By Avijit Biswas
11
Kobetsu Kaizen
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Overall Equipment
efficiency.
- Cell
- Department
- Plant
2. Total saved money.
3. Total down time.
4. WIP
Activity Index
1. No. of kaizens by
- Circle members
- Project team
- Engineering staff
2. No. of kaizens for each loss.
3. No. of horizontal
deployments.
4. No. of cases in which
various methods are used.
By Avijit Biswas
12
Planned Maintenance
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Reduction of downtime
due to breakdown.
2. Improvement of MTBF
and MTTR.
3. Reduction of spare parts.
4. Reduction of oil
consumption &electricity.
5. Reduction of repair costs.
6. No. of inspections, repairs
transferred in-house from
sub-contractor.
Activity Index
1. No. of breakdown
re-occurrence.
2. Preventive maintenance
implementation rate.
3. No. of red tags removed.
4. No. of corrective maintenance
activities.
5. No. of machines under CBM.
6. No. of MP sheets.
7. Multi-skilled maintenance
workers.
8. Skill upgradation of
maintenance workers.
By Avijit Biswas
13
Quality Maintenance
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Reduction in defects.
2. Amount of saved money.
3. Reduction in inspection
time and manpower.
4. Reduction in customer
complaints.
Activity Index
1. No. of kaizens.
2. Zero cases.
- products
- machines
- lines
3. Duration of zero cases.
- 1 month
- 3 months
- 6 months
- More than 6 months.
4. No. of revised standards.
By Avijit Biswas
14
Education & Training
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Reduction of downtime,
breakdown due to lack of
knowledge and skill.
2. Reduction of downtime,
breakdown after getting
knowledge and skill.
3. Reduction of defects after
getting knowledge and
skill.
4. Reduction of
sub-contractor’s job after
getting skill.
Activity Index
1. Total time of education and
training for operators and
maintenance workers.
2. No. of kaizens proposed.
3. No. of One Point Lesson
sheets.
4. Evaluation of knowledge and
skills.
By Avijit Biswas
15
Safety, Hygiene, & Environment
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Reduction of accidents.
2. Reduction of noise.
3. Reduction of industrial
waste quantity.
4. Saving by reduced energy
consumption.
5. Reduction of downtime by
no accidents.
6. Excellent 5S workshop.
Activity Index
1. No. of kaizens for unsafe
place, actions.
2. No. of pokayoke kaizens.
3. No. of safety proposals.
4. 5S activity.
5. Total time of safety patrol
(Daily, Monthly)
By Avijit Biswas
16
Management Index
1. Increase in
productivity
2. Decrease in cost
3. Customer
complaint
reduction
4. Zero accidents
Activity Result Index
1. Reduction of downtime
due to no material from
vendor.
2. Reduction of incoming
material inventory.
3. Saved money.
Activity Index
1. Total meeting time with
vendor.
2. No. of kaizens for vendor.
3. Reduction in no. of vendors.
4. No. of kaizens for job
revision.
Office TPM (Purchasing)
By Avijit Biswas
17
TPM 16 losses
By Avijit Biswas
18
16 Major Losses
1) Equipment failure loss
2) Setup loss
3) Tool change loss
4) Startup loss
5) Minor stoppage and idling loss
6) Speed loss
7) Defects and rework loss
8) Shutdown loss
9) Management loss
10) Operating motion loss
11) Line organisation loss
12) Logistic loss
13) Measurement and adjustment loss
14) Yield loss
15) Energy loss
16) Die and tool loss
By Avijit Biswas
19
16 Major Losses
Category wise
A) 7 Major losses which obstruct OEE
(1 to 7)
1. Equipment failure loss
2. Setup loss
3. Tool change loss
4. Startup loss
5. Minor stoppage and idling loss
6. Speed loss
7. Defects and rework loss
By Avijit Biswas
20
16 Major Losses
Category wise
B) Loss which affects the equipment loading time
(8)
8. Shutdown loss
By Avijit Biswas
21
16 Major Losses
Category wise
C) 5 Major losses preventing efficiency of manpower
(9 to 13)
9. Management loss
10. Operating motion loss
11. Line organisation loss
12. Logistic loss
13. Measurement and adjustment loss
By Avijit Biswas
22
16 Major Losses
Category wise
D) 3 Major losses preventing efficiency of material and
energy (14 to 16)
14. Yield loss
15. Energy loss
16. Die and tool loss
By Avijit Biswas
23
16 Major Losses Definitions
1) Equipment failure loss
Loss due to breakdown of equipment.
By Avijit Biswas
24
2) Setup loss
Time taken to change setting from one
model / product to other till first OK piece
comes out.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
25
3) Tool change loss
Time taken to change worn out tools till
first OK piece comes out.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
26
4) Start up Loss
Time required to build temperature / pressure etc.
Referencing of CNC machines, warm operations
conducted early morning or after long stoppage.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
27
5) Minor stoppage and idling loss
Unlike failures, minor stoppage / idling losses represent a
status in which the machine is subjected to either
stoppage or idling due to temporary troubles; for instance,
when a workpiece is clogged in the chute, idling occurs;
or when a sensor is activated because of a quality defect
to cause a temporary stoppage.
These are the conditions in which the machine will revert
to normal operation, if the stuck workpiece is removed, or
resetting is carried out.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
28
6) Speed loss
Losses due to difference between the actual speed
and design speed. Losses resulting from lower design
speed compared to the present technological level or
desirable speed (or mission speed).
Ex. If standard cycle time is 30 sec and actual
operation time is 35 sec; the speed loss is 5 sec.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
29
7) Defects and rework loss
Loss due to defective (Rework+Rejection)
production.
Volume losses due to defects and time losses
required to repair defective products to turn them
into excellent products.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
30
8) Shutdown loss
Loss which affects the equipment loading time.
Time losses when equipment is stopped for planned
maintenance.
This loss is caused by stopping the equipment for
periodical maintenance / inspection, and for scheduled
shutdown for legal inspection during the production
stage.
Reduction of shutdown time and cycle extension must
be sought.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
31
9) Management loss
These are waiting losses such as awaiting
instructions, awaiting material, awaiting
tools, repair which are generated through
management problems.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
32
10) Operating motion
Losses due to violation of motion economy.
It is the man-hour loss which is generated by the skill
level difference in the setup and adjustment, tool and
jig change operation and so forth. The losses which
are cased by skill level difference in the loading and
unloading work is also included in this category.
Walking losses because of bad layout.
Method / procedure loss, Skill and morale loss.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
33
11) Line organisation
Loss due to organizing the manning considering skill,
availability etc.
It is the loss resulting from the worker having to work
on more than one piece of equipment at the same
time, including loss caused by improper line
organization.
Include waiting time losses generated in the multi-
process and multi-machine processing and also line
balance losses in conveyor work.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
34
12) Logistic
Stoppage of equipment for logistics reasons.
Ex.- Material movement, non-availability of
trolley / bin etc.
Man-hours spent in doing logistics work
(transportation of products or raw materials etc.)
by other than logistics workers, or the additional
time spent by logistics workers due to
equipment failure.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
35
13) Measurement and adjustment
Losses that result from measuring and adjustment to
prevent occurrence of quality defects.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
36
14) Yield
Volume losses.
Weight difference between raw material and products.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
37
15) Energy
Losses of energy such as electric power, fuel, air,
water etc.
Startup loss, overload loss, temperature loss.
It is the input energy which can not be effectively
used for processing. Losses such as startup loss,
temperature loss during processing and idling are
included in this category.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
38
16) Die and tool
These are monetary losses resulting from the
manufacturing and repair of dies, jigs, fixtures, and
tools necessary for production.
These are extra expenses needed for replacing dies,
tools, and jigs which are worn over long service or
broken or the expenses spent for re-grinding or re-
nitriding.
16 Major Losses Definitions
By Avijit Biswas
39
JISHU-HOZEN
(AUTONOMOUS
MAINTENANCE)
By Avijit Biswas
40
JISHU-HOZEN
(AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE)
Concept
“Jishu Hozen” is the activity in which each worker
performs, i.e. daily inspection, lubrication, troubleshooting,
repair, accuracy checks, and so forth on his own
equipment, aiming at achieving the goal of ‘keeping one’s
own equipment’ in good condition by oneself.
Participation of production in maintaining
the machine condition is Jishu Hozen.
By Avijit Biswas
41
Jishu Hozen
The operator should have the following basic abilities -
He should have ability to sense abnormality, ability to find
abnormality in the equipment / products by feeling
suspicious behaviour and ability to make necessary kaizen.
He should have knowledge and ability to understand
the co-relation between equipment and quality and to
predict abnormal quality of the product and its causes.
He should have knowledge and ability to understand
the equipment mechanism and functions and to locate
the possible causes, if trouble occurs.
In order to satisfactorily perform “Jishu
Hozen”, the operator should be “proficient in
equipment operations and maintenance”.
By Avijit Biswas
42
Support to Jishu Hozen activities
Maintenance division provides precise guidance and support.
1. Training and guidance in equipment structures and functions, names of
parts, and members that must not be disassembled.
2. Guidance of lubrication, unification of oil types and instruction on
preparation of an oiling standard (oiling locations, oil types, and oiling
periods).
3. Technical support on control of sources, counter-measures for the
causes of dirty equipment and improving access to hard-to-clean areas,
efficient operation and other kaizen activities.
4. Quick processing of work asked by the operating division on
malfunctions such as deterioration, basic conditions, and defects.
Jishu Hozen
By Avijit Biswas
43
SEVEN STEPS FOR EVOLVING JISHU-HOZEN
1 Initial clean-up
2 Countermeasures against Sources of Contamination
and Difficult To Access Areas
3 Formulation of Tentative Standards
4 Overall Inspection
5 Autonomous Inspection
6 Standardization
7 Autonomous Management
0 The Beginning - preliminary step
By Avijit Biswas
44
Step 0
Preliminary step (Step 0)
1. Understanding the importance of JH.
2. Understanding the adverse effect of forced deterioration.
Understand what will happen if it is poorly maintained.
3. Understanding normal and abnormal conditions.
4. Safety education, prediction of injuries, electrical
shock, dust in eye, dropping articles, slippery surfaces,
skin irritation etc.
5. Draw a simple illustration of equipment to identify
different units and components of the equipment.
By Avijit Biswas
45
Step 0 Cont..
Preliminary step (Step 0)
6. Understanding losses, failures, and defects with
corresponding responsibilities.
7. Awareness of basic equipment condition.
8. Red and White Tags.
9. Dis-cover to discover.
10. 1S and 2S
By Avijit Biswas
46
Step 0 Cont..
Preliminary step (Step 0)
11. Clear schedule of activities on activity board.
12. Reading of manuals.
13. Understanding purpose of cleaning.
14. Collection of material required for JH step 1.
15. Role of operator.
16. Papers for summarizing abnormalities (tags).
By Avijit Biswas
47
• Cleaning and inspection.
• Inspection is performed to find fuguai (abnormalities).
• Fuguais are to be restored & improved and should be understood.
Purpose
Thorough cleaning of dirt, dust, and stains on entire equipment to
• Prevent forced deterioration.
• Extraction and handling of latent defects through cleaning.
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
Activity
Step-1
By Avijit Biswas
48
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up1. Provide basic training needed to implement Step 1. Training such as
safety equipment, structure and function, lubrication, proper
re-tightening etc.
2. Take photographs before starting the activity.
3. Remove all unnecessary articles not only around the equipment but
also throughout the line.
4. Find equipment fuguai by inspection, touching, and moving the
equipment.
5. Find faults such as play, looseness, wear, eccentricity, vibration,
abnormal sound, heat, and oil leak by five senses. Carefully
examine
parts that are causing problems everyday.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
49
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
6. Locate sources of generating stains.
7. Eliminate unnecessary and seldom used items and simplify the
equipment.
8. Disassemble components if necessary. Refer old history card of
this
machine and similar machines for failure sources.
9. Think about what the equipment must be when restoring
abnormalities.
10. Attach tags to fuguai during cleaning. Restore on the spot, if
possible.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
50
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
11. Open covers and lids that have never been seen.
12. Clean dirt not only on equipment but also on transfer equipment,
electrical boxes, oil tanks, coolant tanks, jigs-fixtures, and other
auxiliary equipment.
13. Repair-by-self becomes the basis for training.
14. Each individual decides fuguai and then leader provides
guidance
on omitted places and whether or not decisions are correct.
Leader guides all members one-by-one to pull up their ability.
15. All members teach each other - location where they neglected to
attach tag.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
51
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
16. Before closure of tag, the leader should check whether
permanent action has been taken.
17. Do not give up even if it gets dirty soon after cleaning.
18. Determine how soon, from where, and how it gets dirty after
cleaning.
19. Cleaning of equipment frequently finds 200 - 500 defects.
20. Tag management.
21. Maintain the level achieved.
Find out sources of contamination.
Find out hard-to-access areas.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
52
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
Tag Management
Prepare tag matrix.
Decide priority for countermeasures. (Leak, dirty, missing,…..)
Prepare trend chart - put and removed.
Dept. Managers take ownership to track the number of Red / White
tags, their stratification & closure.
Co-relate tags with loss.
Tag removal plan. Fixing deadlines should be stated on tags, where it
can not be repaired immediately.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
53
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
Tag Management
All the members should adhere to target dates strictly. In case of
difficulty, team members will approach leader in advance.
Daily tag status on board.
Why-why analysis for each abnormality.
Before closure of the tag, JH team should check whether permanent
solution has been taken
Tag removal plan made and reviewed in JH committee meetings
Accelerated restoration is motivation for the people.
Confirmation of results.
Step-1 Cont…
By Avijit Biswas
54
Tags
Red Tag White Tag
TPM
SR.NO.
W. NO./DEPT./CELL
EQPT. NAME
DATE OF DETECTION
DETECTOR
ABNORMALITY
: _________________
: _________________
: _________________
: _________________
: _________________
: _________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
LINKED WITH WHICH LOSS : ____________
TARGET DATE : _________________
By Avijit Biswas
55
Step 1
Abnormality Tag Matrix
List of fouled parts
List of Fuguai
Status of Tags
Status of Tags - Machine wise
Why-why analysis for Abnormalities
Why-why analysis for Countermeasures for Forced Deterioration
Step by step methodology of JH … Step1
By Avijit Biswas
56
Step 1 - Initial Clean-up
Audit by JH team
(Autonomous Audit)
Plant Audit
Passed
To JH Step 2
Step by step methodology of JH … Step1…cont..
By Avijit Biswas
57
Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and
Improving Hard-to-access areas
• Implementation of countermeasures against sources such as dust,
dirt, and prevention of flying of chips, prevention of splashing,
scattering of weld spatters etc.
• Implementation of countermeasures against the areas where cleaning
and inspection is difficult.
Purpose
Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
By Avijit Biswas
58
Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and
Improving Hard-to-access areas
• Use concepts like localized guards.
• Make corrugated cardboard models, try them, and then fabricate using
steel sheets.
• Shorten the time for cleaning, lubrication, and servicing.
• As we take efforts in cleaning the equipment (JH step 1), we naturally
pay attention to sources of contamination.
• Strengthen ability to improve equipment and gain confidence to perceive
improvements on an even higher level.
How to achieve the Purpose
Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
By Avijit Biswas
59
Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and
Improving Hard-to-access areas
Countermeasures for source of problems
• Oil stains - Excess supply of lub oil - Adjust oil amount.
• Coolant splashing - Localized guards - Can we limit volume of coolant used?
• Scattering of chips - Localized guards - Close to source - Excessive stock
Improving Hard-to-access areas
• FRL - Draining and checking difficult - Install near floor - Bring to visual level.
• Inspection of pressure not possible - Pressure gauge at the top - Bring it down.
• V belt inspection difficult - Removal of covers - Make inspection window.
Efforts should be to ensure reduction of inspection time.
Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
By Avijit Biswas
60
JH - Step 2
1. No splashing and scattering of chips, coolant, oil, spatters etc.
2. Change the equipment to dry equipment by making localized guards.
3. All the chips and dust of cycle will be totally flushed away and machine
should be totally fresh for next cycle.
* No accumulation anywhere on equipment.
* No need to clean resting plate.
* No need to clean with air, coolant, brush.
4. Coolant / Oil should follow narrow path so that contamination is
minimum.
5. All pipes, cables, hoses should be individually routed.
* No bundling.
* Separate clamping.
6. Wherever possible, replace flexible pipes with metallic pipes.
7. Check need of transparent guards.
By Avijit Biswas
61
Jishu Hozen (Formats)
List of illustration of hard-to-access area
Step 2
Source of Contamination and Countermeasures
By Avijit Biswas
62
Step 2 Methodology of Jhisu Hozen
Audit by JH team
(Autonomous Audit)
Plant Audit
Passed
To JH Step 3
Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and
Improving Hard-to-access areas

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Aim of tpm 16 losses/7 Steps of Jhisu Hozen

  • 1. By Avijit Biswas 1 Aim of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
  • 2. By Avijit Biswas 2 TPM aims at . . . Improving equipment Improving human resources
  • 3. By Avijit Biswas 3 TPM aims at . . . 1. Establishing a corporate culture that will maximize production system effectiveness, 2. Achieving “zero-accidents”, “zero-defects”, and “zero-breakdowns” in the entire production system life-cycle, 3. Involving all functions of an organization including production, development, sales and management, 4. Involving every member of an organization, from top management to front-line operators, and 5. Achieving zero losses through the activities of overlapping small groups.
  • 4. By Avijit Biswas 4 What is TPM? 1. Taking as a prime objective a company structure that pursues production efficiency to its ultimate limits. 2. Putting together a practical shop-floor system to prevent losses before they occur throughout the entire production system’s life cycle : Zero Accidents, Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown etc. 3. Involving all functions, including Production, Development, Sales and Management. 4. Having all employees participate from top executives to front-line workers. 5. Achieving Zero losses through overlapping small groups. TPM means . . .
  • 5. By Avijit Biswas 5 Effectiveness of TPM P . . . . . Productivity improvement …………...………… 1.5 to 2 times • Reduction in Number of Sporadic Failures .... 1/10 to 1/250 • Equipment Operating ……………………...... 1.5 to 2 times Q . . . . . Reduction in Product Defects …...…...………… 1/10 to 1/250 Reduction in Customer Claims ………….……... 1/4 C . . . . . Reduction in Maintenance Cost ……….……….. 30% D . . . . . Product Inventories …..……….………………... 0 S . . . . . Accidents, Pollution …..……….………………... 0 M . . . . Increase in Number of Kaizens ……….……….. 5 to 10 times
  • 6. By Avijit Biswas 6 Intangible Effects of TPM 1. After introduction of autonomous maintenance activity, operators take care of machines by themselves without being ordered to. 2. With achievement of zero breakdowns and zero defects, operators get new confidence in their own abilities. 3. Workplace that used to be covered with oil and chips are now so clean and pleasant and cheerful as to be almost unrecognisable. 4. Improved image of the company, leading to higher customer satisfaction and the possibility of increased orders. 5. We eliminate all losses in the resources and energy to conserve the Earth’s environment.
  • 8. By Avijit Biswas 8 8 Activities & Loss Kobetsu Kaizen Jishu Hozen Planned Maintenance Education & Training Development Management Quality Maintenance Office TPM Safety, Hygiene, Environment LOSS
  • 9. By Avijit Biswas 9 Management Index and Activity Index
  • 10. By Avijit Biswas 10 Jishu Hozen Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Time reduction of C, I, L, T. 2. Breakdown reduction due to JH. 3. Defect reduction due to JH. 4. Downtime reduction. 5. Total saved money by preventing leakage of oil. 6. Elimination of parts which drop during processing. Activity Index 1. No. of tags attached & removed. 2. No.of One Point Lessons. 3. No. of JH kaizens. 4. No. of repairs by operator. 5. 1S & 2S activity. 6. No. of repaired malfunctions by operator. 7. Trends of JH step. 8. No. of visual controls. 9. Upgraded skills. 10. Education time by using One Point Lesson. 11. No. of suggestions.
  • 11. By Avijit Biswas 11 Kobetsu Kaizen Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Overall Equipment efficiency. - Cell - Department - Plant 2. Total saved money. 3. Total down time. 4. WIP Activity Index 1. No. of kaizens by - Circle members - Project team - Engineering staff 2. No. of kaizens for each loss. 3. No. of horizontal deployments. 4. No. of cases in which various methods are used.
  • 12. By Avijit Biswas 12 Planned Maintenance Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Reduction of downtime due to breakdown. 2. Improvement of MTBF and MTTR. 3. Reduction of spare parts. 4. Reduction of oil consumption &electricity. 5. Reduction of repair costs. 6. No. of inspections, repairs transferred in-house from sub-contractor. Activity Index 1. No. of breakdown re-occurrence. 2. Preventive maintenance implementation rate. 3. No. of red tags removed. 4. No. of corrective maintenance activities. 5. No. of machines under CBM. 6. No. of MP sheets. 7. Multi-skilled maintenance workers. 8. Skill upgradation of maintenance workers.
  • 13. By Avijit Biswas 13 Quality Maintenance Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Reduction in defects. 2. Amount of saved money. 3. Reduction in inspection time and manpower. 4. Reduction in customer complaints. Activity Index 1. No. of kaizens. 2. Zero cases. - products - machines - lines 3. Duration of zero cases. - 1 month - 3 months - 6 months - More than 6 months. 4. No. of revised standards.
  • 14. By Avijit Biswas 14 Education & Training Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Reduction of downtime, breakdown due to lack of knowledge and skill. 2. Reduction of downtime, breakdown after getting knowledge and skill. 3. Reduction of defects after getting knowledge and skill. 4. Reduction of sub-contractor’s job after getting skill. Activity Index 1. Total time of education and training for operators and maintenance workers. 2. No. of kaizens proposed. 3. No. of One Point Lesson sheets. 4. Evaluation of knowledge and skills.
  • 15. By Avijit Biswas 15 Safety, Hygiene, & Environment Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Reduction of accidents. 2. Reduction of noise. 3. Reduction of industrial waste quantity. 4. Saving by reduced energy consumption. 5. Reduction of downtime by no accidents. 6. Excellent 5S workshop. Activity Index 1. No. of kaizens for unsafe place, actions. 2. No. of pokayoke kaizens. 3. No. of safety proposals. 4. 5S activity. 5. Total time of safety patrol (Daily, Monthly)
  • 16. By Avijit Biswas 16 Management Index 1. Increase in productivity 2. Decrease in cost 3. Customer complaint reduction 4. Zero accidents Activity Result Index 1. Reduction of downtime due to no material from vendor. 2. Reduction of incoming material inventory. 3. Saved money. Activity Index 1. Total meeting time with vendor. 2. No. of kaizens for vendor. 3. Reduction in no. of vendors. 4. No. of kaizens for job revision. Office TPM (Purchasing)
  • 18. By Avijit Biswas 18 16 Major Losses 1) Equipment failure loss 2) Setup loss 3) Tool change loss 4) Startup loss 5) Minor stoppage and idling loss 6) Speed loss 7) Defects and rework loss 8) Shutdown loss 9) Management loss 10) Operating motion loss 11) Line organisation loss 12) Logistic loss 13) Measurement and adjustment loss 14) Yield loss 15) Energy loss 16) Die and tool loss
  • 19. By Avijit Biswas 19 16 Major Losses Category wise A) 7 Major losses which obstruct OEE (1 to 7) 1. Equipment failure loss 2. Setup loss 3. Tool change loss 4. Startup loss 5. Minor stoppage and idling loss 6. Speed loss 7. Defects and rework loss
  • 20. By Avijit Biswas 20 16 Major Losses Category wise B) Loss which affects the equipment loading time (8) 8. Shutdown loss
  • 21. By Avijit Biswas 21 16 Major Losses Category wise C) 5 Major losses preventing efficiency of manpower (9 to 13) 9. Management loss 10. Operating motion loss 11. Line organisation loss 12. Logistic loss 13. Measurement and adjustment loss
  • 22. By Avijit Biswas 22 16 Major Losses Category wise D) 3 Major losses preventing efficiency of material and energy (14 to 16) 14. Yield loss 15. Energy loss 16. Die and tool loss
  • 23. By Avijit Biswas 23 16 Major Losses Definitions 1) Equipment failure loss Loss due to breakdown of equipment.
  • 24. By Avijit Biswas 24 2) Setup loss Time taken to change setting from one model / product to other till first OK piece comes out. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 25. By Avijit Biswas 25 3) Tool change loss Time taken to change worn out tools till first OK piece comes out. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 26. By Avijit Biswas 26 4) Start up Loss Time required to build temperature / pressure etc. Referencing of CNC machines, warm operations conducted early morning or after long stoppage. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 27. By Avijit Biswas 27 5) Minor stoppage and idling loss Unlike failures, minor stoppage / idling losses represent a status in which the machine is subjected to either stoppage or idling due to temporary troubles; for instance, when a workpiece is clogged in the chute, idling occurs; or when a sensor is activated because of a quality defect to cause a temporary stoppage. These are the conditions in which the machine will revert to normal operation, if the stuck workpiece is removed, or resetting is carried out. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 28. By Avijit Biswas 28 6) Speed loss Losses due to difference between the actual speed and design speed. Losses resulting from lower design speed compared to the present technological level or desirable speed (or mission speed). Ex. If standard cycle time is 30 sec and actual operation time is 35 sec; the speed loss is 5 sec. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 29. By Avijit Biswas 29 7) Defects and rework loss Loss due to defective (Rework+Rejection) production. Volume losses due to defects and time losses required to repair defective products to turn them into excellent products. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 30. By Avijit Biswas 30 8) Shutdown loss Loss which affects the equipment loading time. Time losses when equipment is stopped for planned maintenance. This loss is caused by stopping the equipment for periodical maintenance / inspection, and for scheduled shutdown for legal inspection during the production stage. Reduction of shutdown time and cycle extension must be sought. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 31. By Avijit Biswas 31 9) Management loss These are waiting losses such as awaiting instructions, awaiting material, awaiting tools, repair which are generated through management problems. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 32. By Avijit Biswas 32 10) Operating motion Losses due to violation of motion economy. It is the man-hour loss which is generated by the skill level difference in the setup and adjustment, tool and jig change operation and so forth. The losses which are cased by skill level difference in the loading and unloading work is also included in this category. Walking losses because of bad layout. Method / procedure loss, Skill and morale loss. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 33. By Avijit Biswas 33 11) Line organisation Loss due to organizing the manning considering skill, availability etc. It is the loss resulting from the worker having to work on more than one piece of equipment at the same time, including loss caused by improper line organization. Include waiting time losses generated in the multi- process and multi-machine processing and also line balance losses in conveyor work. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 34. By Avijit Biswas 34 12) Logistic Stoppage of equipment for logistics reasons. Ex.- Material movement, non-availability of trolley / bin etc. Man-hours spent in doing logistics work (transportation of products or raw materials etc.) by other than logistics workers, or the additional time spent by logistics workers due to equipment failure. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 35. By Avijit Biswas 35 13) Measurement and adjustment Losses that result from measuring and adjustment to prevent occurrence of quality defects. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 36. By Avijit Biswas 36 14) Yield Volume losses. Weight difference between raw material and products. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 37. By Avijit Biswas 37 15) Energy Losses of energy such as electric power, fuel, air, water etc. Startup loss, overload loss, temperature loss. It is the input energy which can not be effectively used for processing. Losses such as startup loss, temperature loss during processing and idling are included in this category. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 38. By Avijit Biswas 38 16) Die and tool These are monetary losses resulting from the manufacturing and repair of dies, jigs, fixtures, and tools necessary for production. These are extra expenses needed for replacing dies, tools, and jigs which are worn over long service or broken or the expenses spent for re-grinding or re- nitriding. 16 Major Losses Definitions
  • 40. By Avijit Biswas 40 JISHU-HOZEN (AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE) Concept “Jishu Hozen” is the activity in which each worker performs, i.e. daily inspection, lubrication, troubleshooting, repair, accuracy checks, and so forth on his own equipment, aiming at achieving the goal of ‘keeping one’s own equipment’ in good condition by oneself. Participation of production in maintaining the machine condition is Jishu Hozen.
  • 41. By Avijit Biswas 41 Jishu Hozen The operator should have the following basic abilities - He should have ability to sense abnormality, ability to find abnormality in the equipment / products by feeling suspicious behaviour and ability to make necessary kaizen. He should have knowledge and ability to understand the co-relation between equipment and quality and to predict abnormal quality of the product and its causes. He should have knowledge and ability to understand the equipment mechanism and functions and to locate the possible causes, if trouble occurs. In order to satisfactorily perform “Jishu Hozen”, the operator should be “proficient in equipment operations and maintenance”.
  • 42. By Avijit Biswas 42 Support to Jishu Hozen activities Maintenance division provides precise guidance and support. 1. Training and guidance in equipment structures and functions, names of parts, and members that must not be disassembled. 2. Guidance of lubrication, unification of oil types and instruction on preparation of an oiling standard (oiling locations, oil types, and oiling periods). 3. Technical support on control of sources, counter-measures for the causes of dirty equipment and improving access to hard-to-clean areas, efficient operation and other kaizen activities. 4. Quick processing of work asked by the operating division on malfunctions such as deterioration, basic conditions, and defects. Jishu Hozen
  • 43. By Avijit Biswas 43 SEVEN STEPS FOR EVOLVING JISHU-HOZEN 1 Initial clean-up 2 Countermeasures against Sources of Contamination and Difficult To Access Areas 3 Formulation of Tentative Standards 4 Overall Inspection 5 Autonomous Inspection 6 Standardization 7 Autonomous Management 0 The Beginning - preliminary step
  • 44. By Avijit Biswas 44 Step 0 Preliminary step (Step 0) 1. Understanding the importance of JH. 2. Understanding the adverse effect of forced deterioration. Understand what will happen if it is poorly maintained. 3. Understanding normal and abnormal conditions. 4. Safety education, prediction of injuries, electrical shock, dust in eye, dropping articles, slippery surfaces, skin irritation etc. 5. Draw a simple illustration of equipment to identify different units and components of the equipment.
  • 45. By Avijit Biswas 45 Step 0 Cont.. Preliminary step (Step 0) 6. Understanding losses, failures, and defects with corresponding responsibilities. 7. Awareness of basic equipment condition. 8. Red and White Tags. 9. Dis-cover to discover. 10. 1S and 2S
  • 46. By Avijit Biswas 46 Step 0 Cont.. Preliminary step (Step 0) 11. Clear schedule of activities on activity board. 12. Reading of manuals. 13. Understanding purpose of cleaning. 14. Collection of material required for JH step 1. 15. Role of operator. 16. Papers for summarizing abnormalities (tags).
  • 47. By Avijit Biswas 47 • Cleaning and inspection. • Inspection is performed to find fuguai (abnormalities). • Fuguais are to be restored & improved and should be understood. Purpose Thorough cleaning of dirt, dust, and stains on entire equipment to • Prevent forced deterioration. • Extraction and handling of latent defects through cleaning. Step 1 - Initial Clean-up Activity Step-1
  • 48. By Avijit Biswas 48 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up1. Provide basic training needed to implement Step 1. Training such as safety equipment, structure and function, lubrication, proper re-tightening etc. 2. Take photographs before starting the activity. 3. Remove all unnecessary articles not only around the equipment but also throughout the line. 4. Find equipment fuguai by inspection, touching, and moving the equipment. 5. Find faults such as play, looseness, wear, eccentricity, vibration, abnormal sound, heat, and oil leak by five senses. Carefully examine parts that are causing problems everyday. Step-1 Cont…
  • 49. By Avijit Biswas 49 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up 6. Locate sources of generating stains. 7. Eliminate unnecessary and seldom used items and simplify the equipment. 8. Disassemble components if necessary. Refer old history card of this machine and similar machines for failure sources. 9. Think about what the equipment must be when restoring abnormalities. 10. Attach tags to fuguai during cleaning. Restore on the spot, if possible. Step-1 Cont…
  • 50. By Avijit Biswas 50 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up 11. Open covers and lids that have never been seen. 12. Clean dirt not only on equipment but also on transfer equipment, electrical boxes, oil tanks, coolant tanks, jigs-fixtures, and other auxiliary equipment. 13. Repair-by-self becomes the basis for training. 14. Each individual decides fuguai and then leader provides guidance on omitted places and whether or not decisions are correct. Leader guides all members one-by-one to pull up their ability. 15. All members teach each other - location where they neglected to attach tag. Step-1 Cont…
  • 51. By Avijit Biswas 51 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up 16. Before closure of tag, the leader should check whether permanent action has been taken. 17. Do not give up even if it gets dirty soon after cleaning. 18. Determine how soon, from where, and how it gets dirty after cleaning. 19. Cleaning of equipment frequently finds 200 - 500 defects. 20. Tag management. 21. Maintain the level achieved. Find out sources of contamination. Find out hard-to-access areas. Step-1 Cont…
  • 52. By Avijit Biswas 52 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up Tag Management Prepare tag matrix. Decide priority for countermeasures. (Leak, dirty, missing,…..) Prepare trend chart - put and removed. Dept. Managers take ownership to track the number of Red / White tags, their stratification & closure. Co-relate tags with loss. Tag removal plan. Fixing deadlines should be stated on tags, where it can not be repaired immediately. Step-1 Cont…
  • 53. By Avijit Biswas 53 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up Tag Management All the members should adhere to target dates strictly. In case of difficulty, team members will approach leader in advance. Daily tag status on board. Why-why analysis for each abnormality. Before closure of the tag, JH team should check whether permanent solution has been taken Tag removal plan made and reviewed in JH committee meetings Accelerated restoration is motivation for the people. Confirmation of results. Step-1 Cont…
  • 54. By Avijit Biswas 54 Tags Red Tag White Tag TPM SR.NO. W. NO./DEPT./CELL EQPT. NAME DATE OF DETECTION DETECTOR ABNORMALITY : _________________ : _________________ : _________________ : _________________ : _________________ : _________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ LINKED WITH WHICH LOSS : ____________ TARGET DATE : _________________
  • 55. By Avijit Biswas 55 Step 1 Abnormality Tag Matrix List of fouled parts List of Fuguai Status of Tags Status of Tags - Machine wise Why-why analysis for Abnormalities Why-why analysis for Countermeasures for Forced Deterioration Step by step methodology of JH … Step1
  • 56. By Avijit Biswas 56 Step 1 - Initial Clean-up Audit by JH team (Autonomous Audit) Plant Audit Passed To JH Step 2 Step by step methodology of JH … Step1…cont..
  • 57. By Avijit Biswas 57 Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and Improving Hard-to-access areas • Implementation of countermeasures against sources such as dust, dirt, and prevention of flying of chips, prevention of splashing, scattering of weld spatters etc. • Implementation of countermeasures against the areas where cleaning and inspection is difficult. Purpose Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
  • 58. By Avijit Biswas 58 Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and Improving Hard-to-access areas • Use concepts like localized guards. • Make corrugated cardboard models, try them, and then fabricate using steel sheets. • Shorten the time for cleaning, lubrication, and servicing. • As we take efforts in cleaning the equipment (JH step 1), we naturally pay attention to sources of contamination. • Strengthen ability to improve equipment and gain confidence to perceive improvements on an even higher level. How to achieve the Purpose Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
  • 59. By Avijit Biswas 59 Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and Improving Hard-to-access areas Countermeasures for source of problems • Oil stains - Excess supply of lub oil - Adjust oil amount. • Coolant splashing - Localized guards - Can we limit volume of coolant used? • Scattering of chips - Localized guards - Close to source - Excessive stock Improving Hard-to-access areas • FRL - Draining and checking difficult - Install near floor - Bring to visual level. • Inspection of pressure not possible - Pressure gauge at the top - Bring it down. • V belt inspection difficult - Removal of covers - Make inspection window. Efforts should be to ensure reduction of inspection time. Step by step methodology of JH … Step2…cont..
  • 60. By Avijit Biswas 60 JH - Step 2 1. No splashing and scattering of chips, coolant, oil, spatters etc. 2. Change the equipment to dry equipment by making localized guards. 3. All the chips and dust of cycle will be totally flushed away and machine should be totally fresh for next cycle. * No accumulation anywhere on equipment. * No need to clean resting plate. * No need to clean with air, coolant, brush. 4. Coolant / Oil should follow narrow path so that contamination is minimum. 5. All pipes, cables, hoses should be individually routed. * No bundling. * Separate clamping. 6. Wherever possible, replace flexible pipes with metallic pipes. 7. Check need of transparent guards.
  • 61. By Avijit Biswas 61 Jishu Hozen (Formats) List of illustration of hard-to-access area Step 2 Source of Contamination and Countermeasures
  • 62. By Avijit Biswas 62 Step 2 Methodology of Jhisu Hozen Audit by JH team (Autonomous Audit) Plant Audit Passed To JH Step 3 Step 2 - Countermeasures for the causes of Forced Deterioration and Improving Hard-to-access areas