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To develop a new behavior
1) Successive Approximation Principle
• In successive approximation, each successive step towards the desired behavior is
identified and rewarded.
• The series of rewards for different steps of the behavior increases the likelihood that the
steps will be taken again and that they will lead to the desired end result being fulfilled.
• Example: Children’s sign language
Teach the pre-speaking child to use
children’s sign language and they could
be telling parents when they are hungry
or thirsty even before they can say the
words.
To develop a new behavior
2) Continuous Reinforcement Principle
• Continuous reinforcement is a example of fixed ration schedule with one respond
emanate before a consequence happen (Huitt & Hummel, 1997).
• Reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs (Concept of “Do 1, Get 1)
• Example: Encouragement
Giving a child a chocolate every day after
he finishes his math homework.
To develop a new behavior
3) Negative Reinforcement Principle
• Miltenberger (2008) defined the negative reinforcement as the occurrence of a behavior
by removal an aversive stimulus or decrease the intensity of the stimulus.
• Reinforcement can be declared as the effect on target behavior surely increases.
• Negative reinforcement able to produce the result at a present time. This indicate that it
is suitable for short term use.
• Example: Wake up at 6am
Mike’s morning alarm goes off at
6:00am. He hates this noise and reaches
over and hits the STOP button which
stops the alarm noise. He does this every
morning when his alarm goes off.
To develop a new behavior
4) Modeling Principle
• There will be a prominence person set as the role model for individual and performing
the behavior by discover the behavior from the person.
• Modeling also labelled as observational learning or imitation, is a behaviourally based
procedure where the model used to exhibit certain behavior, thought, or attitude that
the person may want to gain or change.
• Example: Harith Iskandar
You may know how to tell a joke better
because you have watched Harith
Iskandar’s stand up routine on TV.
To develop a new behavior
5) Cueing Principle
• Cueing is the action that used to motivate people to begin or continue the action that he
or she had practiced previously.
• The purpose of the cueing principle helps the third party easily to handle the thinking of
the person by encounter the competitiveness, impulsivity and passivity present in the
timeworn recitation model (Mctighe & Lyman, 1988).
• Example: Hand gesture
Teach the child that instead of interrupting when you are
talking with somebody else, he is to squeeze your hand.
This will let you know that he wants to talk to you (as you
return the squeeze) and as soon as you can, you will stop
the conversation and find out what he wants.
To develop a new behavior
6) Discrimination Principle
• The stimuli need to help the person able to identify and differentiate the cues given and
reward is given when the action is appropriate.
• Discrimination is the behavior directed towards category members that is consequential
for the outcome and is straight towards them due to the same group of members.
• Example: Interview for job
An older man applies for a job at a trendy women’s clothing
store. The young woman who interviews him finds him
pleasantly similar to her favourite grandfather and tells him
this as a compliment. Later, the man is told that he does not
have the right qualifications, and that the person hired had
“more energy” and could relate better to the mainly female
clients.
To strengthen a new
behavior
1) Decrease Reinforcement Principle
• Decreasing reinforcement encourage the behavior is continue practicing with minimum
or no reward.
• Once the behavior is established and practiced by the person, the adjustment on the
reward system need to be done.
• Example: Presentation
Practice to present in front of the class
without providing any marking scale and
reward to the student help to improve the
oral and presenting skill.
To strengthen a new
behavior
2) Variable Reinforcement Principle
• Is the type of reinforcement that used to enhance and boost the performance of the
behavior where intermittent reward is provided.
• Variable reinforcement will depress the reinforcement where intermittent reward will
reinforce a behavior randomly.
• Example: Improvement
A unpredictable reward is given to the
children when they complete a better
quality of works such as scoring perfect in
their homework.
To maintain an established
behavior
1) Substitution Principle
• Substitution happen when the current behavior and reward is no longer effective to
control the behavior.
• Substitution involve the task that establish new behavior and assist the old behavior.
• The practical of substitution is economic as the development of the new thought or
behavior may undoubtedly abolish the undesired behavior.
• Example: Reward the employees
Award the employees that have good
performance with cash instead of
electronic appliances.
To stop inappropriate
behavior
1) Satiation Principle
• If the person wants to stop the undesired behavior, one of the method is let them
continue presenting a behavior until the person is tired from acting the action in a
particular way. Correspondingly, the reinforcer become less powerful at that time.
• Satiation principle cause the reduction of appetitiveness and exceptions can happen. to
a reinforcing stimulus.
• Example: Eating pizza
If you ate pizza for lunch today and dinner tonight
and tomorrow your co-worker suggests eating a
pizza buffet for lunch, you may shout, "No way!"
You are satiated with pizza.
To stop inappropriate
behavior
2) Extinction Principle
• Extinction as a behavior that had been reinforced for a time frame was not continue for
the reinforcement and at last the behavior stopped occurring.
• Whenever the behavior no longer reinforced, the frequency, duration or intensity will
raise briefly before it reduce and stop.
• Example: No plastic bag in Melaka.
From 1st January 2016, consumers will have bring
along their own shopping bags or the cash counters
will supply them with biodegradable bags made of
plant-based materials.
To stop inappropriate
behavior
3) Incompatible Alternative Principle
• To prevent the person in acting some behavior, it can be done by rewarding the person
with the alternative action that presented inconsistent where the undesired behavior
cannot be performed at the same time.
• Incompatible alternative principle is to provide the person something to do while the
behavior the person practice is misbehaving.
• Example: Reduce arguement
If your husband is annoying you by playing his
Gameboy, instead of berating him, simply ask
him to help you by drying the dishes.
To stop inappropriate
behavior
4) Punishment Principle
• Punishment is look for the reduction of the undesired behavior will be repeated again by
enforcing penalties such as reprimand, discipline or fines.
• Punishment is a process of decreasing behavior by instantly presenting an apathetic
situation contingent upon a response that results in reducing the recurrence of the
respond.
• Example: Add workload
Giving a student extra homework
after he/ she misbehaves in class.
To modify emotional
behavior
1) Avoidance Principle
• Avoidance principle is lead out the performance of the behavior which to forbid the
aversive stimulus.
• The main purpose of the appearance of avoidance is act as the basic process in
development and maintenance of phobic behavior.
• Example: Reduce the talking session
I dislike another person at work. I avoid walking
pass their desk. When people talk about them, I say
nothing.
To modify emotional
behavior
2) Fear Reduction Principle
• A form of systematic exposure to the feared stimulus such as imaginal, live, vicarious,
rapid, slow, continuous and intermittent.
• This method will slowly grow the comfortable, more relaxed and secure for the person in
the present of the feared situation.
• Example: Reduce the fear on snake
They gradually progress from touching a snake
with a gloved hand to retrieving a loose snake bare-
handed and letting it crawl on their bodies.

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15 Behavioral Modification

  • 1. To develop a new behavior 1) Successive Approximation Principle • In successive approximation, each successive step towards the desired behavior is identified and rewarded. • The series of rewards for different steps of the behavior increases the likelihood that the steps will be taken again and that they will lead to the desired end result being fulfilled. • Example: Children’s sign language Teach the pre-speaking child to use children’s sign language and they could be telling parents when they are hungry or thirsty even before they can say the words.
  • 2. To develop a new behavior 2) Continuous Reinforcement Principle • Continuous reinforcement is a example of fixed ration schedule with one respond emanate before a consequence happen (Huitt & Hummel, 1997). • Reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs (Concept of “Do 1, Get 1) • Example: Encouragement Giving a child a chocolate every day after he finishes his math homework.
  • 3. To develop a new behavior 3) Negative Reinforcement Principle • Miltenberger (2008) defined the negative reinforcement as the occurrence of a behavior by removal an aversive stimulus or decrease the intensity of the stimulus. • Reinforcement can be declared as the effect on target behavior surely increases. • Negative reinforcement able to produce the result at a present time. This indicate that it is suitable for short term use. • Example: Wake up at 6am Mike’s morning alarm goes off at 6:00am. He hates this noise and reaches over and hits the STOP button which stops the alarm noise. He does this every morning when his alarm goes off.
  • 4. To develop a new behavior 4) Modeling Principle • There will be a prominence person set as the role model for individual and performing the behavior by discover the behavior from the person. • Modeling also labelled as observational learning or imitation, is a behaviourally based procedure where the model used to exhibit certain behavior, thought, or attitude that the person may want to gain or change. • Example: Harith Iskandar You may know how to tell a joke better because you have watched Harith Iskandar’s stand up routine on TV.
  • 5. To develop a new behavior 5) Cueing Principle • Cueing is the action that used to motivate people to begin or continue the action that he or she had practiced previously. • The purpose of the cueing principle helps the third party easily to handle the thinking of the person by encounter the competitiveness, impulsivity and passivity present in the timeworn recitation model (Mctighe & Lyman, 1988). • Example: Hand gesture Teach the child that instead of interrupting when you are talking with somebody else, he is to squeeze your hand. This will let you know that he wants to talk to you (as you return the squeeze) and as soon as you can, you will stop the conversation and find out what he wants.
  • 6. To develop a new behavior 6) Discrimination Principle • The stimuli need to help the person able to identify and differentiate the cues given and reward is given when the action is appropriate. • Discrimination is the behavior directed towards category members that is consequential for the outcome and is straight towards them due to the same group of members. • Example: Interview for job An older man applies for a job at a trendy women’s clothing store. The young woman who interviews him finds him pleasantly similar to her favourite grandfather and tells him this as a compliment. Later, the man is told that he does not have the right qualifications, and that the person hired had “more energy” and could relate better to the mainly female clients.
  • 7. To strengthen a new behavior 1) Decrease Reinforcement Principle • Decreasing reinforcement encourage the behavior is continue practicing with minimum or no reward. • Once the behavior is established and practiced by the person, the adjustment on the reward system need to be done. • Example: Presentation Practice to present in front of the class without providing any marking scale and reward to the student help to improve the oral and presenting skill.
  • 8. To strengthen a new behavior 2) Variable Reinforcement Principle • Is the type of reinforcement that used to enhance and boost the performance of the behavior where intermittent reward is provided. • Variable reinforcement will depress the reinforcement where intermittent reward will reinforce a behavior randomly. • Example: Improvement A unpredictable reward is given to the children when they complete a better quality of works such as scoring perfect in their homework.
  • 9. To maintain an established behavior 1) Substitution Principle • Substitution happen when the current behavior and reward is no longer effective to control the behavior. • Substitution involve the task that establish new behavior and assist the old behavior. • The practical of substitution is economic as the development of the new thought or behavior may undoubtedly abolish the undesired behavior. • Example: Reward the employees Award the employees that have good performance with cash instead of electronic appliances.
  • 10. To stop inappropriate behavior 1) Satiation Principle • If the person wants to stop the undesired behavior, one of the method is let them continue presenting a behavior until the person is tired from acting the action in a particular way. Correspondingly, the reinforcer become less powerful at that time. • Satiation principle cause the reduction of appetitiveness and exceptions can happen. to a reinforcing stimulus. • Example: Eating pizza If you ate pizza for lunch today and dinner tonight and tomorrow your co-worker suggests eating a pizza buffet for lunch, you may shout, "No way!" You are satiated with pizza.
  • 11. To stop inappropriate behavior 2) Extinction Principle • Extinction as a behavior that had been reinforced for a time frame was not continue for the reinforcement and at last the behavior stopped occurring. • Whenever the behavior no longer reinforced, the frequency, duration or intensity will raise briefly before it reduce and stop. • Example: No plastic bag in Melaka. From 1st January 2016, consumers will have bring along their own shopping bags or the cash counters will supply them with biodegradable bags made of plant-based materials.
  • 12. To stop inappropriate behavior 3) Incompatible Alternative Principle • To prevent the person in acting some behavior, it can be done by rewarding the person with the alternative action that presented inconsistent where the undesired behavior cannot be performed at the same time. • Incompatible alternative principle is to provide the person something to do while the behavior the person practice is misbehaving. • Example: Reduce arguement If your husband is annoying you by playing his Gameboy, instead of berating him, simply ask him to help you by drying the dishes.
  • 13. To stop inappropriate behavior 4) Punishment Principle • Punishment is look for the reduction of the undesired behavior will be repeated again by enforcing penalties such as reprimand, discipline or fines. • Punishment is a process of decreasing behavior by instantly presenting an apathetic situation contingent upon a response that results in reducing the recurrence of the respond. • Example: Add workload Giving a student extra homework after he/ she misbehaves in class.
  • 14. To modify emotional behavior 1) Avoidance Principle • Avoidance principle is lead out the performance of the behavior which to forbid the aversive stimulus. • The main purpose of the appearance of avoidance is act as the basic process in development and maintenance of phobic behavior. • Example: Reduce the talking session I dislike another person at work. I avoid walking pass their desk. When people talk about them, I say nothing.
  • 15. To modify emotional behavior 2) Fear Reduction Principle • A form of systematic exposure to the feared stimulus such as imaginal, live, vicarious, rapid, slow, continuous and intermittent. • This method will slowly grow the comfortable, more relaxed and secure for the person in the present of the feared situation. • Example: Reduce the fear on snake They gradually progress from touching a snake with a gloved hand to retrieving a loose snake bare- handed and letting it crawl on their bodies.