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Understand
Research Philosophy
by BC Chew
1. Research philosophy refers to beliefs and
assumptions about the development of knowledge.
2. The Epistemology assumption [valid & legitimate knowledge] +
Ontological assumption [nature of reality] + Axiological [values and
ethics in decision making] assumption = determine the research
design
EA: What constitutes acceptable, valid and legitimate knowledge? Scientific evidence.
OA: “Resistance to change”, good or bad in managing an organisation?
AA: Why you choose this research topic?
Two Sets of Extremes
1. Objectivism
2. Subjectivism
-they influence the epistemology, ontology and
axiology.
Objectivism
-Objective facts gives the best scientific evidence.
-Social reality is external to us.
-Social entities exist independently.
-There is only ONE general true/universal fact of social
reality experienced.
-The researcher DETACH along the research process.
-> Quantitative research. Highly generalizable.
Ex: Organizational hierarchical structure, job descriptions,
reporting and instructing, company policy, objectives of the
company [most of the companies have these]
Subjectivism
-Account for differences in individual context and experience
(different opinions).
-Social reality is made from the perceptions and consequence of
people. It is constructed through social interaction.
-Social interaction are a continual process, generate social
phenomena which in constant flux and revision.
-Multiple realities
- The researcher ATTACH along the research process
-> Qualitative research. Rich and complex view.
-Ex: Why different types of organizational hierarchical structure?
job descriptions suits to the talent? How effective of reporting and
instructing? How far company policy governance the company?
Why different companies have different objectives?
5 Major Philosophies
1. Positivism
2. Critical realism
3. Interpretivism
4. Postmodernism
5. Pragmatism
1. Positivism
-Posit: suggest or accept
-Emphasis on physical phenomena
-Like a natural scientist, strictly to yield (observation or measure) pure data
and facts which are not influenced by human interpretation
-Ex: What are the factors to enhance productivity of manpower?
-Ex: What are the real reason for high turn over rates in this company?
We want to find this out
2. Critical Realism
2. Critical Realism
3. Interpretivism
-Human creates meanings
-studying social science is different from natural science
-Ex: How does the university fresh graduates think about career
development across different fields of study?
4. Postmodernism
-Emphasis the role of language and power relations
-question accepted ways of thinking and give voice to marginalised view
-Because: what is considered ‘right’ and ‘true’ is decided collectively
-Ex: How far corporate social responsibility is truly reflected internally on
employing staffs with physical disabilities?
5. Pragmatism
-Emphasis the concepts are relevant where they support action.
-Produce practical solutions.
-Ex: How the government could solve the problem of unemployment among
fresh graduates?
Source: Hampton, W. 2014.
References
• Sauders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A.
2016. Research Methods for Business
Students. Pearson.

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BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 

Research Philosophy

  • 2. 1. Research philosophy refers to beliefs and assumptions about the development of knowledge. 2. The Epistemology assumption [valid & legitimate knowledge] + Ontological assumption [nature of reality] + Axiological [values and ethics in decision making] assumption = determine the research design EA: What constitutes acceptable, valid and legitimate knowledge? Scientific evidence. OA: “Resistance to change”, good or bad in managing an organisation? AA: Why you choose this research topic?
  • 3. Two Sets of Extremes 1. Objectivism 2. Subjectivism -they influence the epistemology, ontology and axiology.
  • 4. Objectivism -Objective facts gives the best scientific evidence. -Social reality is external to us. -Social entities exist independently. -There is only ONE general true/universal fact of social reality experienced. -The researcher DETACH along the research process. -> Quantitative research. Highly generalizable. Ex: Organizational hierarchical structure, job descriptions, reporting and instructing, company policy, objectives of the company [most of the companies have these]
  • 5. Subjectivism -Account for differences in individual context and experience (different opinions). -Social reality is made from the perceptions and consequence of people. It is constructed through social interaction. -Social interaction are a continual process, generate social phenomena which in constant flux and revision. -Multiple realities - The researcher ATTACH along the research process -> Qualitative research. Rich and complex view. -Ex: Why different types of organizational hierarchical structure? job descriptions suits to the talent? How effective of reporting and instructing? How far company policy governance the company? Why different companies have different objectives?
  • 6.
  • 7. 5 Major Philosophies 1. Positivism 2. Critical realism 3. Interpretivism 4. Postmodernism 5. Pragmatism
  • 8. 1. Positivism -Posit: suggest or accept -Emphasis on physical phenomena -Like a natural scientist, strictly to yield (observation or measure) pure data and facts which are not influenced by human interpretation -Ex: What are the factors to enhance productivity of manpower?
  • 9. -Ex: What are the real reason for high turn over rates in this company? We want to find this out 2. Critical Realism
  • 11. 3. Interpretivism -Human creates meanings -studying social science is different from natural science -Ex: How does the university fresh graduates think about career development across different fields of study?
  • 12. 4. Postmodernism -Emphasis the role of language and power relations -question accepted ways of thinking and give voice to marginalised view -Because: what is considered ‘right’ and ‘true’ is decided collectively -Ex: How far corporate social responsibility is truly reflected internally on employing staffs with physical disabilities?
  • 13. 5. Pragmatism -Emphasis the concepts are relevant where they support action. -Produce practical solutions. -Ex: How the government could solve the problem of unemployment among fresh graduates?
  • 15. References • Sauders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2016. Research Methods for Business Students. Pearson.