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A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2


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Technology, pedagogy and the new science of learning.

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A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2

  1. 1. A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology Part 2 – The Modern World Mike Sharples, Institute of Educational Technology
  2. 2. Educational change “A mid-nineteenth-century surgeon is magically transported through time to a modern operating theatre. Once there, he finds himself completely at a loss to know what to do or how to help. In contrast, a mid-nineteenth-century teacher is transported through the years to a modern classroom. Once there, he picks up seamlessly where his modern peer left off.” Tim Bush, precis of Seymour Papert “The Children’s Machine”, 1994 learning.aspx
  3. 3. Education 1904-1994 Same technology, similar activity 1904 1954 1994
  4. 4. 1904 1954 1994 Entertainment 1904-1994 New technologies, new activities
  5. 5. Modern classroom 2004 New technology, but same pedagogy 5
  6. 6. Modern classroom 2016 6 New technologies, new pedagogies
  7. 7. Education is changing New technologies New pedagogies New science of learning 7
  8. 8. New technologies 8 Constructive and collaborative Distant and interactive Massive and social Personal and sensing
  9. 9. New technologies for learning 9 New technology can augment learning For example, ‘smart earpieces’ for learning in context: who/what am I looking at? what is s/he saying? 5/17/groundbreaking-gadget-claims-to-fit-in- your-ear-and-translate-fo/
  10. 10. New technologies for learning 10 New technology can augment learning For example, ‘smart earpieces’ for learning in context: who/what am I looking at? what is s/he saying? …and can disrupt traditional education
  11. 11. Early signals 11 As educational technologists we should watch for early signs of new and disruptive technology “Instinctively [Jed] switched over to his miniputer to review the situation. It was a simple thing to do. Many of the parts of the miniputer were synthetic bio-chemical units, their “controls” built into Jed’s aural cavity; he “switched on” by simple neural impulse. At once the mighty resources of the machine, equal to the libraries of the world, billowed like a curtain on the fringes of his brain. The machine responded like an electroencephalograph to the minute impulses of his brain, and flicked over at his command to the particular section of knowledge that he wanted to consult. Its “voice” came into his mind, filling it with relevant words, figures, and pictures.” Extract from a short story by Brian Aldiss, ‘The Thing Under the Glacier’, Daily Express Science Annual, 1963. 1963 Smart earpiece for learning controlled by neural impulses
  12. 12. Early signals 12 As educational technologists we should watch for early signs of new and disruptive technology Explore educational benefits Discuss risks and disruptions “Learners can command an increasing range of mobile technologies that have the potential to support learning anytime anywhere, but also to disrupt the carefully managed environment of the classroom.” Sharples, M. (2002) Disruptive Devices: Mobile Technology for Conversational Learning. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 12, 5/6, pp. 504-520.
  13. 13. Future Technology Workshop 13 A structured group method to systematically envision and explore future technologies and activities CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FUTURE TECHNOLOGY CURRENT ACTIVITY 1. Everyday technology- mediated activity 2. Familiar activities supported by new technologies FUTURE ACTIVITY 3. New activities that current technology might support 4. New activities with new technologies. The present The future (evolution of technology) The future (evolution of practices) The future (disruptive innovation) Vavoula, G.N. & Sharples, M. (2007) Future Technology Workshop: A collaborative method for the design of new learning technologies and activities. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, 2,4, 393-419.
  14. 14. Challenge 14 Identify technologies that may enhance or disrupt education in 2020 Discuss their benefits and risks
  15. 15. New pedagogies Pedagogy: Theory and practice of teaching, learning and assessment 15
  16. 16. Innovating pedagogy 16 Rhizomatic learning Peer learning through networking Personal inquiry Personally-meaningful investigations Flipped classroom Study content online, discuss in classroom Crossover learning Connecting informal and classroom learning Learning to learn Learning how to become an effective learner Geo-learning Learning about the landscape/environment Learning through gaming Learning by playing educational games Learning by storytelling Using narrative to guide learning Threshold concepts Focusing on topics that are difficult to teach Computational thinking Learning to abstract, plan, design, debug Context-based learning Learning by interaction with real objects & locations Incidental learning Learning from everyday incidents Learning by making Learning by creating and sharing objects Bricolage Learning by creative play with objects Embodied learning Learning with and about your body Dynamic assessment Discovering and overcoming learning difficulties
  17. 17. Example: Crossover Learning ●How do the learning activities of informal and classroom learning differ in: initiation, support, goals, activities, outcomes? ●What are the benefits of connecting formal and informal learning? ●How can educational technologies support this pedagogy? Connecting informal and classroom learning 17 Learner-initiated Teacher-initiated Learner- managed Informal learning (e.g. internet browsing) Self-managed learning (e.g. homework) Teacher- managed Non-formal learning (e.g. evening classes, MOOCs) Formal learning (e.g. schools)
  18. 18. Crossover learning: MyArtSpace ●Need: to make school museum visits more effective ●Aim: connect learning in museums and classrooms ●Change from worksheet exercise to inquiry-led learning ●Children as collectors and curators ●3000 children over 1 year in three museums during 2006-7 ●Greater engagement (from 20 minutes for previous visits to 90 minutes with MyArtSpace) ●Students brought back to the classroom rich resources from their visit Learning between classroom, museum and home 18 Vavoula, G., Sharples, M., Rudman, P., Meek, J., & Lonsdale, P. (2009) Myartspace: Design and evaluation of support for learning with multimedia phones between classrooms and museums. Computers and Education, 53, 2, 286-299.
  19. 19. Prepare a question in the classroom Create and collect evidence in the museum View and share in the classroom Present a personal perspective
  20. 20. New science of learning “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” 20 A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. Neural learning ● Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action Computational learning ● Infer structural models from the environment ● Learn from probabilistic input Social learning ● Learning by imitation ● Shared attention ● Intersubjectivity Developmental learning ● Behavioural and cognitive development ● Neural plasticity Contextual and temporal learning ● Learning within and across contexts ● Cycle of engagement and reflection
  21. 21. Insights from neuroscience 21 Timing Spacing between stimuli is important in creating Long Term Memories Spaced learning Neural plasticity The brain can re-organise itself by forming new connections, throughout a lifetime Environmental enrichment Critical periods Resilience: learning to respond positively to environmental challenges Stress Moderate levels of stress is associated with performance – but ‘moderate’ differs among individuals Challenge-based learning Learning self-regulation of emotions
  22. 22. Example: Spaced learning 22 Kelley, P., & Whatson, T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 589. Based on behavioural and laboratory studies of how Long Term Memories are encoded (DNA synthesis in the synapses of the brain) Three short learning episodes spaced by 10 minutes of physical activity (e.g. clay modelling) A controlled study found similar learning outcomes from one hour of spaced learning compared to a four-month course of classroom teaching Studies are now being repeated in 15 schools Teacher-led presentation Students recall key concepts 10 minute active break 10 minute active break Students apply knowledge
  23. 23. Insights from behavioural sciences 23 Positive reinforcement Positive behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated Behaviour modification
  24. 24. Example: Gloyo Changing children’s handwashing behaviour 24 ● An interactive toy that teaches children how to wash their hands properly. ● Mobile hand washing device shaped like a ‘yo-yo’ ● Designed in collaboration with young children ● One side contains lotion for washing hands ● Other side has UV light to detect where lotion has not been washed off ● Images showing 6 steps to wash ● Positive reinforcement of correct behaviour ● A one-year trial saw sustained improvement in hand washing. Randle, J., Metcalfe, J., Webb, H., Luckett, J. C. A., Nerlich, B., Vaughan, N., ... & Hardie, K. R. (2013). Impact of an educational intervention upon the hand hygiene compliance of children. Journal of Hospital Infection, 85(3), 220-225.
  25. 25. Insights from cognitive sciences 25 Feedback Giving immediate feedback is successful for easy learning tasks and when the student is building knowledge. Both positive and negative feedback can help learning. Feedback must be relevant and lead to action. Assessment for learning Mastery learning Constructivist learning Students who actively explore a topic, then receive instruction perform better than students who are instructed first, then explore Productive failure Learning by constructing Context and learning We understand new topics in the context of what we already know Case-based learning Learning from examples Language Language enables cognition Learning multiple languages Meta-language and metacognition
  26. 26. Example: productive failure ● Learners explore a complex problem and try to generate solutions ● Teacher explains how to find the answer, using the student solutions as examples ● In productive failure, students are primed to understand the lecture ● In lecture-first, students are limited to memorise, recall and apply the formulas they had seen ● A study of students learning a complex topic of combinatorics on an interactive tabletop ● Students who explored first then watched a lecture performed significantly better than lecture-first ● Learning by productive failure has been implemented in over 26 Singapore schools Learning by exploring complex problems 26 Students explore a problem, producing a range of answers Teacher explains the correct answer using students’ solutions as examples Productive failure Teacher presents the topic and shows how to solve problems Students try to solve problems related to the topic Lecture-first teaching Schneider, B., & Blikstein, P. (2016). Flipping the Flipped Classroom: A Study of the Effectiveness of Video Lectures Versus Constructivist Exploration Using Tangible User Interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 9(1), 5-17.
  27. 27. Insights from social sciences 27 Cooperative learning People learn best when they learn together For groups to work: • shared goals • each person knows how and when to contribute • everyonemakes an appropriate contribution • share rewards in a fair way • opportunity to reflect on progress and to discuss contributions Cooperative learning Jigsaw learning Team-based learning Zone of proximal development Learners should work in a zone where they can be helped: between what they can already do unaided, and what is far too difficult Scaffolding Peer learning Learning organisations Organisations (such as schools and businesses) are learning systems Organisational learning Double-loop learning
  28. 28. Example: FutureLearn ● Which pedagogies improve with scale? ● FutureLearn platform designed to support learning as conversation ● The more people who exchange ideas and perspectives, the better the learning experience ● Conversations linked to content ● Peer review and small group discussions ● Social network techniques to manage the massive scale of conversation Social learning at massive scale 28 Ferguson, R. & Sharples, M. (2014). Innovative pedagogy at massive scale: Teaching and learning in MOOCs. In C. Rensing, S. de Freitas, T. Ley & P. J. Muñoz- Merino (Eds.) Open Learning and Teaching in Educational Communities, proceedings of 9th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2014), Graz, Austria, September 16-19. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 98-111.
  29. 29. Designing learning with technology “A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories” Design-Based Research Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23. Educational theory Educational practice Design experiment Expanded theory New technology in practice Design experiment guides informs guides
  30. 30. Comparison of DBR with laboratory experimental research Experimental studies Design-based studies Laboratory studies Real world situations that contain limitations, complexities, dynamics Aimed at testing hypotheses Aimed at designing new interventions and generating hypothesis Usually single dependent variable Multiple dependent variables (though not all are investigated) Control of variables, through specification of fixed procedures Iterative and flexible revisions of the research design Normally isolated from the social world Normally involve social interactions Researchers are the decision makers Partners contribute to the decision making
  31. 31. Evaluating educational technology innovations 31 “a serious investigation of the impacts of technology on student learning will require multiple studies and more than one methodological approach… For many policymakers, the decision to be made is not whether to invest in technology or not, but rather how best to integrate technology with local educational goals… In many cases, technology-based interventions seek to foster analytic, problem-solving, or design skills that are not covered by conventional achievement tests. Using an outcome measure that has nothing to do with the intervention under study can easily mask real impacts on learning.”
  32. 32. Evaluating educational technology innovations 32 Method Context Results Design experiment Design-based research Theory development Educational technology requirements Controlled intervention study Hypothesis testing Comparative effectiveness of educational interventions Systematic review Increasing predictive power Effect size of type of intervention Comparison with average effect size of 0.4 Observation Learning in situ Understanding the learning process Critical incident analysis Learning in situ Analysis of incidents in terms of breakdowns and breakthroughs, to inform design Ethnographic study Learning in situ Scientific description of learning activities and cultures Interaction analysis Learning practices Corpus of learners’ interactions Activity analysis Learning analytics Learner behaviour and performance Survey New learning intervention Insight into learners’ intentions, experiences, and difficulties
  33. 33. Learning design Improved Educational Practices Objectives and strategies for institutional change Learning Analytics Agile development Institutional innovation Double loop organisational learning
  34. 34. Learning design Improved Educational Practices Objectives and strategies for institutional change Theories of effective education Theory- informed innovation Learning Analytics Design-based research Agile development Educational evaluation and insight Institutional innovation Double loop organisational learning
  35. 35. What next? Scalable and sustainable learning systems Beyond MOOCs Intelligent tutoring systems A tutor for every learner Personalised and social learning at massive scale How to combine the learning benefits of social and personal learning Orchestration outside the classroom Facilitating informal learning Lifelong professional development Connecting learning in workplaces and classrooms Distributed accreditation Blockchain technologies for education Formative analytics Big data analytics to support learning 35
  36. 36. Which future? 36 ? ? “The best way to predict the future is to invent it” Quote attributed to Alan Kay ? http://www.k- r_can_we_go ? are/community/education.html credit-through-moocs-first-time