SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A Very Short
Introduction to
Educational Technology
Mike Sharples
Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University
Definitions
Pedagogy
“The theory and practice of teaching, learning and assessment”
Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M. and
Whitelock, D. (2012). Innovating Pedagogy 2012: Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes:
The Open University.
Educational technology
Interactive technology to enable effective learning (may include fixed,
desktop, mobile and wearable devices and their software - and
combinations of these)
Technology Enhanced Learning
Learning supported by individual or multiple technologies. In Europe, now
used in preference to e-learning, or computer-assisted learning
Contents
A short history of educational technology
Theories of learning with technologies
Evaluation of learning with technologies
3
1920s: Pressey’s Self-testing machine
4
Image copyright OSU photo archives
“There must be an ‘industrial revolution’ in
education, in which educational science
and the ingenuity of educational
technology combine to modernize the
grossly inefficient and clumsy procedures
of conventional education. Work in the
schools of the future will be marvelously
though simply organized, so as to adjust
almost automatically to individual
differences and the characteristics of the
learning process. There will be many
laborsaving schemes and devices, and
even machines – not at all for the
mechanizing of education, but for the
freeing of teacher and pupil from
educational drudgery and incompetence.”
Sidney Pressey (1933) Psychology and the New Education
1950s Linear programming and teaching machines
● Based on scientific theory of ‘operant
conditioning’ (changing behaviour by use of
reinforcement after a desired response)
● Presentation of a linear sequence of frames of
information, in small steps
● Immediate reinforcement of student
responses, but the same response for each
student
● Gradual progression to establish complex
repertoires
● Fading or gradual withdrawal of stimulus
support
● Issues: finding reinforcers that are effective
and ethical; matching individual students;
incorrect responses
5
In B.F. Skinner (1958) Teaching
Machines
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTH3ob
1IRFo
Emerging themes
● Educational technology
● Self-paced learning
● Interactive learning
● Learning design
● Formative assessment
● Motivation for learning
6
1950s: Branching programs
●Based on theories from
cybernetics (adaptive systems,
feedback control)
●Using information from errors to
eliminate incorrect responses
(vs. ensuring correct responses
and reinforcing them)
●Student is presented with
multiple choice response
●Feedback depends on the
student’s response
●Move towards adaptive and
personalised teaching 7
Adaptive teaching machine
Multiple choice branching
8
1960s: Computer-assisted instruction
● Computer-based teaching
● Adaptive teaching systems
● Programming languages for
education (BASIC: Beginner’s All
Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
● “Computers and computer-managed
instruction systems can be expected
to play a major role in transforming
the educational process by giving the
teacher a sophisticated aid to allow
for flexible, multimedia, individualized
education at a relatively small
increase in cost.”
H.J. Bruder, Computer-Managed Instruction, Science,
1968
9
Multi-media adaptive teaching system,
with ‘light-pen’ touch screen, 1968
Instructivist pedagogy
●Learning as
information transfer
●Instructor-led
●Sequenced
learning elements
●Inform – test –
explain
●Adaptivity &
personalisation
10
1970s: Large scale teaching systems
● Large scale projects
● Networked teaching
systems
● Logo and microworlds
● Computers as coaches
● AI-based intelligent
tutoring systems
11
‘Hangman’ software on
Commodore PET computer
1970s: PLATO IV
● 950 networked terminals in 140 sites
● 8000 hours of instructional material by 3000 authors
● Aim to provide ubiquitous computer-based teaching
(proposal for 1-million terminal PLATO V)
● High resolution flicker-free plasma display screen
(transparent so that colour slides can be overlaid on it);
touch panel; audio and slide; music synthesisers
● TUTOR authoring language
● First use of graphic simulations for teaching
● Evaluation: “no compelling statistical evidence that
PLATO had either a positive or negative effect on
student achievement”; no significant effect on student
drop-out rates; PLATO students showed much more
favourable attitude towards computers.
● In 1992 the company NovaNET was formed with the
rights to PLATO technology. Changed name to
Edmentum in 2012.
12
PLATO IV touch-screen networked
learning terminal
1970s: Logo programming for children
● Seymour Papert - student of the
psychologist Jean Piaget
● Learning through programming computers
● Logo programming language and
computer-controlled robotic ‘turtle’ for
children
● Claims that programming,
proceduralisation and debugging are
valuable problem-solving skills
● “In many schools today the phrase
“computer aided instruction” means
making the computer teach the child. One
might say the computer is being used to
program the child. In my vision the child
programs the computer”
Papert, Mindstorms, 1980
13
Children using a ‘button box’
to control and programme a turtle
1980s: Microcomputers in education
● Multimedia personal computers
● Videodisks
● Networked-based teaching and
computer-supported
collaborative learning
● Educational simulations
● Commercial teaching and
training packages
14
Children using educational software on
a BBC microcomputer
1990s: online learning
●Edutainment
●Integration of video, animation,
hypermedia
●Notebook computers
●Web-based learning
environments (VLEs, MLEs)
●Integrated learning systems
●Intelligent agents
15
‘Smart Operator’ adaptive simulation-based
training package with ‘intelligent agent’
feedback on learner errors
2000s: mobile learning
●Web-based virtual learning
environments in universities
and colleges
●Mobile and contextual
learning
●Seamless learning
●Multimedia learning spaces
●Spoken language
interaction with tutoring
systems
16
HandLeR mobile learning technology
Old and new learning (1990s – 2010s)
17
E-learning in the 1990s Technology-enhanced learning
in the 2010s
Constructivist learning Social-constructivist learning
Online learning Blended learning
VLEs and MLEs Personal Learning Environments
Media-equipped teaching rooms Flexible learning spaces
Desktop computer rooms Support for students with multiple
personal technologies
Creating re-usable learning objects Open learning and student-created
media
Collaborative learning Social networked learning
Evaluation of learning gains Evaluation of learning
transformations
Effective learning technology Effective, scalable and sustainable
learningtechnology
The new science of learning
● Computational learning
● Infer structural models from the environment
● Learn from probabilistic input
● Social learning
● Learning by imitation
● Shared attention
● Intersubjectivity
● Neural learning
● Learning supported by brain circuits that link
perception and action
● Developmental learning
● Behavioural and cognitive development
● Neural plasticity
● Teaching and learning
● Principles of effective teaching
● Contextual and temporal learning
● Learning within and across contexts
● Cycle of engagement and reflection
● Technology-enabled learning
● Learning as a distributed socio-technical system
● Orchestration of learning
18
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J.
Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science
of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
The new sciences of learning
“Insights from many different
fields are converging to create a
new science of learning that may
transform educational practice”
“A key component is the role of
‘the social’ in learning. What
makes social interaction such a
powerful catalyst for learning?”
19
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J.
Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science
of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
Types of learning
Learning as… Learning sciences…
Changing behaviour Neuroscience
Behavioural science
Enhancing skills Cognitive development
Storing information Information sciences
Gaining knowledge Cognitive sciences
Epistemology
Making sense of the world Social sciences
Socio-cultural and activity theory
Interpreting the world in a new way Phenomenology
Personal change Psychoanalysis
20
A theory of learning for the mobile age
21
What is distinctive about learning in a mobile age?
22
●Mobility as a central concern
●Learners are continually on
the move
●Need to understand learning
as a mobile and contextual
activity
●Involves a blend of portable,
wearable and fixed
technologies
●Embraces learning in both
formal and informal settings
●Scalable and sustainable
Theories of learning with technology
John Dewey’s Instrumental inquiry
● Knowing is activity in the world, involving a combination of thoughts and
external artefacts as tools for inquiry
● Every reflective experience is an instrument for production of meaning
● Inquiry-led learning
Yrjö Engeström’s Expansive Activity Theory
● Learning is a cultural-historical activity mediated by tools, including
technology and language
● Activity systems contain the possibility for expansive transformation, as
contradictions are internalised and resolved
● Social-constructivist learning
Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory
● Conversation is the fundamental process of learning
● Learning is a cybernetic process of “coming to know” through mutual
adjustment and negotiation
● Conversational learning 23
Dewey’s instrumental inquiry
●Education should be based upon the quality of experience
●For an experience to be educational, there must be continuity
and interaction
●Continuity: experience comes from and leads to other
experiences
●Interaction: when the experience meets the internal needs or
goals of a person
●Pragmatic instrumentalism: Knowing is activity in the world,
involving a combination of thoughts and external artefacts as
tools for inquiry
24
Dewey and social learning
“The principle that development of experience comes about
through interaction means that education is essentially a social
process. This quality is realized in the degree in which
individuals form a community group. … It is absurd to exclude
the teacher from membership in the group. As the most mature
member of the group he has a peculiar responsibility for the
conduct of the interactions and inter-communications which are
the very life of the group as a community.”
Dewey, “Experience and Education” (1938)
25
Dewey and reflective learning
Learning comes when a person strives to overcome a problem
or breakdown in everyday activity, or recognises part of the
continual flow of activity and conversation as worth
remembering
Every reflective experience is an instrument for the
production of meaning
A mis-educative experience is one that stops or distorts growth
for future experiences
A non-educative experience is when a person has not done any
reflection and so has not obtained lasting mental growth
26
Engeström’s expansive activity theory
● Learning is a cultural-historical activity mediated by tools,
including technology and language
● Activity is the focus of analysis
● Activity systems are multi-voiced, with many perspectives,
transitions and interests in continual interaction
● Activity systems are shaped over time
● Activity systems contain the possibility for expansive
transformation: they go though extended periods of qualitative
change, as the contradictions are internalised and resolved,
leading to the emergence of new structure, tools and activity.
Learning as cultural historical activity
27
Example
● Learning at university is an activity system shaped by the
history of higher education and mediated by tools, including
technology and academic language
● Teaching and learning activity is the focus of analysis
● Teaching and learning activity systems are multi-voiced: many
teaching methods, learning strategies, cultures
● Teaching and learning systems in universities are shaped
over time
● University systems contain the possibility for expansive
transformation. For example, students bringing their own
devices into lectures initially caused tensions and disruptions
- but also possibilities for radical transformation to a more
student-centred learning activity.
University as an activity system
28
Pask and learning as conversation
● A theory of how we come to
know
● Derived from cybernetics
● A conversation is the
minimum necessary
structure to enable learning
- Multiple conversations within one
mind
- One conversation across multiple
minds
● Can involve technology as a
conversational partner
29
● Conversations about the how
and why of a topic
● Conversations about the how
of learning (for example
discussing study skills and
reflecting on experiences as a
learner)
● Conversations about purposes,
the why of learning, where the
emphasis is on encouraging
personal autonomy and
accepting responsibility for
one’s own learning
Conversational framework
Adapted from Laurillard (2002) Rethinking University Teaching.
A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge)
30
Evaluating learning
● John Hattie - synthesis of
over 800 meta-studies of
what influences learning
success
● All the meta-studies used a
standard measure of ‘effect
size’
● Important influences on
learning success:
- make learning expectations
and progress visible
- provide rapid feedback
Visible Learning – John Hattie
31
Each possible influence on learning is measured in
terms of positive or negative ‘effect size’
J. Hattie. Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800
meta-analyses relating to achievement
Where next?
http://hotel-project.eu/content/learning-theories-map-richard-millwood
32
Open University Innovating Pedagogy
● Annual report
● Explores new forms of
teaching, learning and
assessment for an
interactive world
● To guide teachers and
policy makers in productive
innovation
● www.open.ac.uk/innovating
Weak signals

More Related Content

What's hot

History of-educational-technology-timeline
History of-educational-technology-timelineHistory of-educational-technology-timeline
History of-educational-technology-timeline
Tics Umg
 
Educational technology
Educational technologyEducational technology
Educational technology
Usman Public School System
 
History Of Educational Technology
History Of Educational TechnologyHistory Of Educational Technology
History Of Educational Technology
Laguna State Polytechnic University
 
History of educational technology ppt
History of educational technology pptHistory of educational technology ppt
History of educational technology ppt
Stratford School of English
 
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific RegionEducational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
miss yhda
 
The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
The Roles of Educational Technology in LearningThe Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
mary jean cabato
 
Use of ict for effective teaching and learning
Use of ict for effective teaching and learningUse of ict for effective teaching and learning
Use of ict for effective teaching and learning
Ajith Janardhanan T J
 
Challenges of technology in Education
Challenges of technology in EducationChallenges of technology in Education
Challenges of technology in Education
djmonz
 
Technology integration
Technology integrationTechnology integration
Technology integration
blhopki
 
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st CenturyRole of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
Carla Gomez
 
The Importance of Educational Technology
The Importance of Educational Technology The Importance of Educational Technology
The Importance of Educational Technology
kristhel13
 
ICT in Education
ICT in EducationICT in Education
ICT in Education
James Robison
 
Evolution of educational technology
Evolution of educational technologyEvolution of educational technology
Evolution of educational technology
sajanazoya
 
Role of Educational technology
Role of Educational technologyRole of Educational technology
Role of Educational technology
Machine shop ni Don Bosco
 
Technology in Education
Technology in EducationTechnology in Education
Technology in Education
Ignatius Joseph Estroga
 
New Trends in Educational Technology
New Trends in Educational TechnologyNew Trends in Educational Technology
New Trends in Educational Technology
Syed Ali Roshan
 
Ict integration in education
Ict integration in educationIct integration in education
Ict integration in education
Boutkhil Guemide
 
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
Cherymae Almacen
 
Integrating Technology in the Classroom
Integrating Technology in the ClassroomIntegrating Technology in the Classroom
Integrating Technology in the Classroom
MindWing Concepts, Inc.
 
Educational Technology
Educational TechnologyEducational Technology
Educational Technology
vazhichal12
 

What's hot (20)

History of-educational-technology-timeline
History of-educational-technology-timelineHistory of-educational-technology-timeline
History of-educational-technology-timeline
 
Educational technology
Educational technologyEducational technology
Educational technology
 
History Of Educational Technology
History Of Educational TechnologyHistory Of Educational Technology
History Of Educational Technology
 
History of educational technology ppt
History of educational technology pptHistory of educational technology ppt
History of educational technology ppt
 
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific RegionEducational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
Educational Technology in the Asia Pacific Region
 
The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
The Roles of Educational Technology in LearningThe Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
 
Use of ict for effective teaching and learning
Use of ict for effective teaching and learningUse of ict for effective teaching and learning
Use of ict for effective teaching and learning
 
Challenges of technology in Education
Challenges of technology in EducationChallenges of technology in Education
Challenges of technology in Education
 
Technology integration
Technology integrationTechnology integration
Technology integration
 
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st CenturyRole of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
Role of Educational Technology in the 21st Century
 
The Importance of Educational Technology
The Importance of Educational Technology The Importance of Educational Technology
The Importance of Educational Technology
 
ICT in Education
ICT in EducationICT in Education
ICT in Education
 
Evolution of educational technology
Evolution of educational technologyEvolution of educational technology
Evolution of educational technology
 
Role of Educational technology
Role of Educational technologyRole of Educational technology
Role of Educational technology
 
Technology in Education
Technology in EducationTechnology in Education
Technology in Education
 
New Trends in Educational Technology
New Trends in Educational TechnologyNew Trends in Educational Technology
New Trends in Educational Technology
 
Ict integration in education
Ict integration in educationIct integration in education
Ict integration in education
 
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
Integration of tecnology in education ppt.
 
Integrating Technology in the Classroom
Integrating Technology in the ClassroomIntegrating Technology in the Classroom
Integrating Technology in the Classroom
 
Educational Technology
Educational TechnologyEducational Technology
Educational Technology
 

Viewers also liked

02-History Of Educational Technology
02-History Of Educational Technology02-History Of Educational Technology
02-History Of Educational Technology
For-Ian Sandoval
 
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
For-Ian Sandoval
 
06-The Confines Of ET
06-The Confines Of ET06-The Confines Of ET
06-The Confines Of ET
For-Ian Sandoval
 
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 101-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
For-Ian Sandoval
 
05-Technology And Dehumanization
05-Technology And Dehumanization05-Technology And Dehumanization
05-Technology And Dehumanization
For-Ian Sandoval
 
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
For-Ian Sandoval
 
03-Quality Education Through ET
03-Quality Education Through ET03-Quality Education Through ET
03-Quality Education Through ET
For-Ian Sandoval
 
Educational technology ppt
Educational technology pptEducational technology ppt
Educational technology ppt
Bclari25
 

Viewers also liked (8)

02-History Of Educational Technology
02-History Of Educational Technology02-History Of Educational Technology
02-History Of Educational Technology
 
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
07-Educational Technology And Educational Media
 
06-The Confines Of ET
06-The Confines Of ET06-The Confines Of ET
06-The Confines Of ET
 
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 101-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
01-Introduction To Educational Technology 1
 
05-Technology And Dehumanization
05-Technology And Dehumanization05-Technology And Dehumanization
05-Technology And Dehumanization
 
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
04 The Role Of Et In The 21st Century
 
03-Quality Education Through ET
03-Quality Education Through ET03-Quality Education Through ET
03-Quality Education Through ET
 
Educational technology ppt
Educational technology pptEducational technology ppt
Educational technology ppt
 

Similar to Introduction to educational technology

Educational innovation
Educational innovationEducational innovation
Educational innovation
JEFFREYLOISMAESTRADO
 
Short introduction to educational technology for sharing
Short introduction to educational technology for sharingShort introduction to educational technology for sharing
Short introduction to educational technology for sharing
Mike Sharples
 
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended LearningA Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
José Bidarra
 
Navigating the future of education
Navigating the future of educationNavigating the future of education
Navigating the future of education
Jisc
 
Ed tech2 ppt
Ed tech2 pptEd tech2 ppt
Ed tech2 ppt
Frederick Obniala
 
New learning paradigms and technologies
New learning paradigms and technologiesNew learning paradigms and technologies
New learning paradigms and technologies
Frederik Questier
 
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppteducational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
georgejustymirobi1
 
Future Classroom Lab
Future Classroom LabFuture Classroom Lab
Future Classroom Lab
zervoum
 
Design thinking in wild learning
Design thinking in wild learning Design thinking in wild learning
Design thinking in wild learning
Charles Darwin University
 
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
Adithya Ligory
 
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
Mike Sharples
 
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptxteaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
sartbnyhany1
 
Designing learning
Designing learning Designing learning
Designing learning
Mike Sharples
 
Impact of technology on teaching and learning
Impact of technology on teaching and learningImpact of technology on teaching and learning
Impact of technology on teaching and learning
Steven Poast
 
Pnr apek x
Pnr apek xPnr apek x
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scope
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scopeEducational technology, concept, objectives and scope
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scope
DivyaSS7
 
Future learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spacesFuture learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spaces
Dannno
 
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical PossibilitiesDigital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
RamNath63
 
New learning paradigms and learning technologies
New learning paradigms and learning technologiesNew learning paradigms and learning technologies
New learning paradigms and learning technologies
Frederik Questier
 
Edtech ppt
Edtech pptEdtech ppt
Edtech ppt
Mark Eric Decapia
 

Similar to Introduction to educational technology (20)

Educational innovation
Educational innovationEducational innovation
Educational innovation
 
Short introduction to educational technology for sharing
Short introduction to educational technology for sharingShort introduction to educational technology for sharing
Short introduction to educational technology for sharing
 
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended LearningA Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
A Pedagogical Model for Science Education through Blended Learning
 
Navigating the future of education
Navigating the future of educationNavigating the future of education
Navigating the future of education
 
Ed tech2 ppt
Ed tech2 pptEd tech2 ppt
Ed tech2 ppt
 
New learning paradigms and technologies
New learning paradigms and technologiesNew learning paradigms and technologies
New learning paradigms and technologies
 
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppteducational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
educational_technology_meena_arora.ppt
 
Future Classroom Lab
Future Classroom LabFuture Classroom Lab
Future Classroom Lab
 
Design thinking in wild learning
Design thinking in wild learning Design thinking in wild learning
Design thinking in wild learning
 
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences-Edtech Benefits!
 
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
A Brief Introduction to Educational Technology - Part 2
 
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptxteaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
teaching-learning-technology-aseel.pptx
 
Designing learning
Designing learning Designing learning
Designing learning
 
Impact of technology on teaching and learning
Impact of technology on teaching and learningImpact of technology on teaching and learning
Impact of technology on teaching and learning
 
Pnr apek x
Pnr apek xPnr apek x
Pnr apek x
 
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scope
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scopeEducational technology, concept, objectives and scope
Educational technology, concept, objectives and scope
 
Future learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spacesFuture learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spaces
 
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical PossibilitiesDigital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
Digital Learning Ecosystem: The Trigogical Possibilities
 
New learning paradigms and learning technologies
New learning paradigms and learning technologiesNew learning paradigms and learning technologies
New learning paradigms and learning technologies
 
Edtech ppt
Edtech pptEdtech ppt
Edtech ppt
 

More from Mike Sharples

Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and AssessmentGenerative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Mike Sharples
 
GPT and Student Writing.pptx
GPT and Student Writing.pptxGPT and Student Writing.pptx
GPT and Student Writing.pptx
Mike Sharples
 
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptx
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptxGenerative AI and Student Writing.pptx
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptx
Mike Sharples
 
Plagiarism - Past, Present, Future
Plagiarism - Past, Present, FuturePlagiarism - Past, Present, Future
Plagiarism - Past, Present, Future
Mike Sharples
 
Writing as Design
Writing as DesignWriting as Design
Writing as Design
Mike Sharples
 
C19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
C19th AI: The Latin Verse MachineC19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
C19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
Mike Sharples
 
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
Mike Sharples
 
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologiesPedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
Mike Sharples
 
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
Mike Sharples
 
Writing as design
Writing as designWriting as design
Writing as design
Mike Sharples
 
Pedagogy at scale
Pedagogy at scalePedagogy at scale
Pedagogy at scale
Mike Sharples
 
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
Mike Sharples
 
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, SocialNew Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
Mike Sharples
 
Pedagogy of FutureLearn
Pedagogy of FutureLearnPedagogy of FutureLearn
Pedagogy of FutureLearn
Mike Sharples
 
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
Mike Sharples
 
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced LearningInternational Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
Mike Sharples
 
Back to the future of mobile learning slideshare
Back to the future of mobile learning   slideshareBack to the future of mobile learning   slideshare
Back to the future of mobile learning slideshare
Mike Sharples
 
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and rewardBlockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
Mike Sharples
 
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC PlatformSmall Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
Mike Sharples
 
Effective Pedagogy at Scale – Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
Effective Pedagogy at Scale –  Social Learning and Citizen InquiryEffective Pedagogy at Scale –  Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
Effective Pedagogy at Scale – Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
Mike Sharples
 

More from Mike Sharples (20)

Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and AssessmentGenerative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Generative AI for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
 
GPT and Student Writing.pptx
GPT and Student Writing.pptxGPT and Student Writing.pptx
GPT and Student Writing.pptx
 
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptx
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptxGenerative AI and Student Writing.pptx
Generative AI and Student Writing.pptx
 
Plagiarism - Past, Present, Future
Plagiarism - Past, Present, FuturePlagiarism - Past, Present, Future
Plagiarism - Past, Present, Future
 
Writing as Design
Writing as DesignWriting as Design
Writing as Design
 
C19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
C19th AI: The Latin Verse MachineC19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
C19th AI: The Latin Verse Machine
 
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
20 years of mobile learning - what have we learned?
 
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologiesPedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
Pedagogy-informed design of new educational technologies
 
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
Pedagogy informed design of conversational learning at scale - ec-tel 2019
 
Writing as design
Writing as designWriting as design
Writing as design
 
Pedagogy at scale
Pedagogy at scalePedagogy at scale
Pedagogy at scale
 
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
Digital innovation and futures for higher education RMIT 2018
 
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, SocialNew Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
New Directions in Personalized Learning: Open, Informal, Social
 
Pedagogy of FutureLearn
Pedagogy of FutureLearnPedagogy of FutureLearn
Pedagogy of FutureLearn
 
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
Designs for Active Learning, Cambridge 2017
 
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced LearningInternational Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
International Challenges for Technology Enhanced Learning
 
Back to the future of mobile learning slideshare
Back to the future of mobile learning   slideshareBack to the future of mobile learning   slideshare
Back to the future of mobile learning slideshare
 
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and rewardBlockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
Blockchain and Kudos - Educational record, reputation and reward
 
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC PlatformSmall Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
Small Group Discussion for a MOOC Platform
 
Effective Pedagogy at Scale – Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
Effective Pedagogy at Scale –  Social Learning and Citizen InquiryEffective Pedagogy at Scale –  Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
Effective Pedagogy at Scale – Social Learning and Citizen Inquiry
 

Recently uploaded

Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
TechSoup
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
ArianaBusciglio
 
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdfCACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
camakaiclarkmusic
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
taiba qazi
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
NelTorrente
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Akanksha trivedi rama nursing college kanpur.
 
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
Celine George
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Krisztián Száraz
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Ashokrao Mane college of Pharmacy Peth-Vadgaon
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School DistrictPride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
Pride Month Slides 2024 David Douglas School District
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
 
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdfCACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
 
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 

Introduction to educational technology

  • 1. A Very Short Introduction to Educational Technology Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University
  • 2. Definitions Pedagogy “The theory and practice of teaching, learning and assessment” Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M. and Whitelock, D. (2012). Innovating Pedagogy 2012: Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes: The Open University. Educational technology Interactive technology to enable effective learning (may include fixed, desktop, mobile and wearable devices and their software - and combinations of these) Technology Enhanced Learning Learning supported by individual or multiple technologies. In Europe, now used in preference to e-learning, or computer-assisted learning
  • 3. Contents A short history of educational technology Theories of learning with technologies Evaluation of learning with technologies 3
  • 4. 1920s: Pressey’s Self-testing machine 4 Image copyright OSU photo archives “There must be an ‘industrial revolution’ in education, in which educational science and the ingenuity of educational technology combine to modernize the grossly inefficient and clumsy procedures of conventional education. Work in the schools of the future will be marvelously though simply organized, so as to adjust almost automatically to individual differences and the characteristics of the learning process. There will be many laborsaving schemes and devices, and even machines – not at all for the mechanizing of education, but for the freeing of teacher and pupil from educational drudgery and incompetence.” Sidney Pressey (1933) Psychology and the New Education
  • 5. 1950s Linear programming and teaching machines ● Based on scientific theory of ‘operant conditioning’ (changing behaviour by use of reinforcement after a desired response) ● Presentation of a linear sequence of frames of information, in small steps ● Immediate reinforcement of student responses, but the same response for each student ● Gradual progression to establish complex repertoires ● Fading or gradual withdrawal of stimulus support ● Issues: finding reinforcers that are effective and ethical; matching individual students; incorrect responses 5 In B.F. Skinner (1958) Teaching Machines https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTH3ob 1IRFo
  • 6. Emerging themes ● Educational technology ● Self-paced learning ● Interactive learning ● Learning design ● Formative assessment ● Motivation for learning 6
  • 7. 1950s: Branching programs ●Based on theories from cybernetics (adaptive systems, feedback control) ●Using information from errors to eliminate incorrect responses (vs. ensuring correct responses and reinforcing them) ●Student is presented with multiple choice response ●Feedback depends on the student’s response ●Move towards adaptive and personalised teaching 7 Adaptive teaching machine
  • 9. 1960s: Computer-assisted instruction ● Computer-based teaching ● Adaptive teaching systems ● Programming languages for education (BASIC: Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) ● “Computers and computer-managed instruction systems can be expected to play a major role in transforming the educational process by giving the teacher a sophisticated aid to allow for flexible, multimedia, individualized education at a relatively small increase in cost.” H.J. Bruder, Computer-Managed Instruction, Science, 1968 9 Multi-media adaptive teaching system, with ‘light-pen’ touch screen, 1968
  • 10. Instructivist pedagogy ●Learning as information transfer ●Instructor-led ●Sequenced learning elements ●Inform – test – explain ●Adaptivity & personalisation 10
  • 11. 1970s: Large scale teaching systems ● Large scale projects ● Networked teaching systems ● Logo and microworlds ● Computers as coaches ● AI-based intelligent tutoring systems 11 ‘Hangman’ software on Commodore PET computer
  • 12. 1970s: PLATO IV ● 950 networked terminals in 140 sites ● 8000 hours of instructional material by 3000 authors ● Aim to provide ubiquitous computer-based teaching (proposal for 1-million terminal PLATO V) ● High resolution flicker-free plasma display screen (transparent so that colour slides can be overlaid on it); touch panel; audio and slide; music synthesisers ● TUTOR authoring language ● First use of graphic simulations for teaching ● Evaluation: “no compelling statistical evidence that PLATO had either a positive or negative effect on student achievement”; no significant effect on student drop-out rates; PLATO students showed much more favourable attitude towards computers. ● In 1992 the company NovaNET was formed with the rights to PLATO technology. Changed name to Edmentum in 2012. 12 PLATO IV touch-screen networked learning terminal
  • 13. 1970s: Logo programming for children ● Seymour Papert - student of the psychologist Jean Piaget ● Learning through programming computers ● Logo programming language and computer-controlled robotic ‘turtle’ for children ● Claims that programming, proceduralisation and debugging are valuable problem-solving skills ● “In many schools today the phrase “computer aided instruction” means making the computer teach the child. One might say the computer is being used to program the child. In my vision the child programs the computer” Papert, Mindstorms, 1980 13 Children using a ‘button box’ to control and programme a turtle
  • 14. 1980s: Microcomputers in education ● Multimedia personal computers ● Videodisks ● Networked-based teaching and computer-supported collaborative learning ● Educational simulations ● Commercial teaching and training packages 14 Children using educational software on a BBC microcomputer
  • 15. 1990s: online learning ●Edutainment ●Integration of video, animation, hypermedia ●Notebook computers ●Web-based learning environments (VLEs, MLEs) ●Integrated learning systems ●Intelligent agents 15 ‘Smart Operator’ adaptive simulation-based training package with ‘intelligent agent’ feedback on learner errors
  • 16. 2000s: mobile learning ●Web-based virtual learning environments in universities and colleges ●Mobile and contextual learning ●Seamless learning ●Multimedia learning spaces ●Spoken language interaction with tutoring systems 16 HandLeR mobile learning technology
  • 17. Old and new learning (1990s – 2010s) 17 E-learning in the 1990s Technology-enhanced learning in the 2010s Constructivist learning Social-constructivist learning Online learning Blended learning VLEs and MLEs Personal Learning Environments Media-equipped teaching rooms Flexible learning spaces Desktop computer rooms Support for students with multiple personal technologies Creating re-usable learning objects Open learning and student-created media Collaborative learning Social networked learning Evaluation of learning gains Evaluation of learning transformations Effective learning technology Effective, scalable and sustainable learningtechnology
  • 18. The new science of learning ● Computational learning ● Infer structural models from the environment ● Learn from probabilistic input ● Social learning ● Learning by imitation ● Shared attention ● Intersubjectivity ● Neural learning ● Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action ● Developmental learning ● Behavioural and cognitive development ● Neural plasticity ● Teaching and learning ● Principles of effective teaching ● Contextual and temporal learning ● Learning within and across contexts ● Cycle of engagement and reflection ● Technology-enabled learning ● Learning as a distributed socio-technical system ● Orchestration of learning 18 A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
  • 19. The new sciences of learning “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” “A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning?” 19 A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (2009) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
  • 20. Types of learning Learning as… Learning sciences… Changing behaviour Neuroscience Behavioural science Enhancing skills Cognitive development Storing information Information sciences Gaining knowledge Cognitive sciences Epistemology Making sense of the world Social sciences Socio-cultural and activity theory Interpreting the world in a new way Phenomenology Personal change Psychoanalysis 20
  • 21. A theory of learning for the mobile age 21
  • 22. What is distinctive about learning in a mobile age? 22 ●Mobility as a central concern ●Learners are continually on the move ●Need to understand learning as a mobile and contextual activity ●Involves a blend of portable, wearable and fixed technologies ●Embraces learning in both formal and informal settings ●Scalable and sustainable
  • 23. Theories of learning with technology John Dewey’s Instrumental inquiry ● Knowing is activity in the world, involving a combination of thoughts and external artefacts as tools for inquiry ● Every reflective experience is an instrument for production of meaning ● Inquiry-led learning Yrjö Engeström’s Expansive Activity Theory ● Learning is a cultural-historical activity mediated by tools, including technology and language ● Activity systems contain the possibility for expansive transformation, as contradictions are internalised and resolved ● Social-constructivist learning Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory ● Conversation is the fundamental process of learning ● Learning is a cybernetic process of “coming to know” through mutual adjustment and negotiation ● Conversational learning 23
  • 24. Dewey’s instrumental inquiry ●Education should be based upon the quality of experience ●For an experience to be educational, there must be continuity and interaction ●Continuity: experience comes from and leads to other experiences ●Interaction: when the experience meets the internal needs or goals of a person ●Pragmatic instrumentalism: Knowing is activity in the world, involving a combination of thoughts and external artefacts as tools for inquiry 24
  • 25. Dewey and social learning “The principle that development of experience comes about through interaction means that education is essentially a social process. This quality is realized in the degree in which individuals form a community group. … It is absurd to exclude the teacher from membership in the group. As the most mature member of the group he has a peculiar responsibility for the conduct of the interactions and inter-communications which are the very life of the group as a community.” Dewey, “Experience and Education” (1938) 25
  • 26. Dewey and reflective learning Learning comes when a person strives to overcome a problem or breakdown in everyday activity, or recognises part of the continual flow of activity and conversation as worth remembering Every reflective experience is an instrument for the production of meaning A mis-educative experience is one that stops or distorts growth for future experiences A non-educative experience is when a person has not done any reflection and so has not obtained lasting mental growth 26
  • 27. Engeström’s expansive activity theory ● Learning is a cultural-historical activity mediated by tools, including technology and language ● Activity is the focus of analysis ● Activity systems are multi-voiced, with many perspectives, transitions and interests in continual interaction ● Activity systems are shaped over time ● Activity systems contain the possibility for expansive transformation: they go though extended periods of qualitative change, as the contradictions are internalised and resolved, leading to the emergence of new structure, tools and activity. Learning as cultural historical activity 27
  • 28. Example ● Learning at university is an activity system shaped by the history of higher education and mediated by tools, including technology and academic language ● Teaching and learning activity is the focus of analysis ● Teaching and learning activity systems are multi-voiced: many teaching methods, learning strategies, cultures ● Teaching and learning systems in universities are shaped over time ● University systems contain the possibility for expansive transformation. For example, students bringing their own devices into lectures initially caused tensions and disruptions - but also possibilities for radical transformation to a more student-centred learning activity. University as an activity system 28
  • 29. Pask and learning as conversation ● A theory of how we come to know ● Derived from cybernetics ● A conversation is the minimum necessary structure to enable learning - Multiple conversations within one mind - One conversation across multiple minds ● Can involve technology as a conversational partner 29 ● Conversations about the how and why of a topic ● Conversations about the how of learning (for example discussing study skills and reflecting on experiences as a learner) ● Conversations about purposes, the why of learning, where the emphasis is on encouraging personal autonomy and accepting responsibility for one’s own learning
  • 30. Conversational framework Adapted from Laurillard (2002) Rethinking University Teaching. A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge) 30
  • 31. Evaluating learning ● John Hattie - synthesis of over 800 meta-studies of what influences learning success ● All the meta-studies used a standard measure of ‘effect size’ ● Important influences on learning success: - make learning expectations and progress visible - provide rapid feedback Visible Learning – John Hattie 31 Each possible influence on learning is measured in terms of positive or negative ‘effect size’ J. Hattie. Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement
  • 33. Open University Innovating Pedagogy ● Annual report ● Explores new forms of teaching, learning and assessment for an interactive world ● To guide teachers and policy makers in productive innovation ● www.open.ac.uk/innovating Weak signals