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07 Lecture Ppt


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07 Lecture Ppt

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 7 Pathways of Cellular Respiration
  2. 2. Glucose Breakdown Releases Energy 7-
  3. 3. 7.1 Cellular respiration is a redox reaction that requires O 2 <ul><li>Oxidation of substrates, such as glucose, is a fundamental part of cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAD + and FAD coenzymes assist in oxidation during cellular respiration carrying high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul>7-
  4. 4. Figure 7.1 Cellular respiration produces ATP 7-
  5. 5. 7.2 Cellular respiration has four phases—three phases occur in mitochondria <ul><li>Four phases of cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis - an anaerobic process occurs outside the mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparatory (prep) reaction - in the matrix of the mitochondria pyruvate is broken down to a 2-carbon acetyl group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citric acid cycle - in the matrix of the mitochondria NADH and FADH 2 produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons to the chain and energy is released to produce ATP </li></ul></ul>7-
  6. 6. Figure 7.2 The four phases of complete glucose breakdown 7-
  7. 7. Carbon Dioxide and Water Are Produced During Glucose Breakdown 7-
  8. 8. 7.3 Glycolysis: Glucose breakdown begins <ul><li>Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria and glucose is broken into two pyruvates </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs and outputs of glycolysis </li></ul>7-
  9. 9. Figure 7.3A Glycolysis 7-
  10. 10. Figure 7.3B Substrate-level ATP synthesis 7-
  11. 11. 7.4 The preparatory reaction occurs before the citric acid cycle <ul><li>Preparatory (prep) reaction occurs before the citric acid cycle </li></ul><ul><li>3-carbon pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon acetyl group and CO 2 is given off </li></ul>7-
  12. 12. 7- Figure 7.4 Mitochondrion structure
  13. 13. 7.5 The citric acid cycle: Final oxidation of glucose products <ul><li>Citric acid cycle - a cyclic metabolic pathway located in the matrix of mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It produces a lot of the NADH and all of the FADH 2 that carry electrons to the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul>7-
  14. 14. Figure 7.5 The citric acid cycle 7-
  15. 15. 7.6 The electron transport chain captures much energy <ul><li>Electron transport chain (ETC) located in the cristae of the mitochondria is a series of carriers that pass electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the carriers are cytochrome molecules, a protein that has a tightly bound heme group with a central atom of iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH and FADH 2 are recycled to pick up more electrons to bring back to the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul>7-
  16. 16. Figure 7.6 The electron transport chain 7-
  17. 17. 7.7 The cristae create an H + gradient that drives ATP production <ul><li>Chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As hydrogen ions flow from high to low concentration ATP synthase synthesizes ATP from ADP + P </li></ul></ul>7-
  18. 18. Figure 7.7 Organization and function of cristae 7-
  19. 19. 7.8 The ATP payoff can be calculated <ul><li>Figure 7.8 Energy yield per glucose molecule </li></ul>7-
  20. 20. 7- Fermentation Is Inefficient
  21. 21. 7.9 When oxygen is in short supply, the cell switches to fermentation <ul><li>Fermentation produces a limited amount of ATP using organic molecules instead of oxygen as the final electron acceptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit of Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a rapid burst of ATP without oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback of Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates oxygen debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yields 2 ATP, cellular respiration yields ≥36ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>7-
  22. 22. Figure 7.9A Fermentation 7-
  23. 23. APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 7.10 Fermentation helps produce numerous food products <ul><li>Fermenting yeasts leaven bread and produce alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Fermenting bacteria produce acids used to make yogurt, sour cream, and cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Soy sauce is made by adding a mold and a combination of yeasts and fermenting bacteria to soybeans and wheat </li></ul>7-
  24. 24. Metabolic Pathways Cross at Particular Substrates 7-
  25. 25. 7.11 Organic molecules can be broken down and synthesized as needed <ul><li>Metabolic pool - substrates are entry points for degradation or synthesis of larger molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism - reactions that break down molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism - reactions that synthesize molecules </li></ul></ul>7-
  26. 26. Figure 7.11 The metabolic pool concept 7-
  27. 27. APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 7.12 Exercise burns fat <ul><li>Prolonged aerobic exercise burns fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing and heart rate increase during exercise in order to supply the muscles with adequate oxygen </li></ul></ul>7-
  28. 28. Figure 7.12A Sources of fuel for exercise 7-
  29. 29. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 7 <ul><li>Energy released when carbohydrates are oxidized and used to produce ATP molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of hydrogen atoms occurs during glycolysis, the prep reaction, and the citric acid cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH and FADH 2 carry electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) to produce ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen serves as the final acceptor of electrons, and water is produced </li></ul></ul>7-