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DR VANDANA GAUR
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Thinking is the meaningful mental representation of the
external events or experience with a purpose of attaining
a goal or solving a problem.
सोच किसी लक्ष्य िो प्राप्त िरने या किसी समस्या िो हल िरने ि
े
उद्देश्य से बाहरी घटनाओं या अनुभव िा सार्थि मानकसि प्रकिकनकित्व
है
What is thinking
DEFINITION OF THINKING
 Thinking is an activity concerning ideas, symbolic in
character initiated by a problem or task which the
individual is facing, involving some trial & error but under
the directing influence of that problem & ultimately
leading to a conclusion or solution of the problem.
(Warren )
 Thinking is the organization & reorganization of current
learning in the present circumstances with the help of
learning & past experiences.(Vinacke)
 Thinking is the perceptual relationship which provides for
the solution of the problem. (Maier)
NATURE OF THINKING
 It is internal activity.
 It can shift very rapidly.
 It is mental exploration instead of motor exploration.
 It is a symbolic activity.
 It is described as a problem-solving behavior.
 It is always directed to achieve some end or purpose
 It is a part of problem solving
TYPES OF THINKING
1. Perceptual or concrete thinking
2. Conceptual or abstract thinking
3. Creative thinking
4. Logical thinking/ reasoning
5. Problem solving
6. Convergent Vs Divergent thinking
1- Perceptual or Concrete thinking
It is based on perception.
Perception is the process of interpretation of
sensation according to one’s perception.
It is also called concrete thinking as it is
carried over the perception of actual or
concrete events.
Being the simplest form of thinking , small
children are mostly benefitted by this type of
thinking
2- Conceptual or Abstract thinking
It does not require the perception of actual
objects or events
 It is also called abstract thinking as it makes
the use of concepts or abstract ideas.
not require the perception of actual objects or
events. & helps in discovery & It is
multidimensional thinking with ability to use
metaphors
 It is ability to appreciate nuances of meaning.
 Language plays an important part in
conceptual thinking.
3- Creative thinking
 It refers to the ability for original thinking, to create
or discover something new.
 It is the ability to integrate the various elements of
the situation into a harmonious whole to create
something novel.
 In other words, cognitive activity directed towards
some creative work refers to creative thinking
4- Logical thinking /Reasoning
It is the cognitive process of looking for
reasons beliefs ,conclusion, actions or feelings.
It is the process of drawing conclusion based
on evidence.
It is form of controlled thinking in which the
thought process is directed consciously
towards the solution of a problem.
Reasoning is the highest form of thinking to
find out causes & predict effects.
Continued….
It is classified into:
1- Inductive reasoning- Inductive reasoning aims at
developing a theory .Inductive reasoning uses a bottom –
up approach. It involves making a generalization from
specific facts.
2-Deductive reasoning: Deductive reasoning aims at testing
an existing theory. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down
approach.It uses available facts, information or
knowledge to deduce valid conclusion.
3-Abductive reasoning: It is cognitive process often
involves both inductive & deductive arguments
5- PROBLEM SOLVING
Problem solving is a Cognitive function which defines a
problem ,discovers the causes of problem ,and executing
a solution from among several possible solution
 It is a tool, skill & a process
 It is a tool because it can help you solve an immediate
problem or to achieve a goal.
 It is also a process because it involve taking a number of
steps.
 You can engage in problem solving if you want to reach a
goal & experience obstacles on the way.
 At the point which you come up against a barrier you can
engage in a problem solving process to help you achieve
your goal.
Continued….
 Every time you use a problem solving process , you are
increasing your problem solving skill.
 A seven-step problem solving cycles;
1- Identify the problem
2- Defining the problem
3- Forming a strategy
4- Organizing Information
5-Select a possible solution
6- Implement a possible solution
7- evaluation
 Random search method or trial and error method
 Heuristic search method- In heuristic search
method 3 techniques involve i.e.
1- means-end analysis
2- backward search
3-planning method
6- Convergent Vs Divergent thinking
 Convergent thinking is cognitive process of information
around a common point , an attempt to bring thoughts
from different directions into a union for common
conclusion
 Divergent thinking starts from a common point & moves
outward into a variety of perspectives.
 Central theory
Central route thinking, and this is a route that
suggests people make their decisions based off
facts and information for the best possible
outcome. For example, a person looking to buy
a new car with this kind of thinking would be
more interested in reliability, gas mileage, and
cost of maintenance etc. They are more
worried about the car itself because of what it
offers them and have no emotional influences
dominating their decision.
Continued…
 Peripheral theory-
Second is peripheral route thinking and
this way of thinking decides its decisions
based off emotional factors. Using our
example from earlier about buying a new
car someone with peripheral route
thinking would base their decision off
how cool the car looks to them or it
reminds them of a positive memory. Facts
are not a large determinant in this
process if at all.
 There are six levels of thinking/ learning within cognitive
hierarchy of behavior;
1-Knowledge
2-Comprehension
3-Application
4-Analysis
5-Synthesis
6-Evaluation
KNOWLEDGE
 It involve recall of facts, principles & terms in the forms
in which they are learned.
 Key words: who, what, when, where, which, choose, find
,how, define ,show ,recall, select.
COMPREHENSION
 It represent the lowest form of understanding.
 The student knows what is being communicated without
relating it to other material or seeing it in its fullest
meaning.
 It demonstrates understanding of facts & ideas by
organizing comparing, translating, interpreting, giving,
description &stating main ideas.
 Key words:
Compare,contrast,demonstrate,interpret,explain,
Illustrate,relate,rephrase,translate
APPLICATION
 It involve the use of abstraction in concrete situation.
 It is solving problems by applying acquired knowledge
,facts,techniques & rules in a different way.
 Key words : apply,build,choose,construct,develop,
organize,select,solve,utilize,identify
ANALYSIS
 It is examining & breaking information into parts by
identifying motives or cause, making inference & finding
evidence to support generalization.
 Key words:
analyze,categorize,compare,discover,divide,inspect,distig
uish,relationships,conclusion.
SYNTHESIS
 It is compiling information together in a different way by
combining element in a new pattern or proposing
alternative solution.
 Key words: build,choose,combine,compose,construct,
Create, develop, formulate, invent,predict,solve etc.
EVALUATION
 It is presenting & defending options by making judgment
about information,validity of ideas or quality of work
based on a set of criteria.
 Keywords:award,choose,conclude,criticize,compare,rate,
recommend,judge,measure ,compare prove etc.
REASONING
 Reasoning is step-wise thinking with a purpose or goal in
mind. ( Garret-1968)
 Reasoning is combining past experience in order to solve a
problem which cannot be solved by mere reproduction of
earlier solution. (Mann-1967)
 It is a form of logical thinking
 It is Purposeful
 It is systematic
 It is selective thinking
 It is characterized by rigid control that keeps it in close
contact with reality.
 It is always directed towards the achievement of a
specific goal.
 Inductive reasoning
( Proceed from specific
facts or observation to
general principals.)
For example ,iron expand
when heated
 Deductive Reasoning
(Proceed from general
principals to specific
situation)
For example, matter
expands when heated,
iron is a form of matter &
thus expands when
heated
Thinking is a mental process which produces thoughts. Reasoning is a mental process that uses logic.

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Thinking is a mental process which produces thoughts. Reasoning is a mental process that uses logic.

  • 1. DR VANDANA GAUR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • 2. Thinking is the meaningful mental representation of the external events or experience with a purpose of attaining a goal or solving a problem. सोच किसी लक्ष्य िो प्राप्त िरने या किसी समस्या िो हल िरने ि े उद्देश्य से बाहरी घटनाओं या अनुभव िा सार्थि मानकसि प्रकिकनकित्व है What is thinking
  • 3. DEFINITION OF THINKING  Thinking is an activity concerning ideas, symbolic in character initiated by a problem or task which the individual is facing, involving some trial & error but under the directing influence of that problem & ultimately leading to a conclusion or solution of the problem. (Warren )  Thinking is the organization & reorganization of current learning in the present circumstances with the help of learning & past experiences.(Vinacke)  Thinking is the perceptual relationship which provides for the solution of the problem. (Maier)
  • 4. NATURE OF THINKING  It is internal activity.  It can shift very rapidly.  It is mental exploration instead of motor exploration.  It is a symbolic activity.  It is described as a problem-solving behavior.  It is always directed to achieve some end or purpose  It is a part of problem solving
  • 5. TYPES OF THINKING 1. Perceptual or concrete thinking 2. Conceptual or abstract thinking 3. Creative thinking 4. Logical thinking/ reasoning 5. Problem solving 6. Convergent Vs Divergent thinking
  • 6. 1- Perceptual or Concrete thinking It is based on perception. Perception is the process of interpretation of sensation according to one’s perception. It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried over the perception of actual or concrete events. Being the simplest form of thinking , small children are mostly benefitted by this type of thinking
  • 7. 2- Conceptual or Abstract thinking It does not require the perception of actual objects or events  It is also called abstract thinking as it makes the use of concepts or abstract ideas. not require the perception of actual objects or events. & helps in discovery & It is multidimensional thinking with ability to use metaphors  It is ability to appreciate nuances of meaning.  Language plays an important part in conceptual thinking.
  • 8. 3- Creative thinking  It refers to the ability for original thinking, to create or discover something new.  It is the ability to integrate the various elements of the situation into a harmonious whole to create something novel.  In other words, cognitive activity directed towards some creative work refers to creative thinking
  • 9. 4- Logical thinking /Reasoning It is the cognitive process of looking for reasons beliefs ,conclusion, actions or feelings. It is the process of drawing conclusion based on evidence. It is form of controlled thinking in which the thought process is directed consciously towards the solution of a problem. Reasoning is the highest form of thinking to find out causes & predict effects.
  • 10. Continued…. It is classified into: 1- Inductive reasoning- Inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory .Inductive reasoning uses a bottom – up approach. It involves making a generalization from specific facts. 2-Deductive reasoning: Deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach.It uses available facts, information or knowledge to deduce valid conclusion. 3-Abductive reasoning: It is cognitive process often involves both inductive & deductive arguments
  • 11.
  • 12. 5- PROBLEM SOLVING Problem solving is a Cognitive function which defines a problem ,discovers the causes of problem ,and executing a solution from among several possible solution  It is a tool, skill & a process  It is a tool because it can help you solve an immediate problem or to achieve a goal.  It is also a process because it involve taking a number of steps.  You can engage in problem solving if you want to reach a goal & experience obstacles on the way.  At the point which you come up against a barrier you can engage in a problem solving process to help you achieve your goal.
  • 13. Continued….  Every time you use a problem solving process , you are increasing your problem solving skill.  A seven-step problem solving cycles; 1- Identify the problem 2- Defining the problem 3- Forming a strategy 4- Organizing Information 5-Select a possible solution 6- Implement a possible solution 7- evaluation
  • 14.  Random search method or trial and error method  Heuristic search method- In heuristic search method 3 techniques involve i.e. 1- means-end analysis 2- backward search 3-planning method
  • 15. 6- Convergent Vs Divergent thinking  Convergent thinking is cognitive process of information around a common point , an attempt to bring thoughts from different directions into a union for common conclusion  Divergent thinking starts from a common point & moves outward into a variety of perspectives.
  • 16.  Central theory Central route thinking, and this is a route that suggests people make their decisions based off facts and information for the best possible outcome. For example, a person looking to buy a new car with this kind of thinking would be more interested in reliability, gas mileage, and cost of maintenance etc. They are more worried about the car itself because of what it offers them and have no emotional influences dominating their decision.
  • 17. Continued…  Peripheral theory- Second is peripheral route thinking and this way of thinking decides its decisions based off emotional factors. Using our example from earlier about buying a new car someone with peripheral route thinking would base their decision off how cool the car looks to them or it reminds them of a positive memory. Facts are not a large determinant in this process if at all.
  • 18.  There are six levels of thinking/ learning within cognitive hierarchy of behavior; 1-Knowledge 2-Comprehension 3-Application 4-Analysis 5-Synthesis 6-Evaluation
  • 19. KNOWLEDGE  It involve recall of facts, principles & terms in the forms in which they are learned.  Key words: who, what, when, where, which, choose, find ,how, define ,show ,recall, select.
  • 20. COMPREHENSION  It represent the lowest form of understanding.  The student knows what is being communicated without relating it to other material or seeing it in its fullest meaning.  It demonstrates understanding of facts & ideas by organizing comparing, translating, interpreting, giving, description &stating main ideas.  Key words: Compare,contrast,demonstrate,interpret,explain, Illustrate,relate,rephrase,translate
  • 21. APPLICATION  It involve the use of abstraction in concrete situation.  It is solving problems by applying acquired knowledge ,facts,techniques & rules in a different way.  Key words : apply,build,choose,construct,develop, organize,select,solve,utilize,identify
  • 22. ANALYSIS  It is examining & breaking information into parts by identifying motives or cause, making inference & finding evidence to support generalization.  Key words: analyze,categorize,compare,discover,divide,inspect,distig uish,relationships,conclusion.
  • 23. SYNTHESIS  It is compiling information together in a different way by combining element in a new pattern or proposing alternative solution.  Key words: build,choose,combine,compose,construct, Create, develop, formulate, invent,predict,solve etc.
  • 24. EVALUATION  It is presenting & defending options by making judgment about information,validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria.  Keywords:award,choose,conclude,criticize,compare,rate, recommend,judge,measure ,compare prove etc.
  • 25. REASONING  Reasoning is step-wise thinking with a purpose or goal in mind. ( Garret-1968)  Reasoning is combining past experience in order to solve a problem which cannot be solved by mere reproduction of earlier solution. (Mann-1967)
  • 26.  It is a form of logical thinking  It is Purposeful  It is systematic  It is selective thinking  It is characterized by rigid control that keeps it in close contact with reality.  It is always directed towards the achievement of a specific goal.
  • 27.  Inductive reasoning ( Proceed from specific facts or observation to general principals.) For example ,iron expand when heated  Deductive Reasoning (Proceed from general principals to specific situation) For example, matter expands when heated, iron is a form of matter & thus expands when heated