Fundamental Elements Of Music


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A good presentation of the basic elements of music.

  • Yes, the piano can sing!
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  • Nice information about different classification of music. In this presentation most important prospect is the derivations of harmony, consonant and dissonant. For more info visit :
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  • 2 Lectures
  • Fundamental Elements Of Music

    1. 1. SURVEY OF MUSIC FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS Listening to Music , Chapters 2 & 3
    2. 2. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF MUSIC <ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>(Form) </li></ul>
    3. 3. RHYTHM <ul><li>Rhythm: The organization of time in music </li></ul><ul><li>We listen for regular beats </li></ul><ul><li>We listen for accents among the beats to define meter and measure </li></ul><ul><li>We listen for strength of accents to determine phrase </li></ul>
    4. 4. RHYTHM <ul><li>Tempo governs the rhythm’s pace or speed </li></ul><ul><li>Tempo may be steady or uneven ( rubato ) </li></ul><ul><li>Syncopation is accenting weak beats rather than strong </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm can be dominant or subtle – implicit or explicit </li></ul>
    5. 5. RHYTHM <ul><li>Time Signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic notation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Music’s Rhythm Code
    7. 7. Music’s Rhythm Code
    8. 8. PITCH <ul><li>Pitch: The highness or lowness of a tone in music </li></ul><ul><li>Most instruments, including the human voice, are designed to produce various pitches </li></ul><ul><li>Pitches in rhythm are called notes </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence of notes in music is a melody </li></ul>
    9. 9. PITCH <ul><li>Two or more pitches sounding together create harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Pitches perceived to sound good together are consonant </li></ul><ul><li>Pitches perceived to sound bad together are dissonant </li></ul>
    10. 10. PITCH: KEYS <ul><li>Pitches are organized in musical scales , and scales define keys </li></ul><ul><li>In Western music we have 12 major and 12 minor keys </li></ul><ul><li>Within each key, there are positions: some at rest and some in tension </li></ul>
    11. 11. PITCH: KEYS <ul><li>Positions within keys are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tonic </li></ul><ul><li>Supertonic </li></ul><ul><li>Mediant </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Mediant, and </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Tone </li></ul>
    12. 12. PITCH: KEYS <ul><li>Key Signatures </li></ul><ul><li>Modes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrygian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lydian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixolydian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aeolian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locrian </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Music’s Pitch Code <ul><li>Clefs anchor the note locations on the staff </li></ul><ul><li>This is how performers know what note is supposed to be produced. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Music’s Pitch Code
    15. 15. TIMBRE <ul><li>Timbre: The characteristics of the sound itself </li></ul><ul><li>We often use terms from the visual arts to describe musical timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Timbres often hold strong associations in our minds </li></ul>
    16. 16. TIMBRE <ul><li>The sound of solo or section instruments is also an aspect of timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Certain composers were so good at creating and combining tone colors, we say their “instrument” was the orchestra </li></ul>
    17. 17. TEXTURE <ul><li>Texture: The consistency of musical sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Monophonic texture means only one line of music sounding alone </li></ul><ul><li>Homophonic means one line leads and the others support it </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple independent lines happening together is called polyphonic texture </li></ul>
    18. 18. FORM <ul><li>Form: The structure of a musical composition </li></ul><ul><li>The primary elements of form are repetition , contrast, and variation </li></ul><ul><li>Forms range in scale from very small to very large </li></ul>
    19. 19. FORM <ul><li>Eight Basic Categories of Form: </li></ul><ul><li>Strophic </li></ul><ul><li>Binary </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary </li></ul><ul><li>Rondo </li></ul><ul><li>Theme & Variations </li></ul><ul><li>Sonata </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue </li></ul><ul><li>Through-composed </li></ul>
    20. 20. DYNAMICS <ul><li>Dynamics: The volume or loudness of the music </li></ul><ul><li>This may refer to contrast among sections of a piece, the mix within a piece, or the overall presentation </li></ul>
    21. 21. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF MUSIC <ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>(Form) </li></ul>