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http://www.virology.ws VIRAL STRUCTURE & CLASSIFICATION    S144 Lecture 2 (Virology)    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong    Re...
SKILLS, VALUES, OUTPUTS    ✤    Listening, Writing and         Oral Communication                                        w...
LECTURE OUTLINE    ✤    Recall: Viruses         Introduction    ✤    Structure of Viruses    ✤    Functional Anatomy    ✤ ...
REFERENCES    ✤    Carter and Saunders, 2007 (Chapter 3)    ✤    Gelderblom, 2010 (Chapter 41)          ✤    (Bookshelf ID...
LECTURE OUTLINE    ✤    Recall: Viruses         Introduction    ✤    Structure of Viruses    ✤    Functional Anatomy    ✤ ...
VIRUSES: INTRODUCTION   ✤    Viruses are small        obligate intracellular        parasites   ✤    Contain either a     ...
VIRUSES: INTRODUCTION ✤    Viruses may be viewed as mobile genetic elements, most probably of      cellular origin and cha...
VIRUS: INTRODUCTION    ✤    Propagation         depend on         specialized host         cells supplying         the com...
LECTURE OUTLINE    ✤    Recall: Viruses         Introduction    ✤    Structure of Viruses           virology.ws    ✤    Fu...
Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   dvm5.blogspot.comThursday, June 30, 2011
CORONAVIRUS STRUCTURE:    SARS      http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/archive/sars/index.html    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong...
THE CORE:  GENOMECopyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.✤    Except in helical     nucleoca...
THE CORE:  GENOMECopyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.    ✤    LARGE VIRIONS:          ✤ ...
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF    GENOME   ✤    The genome of a virus may consist of DNA or RNA,        which may be single stran...
INTRODUCTION TO VIRUS    STRUCTURE✤    TYPES OF VIRION STRUCTURE            TYPES                               GENOMES   ...
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/017vrgnm.gif    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011                     Referenc...
VIRUS GENOMES        ✤    dsDNA              ✤    encode their genes in the same kind of                   molecule as ani...
ARRANGEMENT OF GENOME                         GENOME                   EXAMPLE                       ssDNA, linear        ...
USUALLY....       ✤    FUNGI VIRUSES             ✤    dsRNA                                               sdnhm.org       ...
POINTS TO REMEMBER...              ✤    Some linear molecules may be in a                   circular conformation as a res...
THE CAPSID: PROTEIN CORE    virology.ws                                           medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com...
THE CAPSID: PROTEIN CORE                                        Structure of adenovirus. The icosahedral capsid structure ...
MORPHOLOGY : Helical   ✤    Helical morphology is seen in        nucleocapsids of many        filamentous and pleomorphic  ...
MORPHOLOGY : Helical ✤    In the replication of viruses      with helical symmetry,      identical protein subunits      (...
MORPHOLOGY : Helical   ✤    Details of the capsid        structure are often        discernible by electron        microsc...
MORPHOLOGY   ✤    Icosahedral        morphology is        characteristic of        the        nucleocapsids of        many...
MORPHOLOGY ✤      Lines through opposite      vertices define axes of fivefold      rotational symmetry: all      structural...
MORPHOLOGY   ✤    Viruses were first        found to have 532        symmetry by x-ray        diffraction studies   ✤    El...
MORPHOLOGY✤    PROTOMERS:      ✤    structural polypeptide           chains      ✤    arranged in oligomeric           clu...
pc.maricopa.edu                          THE CAPSOMERES    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011      Reference: Chapter 3 Car...
CAPSOMERES & ENVELOPE   ✤    The number and        arrangement of the        capsomeres are useful        in identification...
CAPSID & ENVELOPE                                              pc.maricopa.edu    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   Refe...
✤    Envelope consists of a       lipid bilayer with proteins       (usually glycoproteins)       imbedded in it          ...
ENVELOPED VIRUSES    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30,...
COMPLEX VIRUSES    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2...
LECTURE OUTLINE    ✤    Recall: Viruses         Introduction    ✤    Structure of Viruses    ✤    Functional Anatomy      ...
STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO    FUNCTION    ✤    Core    ! ! ! a.! DNA or RNA    ! ! ! b.! Contains genetic    information    ...
STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO    FUNCTION               sparknotes.com    ✤    Capsid    ! ! ! a.! Outer protein coat    ! ! ! ...
STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO    FUNCTION    ✤    Envelope          ✤    Membrane around capsid - enveloped virus          ✤   ...
STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO    FUNCTION          me-you-and-virus.blogspot.com                                               ...
LECTURE OUTLINE    ✤    Recall: Viruses         Introduction    ✤    Structure of Viruses    ✤    Functional Anatomy    ✤ ...
✤    Viruses are grouped on the basis of size and shape, chemical        composition and structure of the genome, and mode...
PLANT VIRUSES    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   Reference: Chapter 13 TortoraMicrobiologyThursday, June 30, 2011
CLASSIFYING ENVELOPED    VIRUS BASED ON SHAPE...    ✤    Sphere (eg. Influenza         virus)    ✤    Bullet (e.g. Rabies  ...
CLASSIFYING VIRUS BASED    ON GENOME...                                              antiviralintelistrat.com    Marilen M...
END OF LECTURE 2    Date    Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011   Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, J...
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Virology lecture 2 (viral structure)

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Virology lecture 2 (viral structure)

  1. 1. http://www.virology.ws VIRAL STRUCTURE & CLASSIFICATION S144 Lecture 2 (Virology) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  2. 2. SKILLS, VALUES, OUTPUTS ✤ Listening, Writing and Oral Communication winfoin.com Skills ✤ Critical Analysis and Organization of Ideas ✤ Appreciate Importance of Viral Structure Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  3. 3. LECTURE OUTLINE ✤ Recall: Viruses Introduction ✤ Structure of Viruses ✤ Functional Anatomy ✤ Classification Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  4. 4. REFERENCES ✤ Carter and Saunders, 2007 (Chapter 3) ✤ Gelderblom, 2010 (Chapter 41) ✤ (Bookshelf ID: NBK8174 PMID: 21413309) ✤ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8174/ Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  5. 5. LECTURE OUTLINE ✤ Recall: Viruses Introduction ✤ Structure of Viruses ✤ Functional Anatomy ✤ Classification Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  6. 6. VIRUSES: INTRODUCTION ✤ Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites ✤ Contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded protein coat Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  7. 7. VIRUSES: INTRODUCTION ✤ Viruses may be viewed as mobile genetic elements, most probably of cellular origin and characterized by a long co-evolution of virus and host bio3400.nicerweb.net Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  8. 8. VIRUS: INTRODUCTION ✤ Propagation depend on specialized host cells supplying the complex metabolic and biosynthetic machinery of eukaryotic or ncbi.nlm.nih.gov prokaryotic cells Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  9. 9. LECTURE OUTLINE ✤ Recall: Viruses Introduction ✤ Structure of Viruses virology.ws ✤ Functional Anatomy ✤ Classification medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  10. 10. Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 dvm5.blogspot.comThursday, June 30, 2011
  11. 11. CORONAVIRUS STRUCTURE: SARS http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/archive/sars/index.html Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  12. 12. THE CORE: GENOMECopyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.✤ Except in helical nucleocapsids, little is known about the packaging or organization of the viral genome within the core✤ SMALL VIRIONS: ✤ simple nucleocapsids ✤ containing 1 to 2 protein species Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  13. 13. THE CORE: GENOMECopyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ✤ LARGE VIRIONS: ✤ nucleic acid genome complexed with basic protein(s) ✤ protected by a single- or double layered capsid or by an envelope Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  14. 14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GENOME ✤ The genome of a virus may consist of DNA or RNA, which may be single stranded (ss) or double stranded (ds), linear or circular ✤ The entire genome may occupy either one nucleic acid molecule (monopartite genome) or several nucleic acid segments (multipartite genome) ✤ The different types of genome necessitate different replication strategies Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO VIRUS STRUCTURE✤ TYPES OF VIRION STRUCTURE TYPES GENOMES dsDNA ssDNA dsRNA ssRNA Icosahedral (naked) Icosahedral (Enveloped) Helical (naked) Helical (Enveloped) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  16. 16. http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/017vrgnm.gif Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  17. 17. VIRUS GENOMES ✤ dsDNA ✤ encode their genes in the same kind of molecule as animals, plants, bacteria and other cellular organisms ✤ ssDNA, dsRNA, ssRNA ✤ unique to viruses Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  18. 18. ARRANGEMENT OF GENOME GENOME EXAMPLE ssDNA, linear Parvovirus dsDNA, linear Poxvirus ssDNA, circular Phage X174 dsDNA, circular Baculoviruses ssRNA, linear Tobacco Mosaic Virus dsRNA, linear Reovirus ssRNA, circular Hepatitis D virus Note: there are no viruses known with circular dsRNA genomes Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  19. 19. USUALLY.... ✤ FUNGI VIRUSES ✤ dsRNA sdnhm.org topnews.in ✤ PLANT VIRUSES http:// www.whmsoft.net ✤ ssRNA ✤ PROKARYOTIC VIRUSES ✤ dsDNA Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  20. 20. POINTS TO REMEMBER... ✤ Some linear molecules may be in a circular conformation as a result of base pairing between complimentary sequences at their ends ✤ Example: ✤ DNA in Hepadnavirus ✤ RNA in Influenza virions Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  21. 21. THE CAPSID: PROTEIN CORE virology.ws medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com Take note of the nucleocapsid and envelope Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  22. 22. THE CAPSID: PROTEIN CORE Structure of adenovirus. The icosahedral capsid structure of adenovirus is made up of three proteins, hexon, penton base, and fiber. A cross-sectional view of the viral capsid. Some proteins are associated with viral DNA, whereas others are associated with hexon and are involved in the formation of the capsid. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  23. 23. MORPHOLOGY : Helical ✤ Helical morphology is seen in nucleocapsids of many filamentous and pleomorphic viruses ✤ Helical nucleocapsids consist of a helical array of capsid proteins (protomers) wrapped around a helical filament of nucleic acid The helical structure of the rigid tobacco mosaic virus rod Copyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  24. 24. MORPHOLOGY : Helical ✤ In the replication of viruses with helical symmetry, identical protein subunits (protomers) self-assemble into a helical array surrounding the nucleic acid, which follows a similar spiral path ✤ Nucleocapsids form rigid, highly elongated rods or flexible filaments Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  25. 25. MORPHOLOGY : Helical ✤ Details of the capsid structure are often discernible by electron microscopy ✤ NOTE: Helical nucleocapsids are characterized by length, Fragments of flexible helical nucleocapsids (NC) of Sendai virus, a paramyxovirus, are seen either within the protective envelope (E) or free, after rupture of the envelope width, pitch of the helix, and Copyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. number of protomers per helical turn Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  26. 26. MORPHOLOGY ✤ Icosahedral morphology is characteristic of the nucleocapsids of many “spherical” viruses Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  27. 27. MORPHOLOGY ✤ Lines through opposite vertices define axes of fivefold rotational symmetry: all structural features of the polyhedron repeat five times within each 360° of rotation about any of the fivefold axes ✤ Lines through the centers of opposite triangular faces form axes of threefold rotational symmetry; twofold rotational symmetry axes are formed by lines through midpoints of Icosahedral models seen, left to right, on fivefold, opposite edges. threefold, and twofold axes of rotational symmetry Copyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  28. 28. MORPHOLOGY ✤ Viruses were first found to have 532 symmetry by x-ray diffraction studies ✤ Electron microscopy with Adenovirus after negative stain electron microscopy negative-staining Copyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. techniques Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  29. 29. MORPHOLOGY✤ PROTOMERS: ✤ structural polypeptide chains ✤ arranged in oligomeric clusters (capsomeres) ✤ readily delineated by negative staining Adenovirus after negative stain electron microscopy electron microscopy Copyright © 1996, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ✤ form the closed capsid shell Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  30. 30. pc.maricopa.edu THE CAPSOMERES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  31. 31. CAPSOMERES & ENVELOPE ✤ The number and arrangement of the capsomeres are useful in identification and classification ✤ Many viruses also have an outer Envelope of envelope Herpesvirus biologie.uni-hamburg.de Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  32. 32. CAPSID & ENVELOPE pc.maricopa.edu Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  33. 33. ✤ Envelope consists of a lipid bilayer with proteins (usually glycoproteins) imbedded in it THE ENVELOPE ✤ Lipids derived from host cell ✤ Proteins encoded by the virus ✤ Envelope is important in determining host cell specificity & some aspects of cell penetration are affected by it Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  34. 34. ENVELOPED VIRUSES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  35. 35. COMPLEX VIRUSES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  36. 36. LECTURE OUTLINE ✤ Recall: Viruses Introduction ✤ Structure of Viruses ✤ Functional Anatomy bbc.co.uk ✤ Classification Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  37. 37. STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO FUNCTION ✤ Core ! ! ! a.! DNA or RNA ! ! ! b.! Contains genetic information ncbi.nlm.nih.gov !! Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  38. 38. STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO FUNCTION sparknotes.com ✤ Capsid ! ! ! a.! Outer protein coat ! ! ! b.! Functions ! ! ! ! 1).!Protects core ! ! ! ! 2).!Shape of the virus ! ! ! ! 3).!Attachment to host cell membrane (by means of spikes) library.thinkquest.org Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  39. 39. STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO FUNCTION ✤ Envelope ✤ Membrane around capsid - enveloped virus ✤ Not all viruses have envelope ✤ If lack envelope - naked virus! ✤ Composed of: ✤ Bilayer of phospholipids and proteins microscopicblog.blogspot.com ✤ Derived from host bell membrane during viral multiplication Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  40. 40. STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO FUNCTION me-you-and-virus.blogspot.com wpro.who.int ✤ Functions : ✤ Protection from drying (enhances transmission) ✤ Makes virus more susceptible to chemical agents that dissolve lipids ✤ Attachment to host cell membrane (by means of spikes) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  41. 41. LECTURE OUTLINE ✤ Recall: Viruses Introduction ✤ Structure of Viruses ✤ Functional Anatomy ✤ Classification Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  42. 42. ✤ Viruses are grouped on the basis of size and shape, chemical composition and structure of the genome, and mode of replication Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  43. 43. PLANT VIRUSES Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 13 TortoraMicrobiologyThursday, June 30, 2011
  44. 44. CLASSIFYING ENVELOPED VIRUS BASED ON SHAPE... ✤ Sphere (eg. Influenza virus) ✤ Bullet (e.g. Rabies virus) ✤ Rod (e.g. Baculovirus) ✤ Thread (e.g Ebola virus) Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  45. 45. CLASSIFYING VIRUS BASED ON GENOME... antiviralintelistrat.com Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011
  46. 46. END OF LECTURE 2 Date Marilen M. Parungao-Balolong 2011 Reference: Chapter 3 Carter And Saunders, 2007)Thursday, June 30, 2011

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