Chapter 03

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Chapter 03

  1. 1. Hazardous Materials for First Responders 4 th Edition Chapter 3 — Awareness-Level Actions at Hazardous Materials Incidents
  2. 2. Awareness-Level Responsibilities <ul><li>Recognize presence or potential presence of Hazardous materials </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize container type and identify material if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit info to proper authorities or call for appropriate assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify actions to protect selves and others </li></ul><ul><li>Establish scene control </li></ul>3 –
  3. 3. <ul><li>Pre-emergency planning with outside parties </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency recognition and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Lines Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation routes/places of refuge </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency alerting </li></ul>Emergency response plans/SOP’s 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  4. 4. Predetermined procedures give guidance on-scene. 1 – Courtesy of U.S. Air Force Click for next slide
  5. 5. Notification Requirements <ul><li>SOP determined </li></ul><ul><li>9-1-1, or radio dispatcher </li></ul><ul><li>Internal procedures </li></ul>3 –
  6. 6. Notification requirements for contacting law enforcement should be in SOPs. 3 – Courtesy of U.S. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, photo by RobHaynes
  7. 7. Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) 3 –
  8. 8. <ul><li>Known as the “DOT Book” or the “Orange Book” </li></ul><ul><li>Published almost every three years </li></ul><ul><li>Covers Canada, Mexico, and the USA </li></ul><ul><li>http://hazmat.dot.gov/gydebook.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Intended as a guide for first responders during the initial phases of a hazardous materials incident </li></ul>Emergency Response Guidebook 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  9. 9. <ul><li>The book consists of the following major sections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placard information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing by DOT identification number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical listing by shipping name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table of initial isolation and protective action distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of dangerous water-reactive materials </li></ul></ul>1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  10. 10. The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) has several uses. 3 –
  11. 11. General Organization <ul><li>White Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yellow Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blue Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orange Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emergency action guides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>isolation and protective action distances </li></ul></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1 –
  12. 12. <ul><li>DOT-ERG General </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Typical shipping papers </li></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1 –
  13. 13. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  14. 14. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  15. 15. <ul><li>TIH = T oxic by I nhalation H azard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a LC 50 (Lethal Concentration) measurement from test audience exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC 50 identifies the level of irreversible health effects to 50% of those exposed </li></ul></ul>DOT – ERG (TIH) 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  16. 16. DOT - ERG Hazard Zone <ul><li>Hazard Zone A - D is based on dangers expressed in PPM (parts per million) </li></ul><ul><li>A= Less than or equal to 200ppm </li></ul><ul><li>B= 201 TO 1,000 PPM </li></ul><ul><li>C= 1,001 TO 3,000PPM </li></ul><ul><li>D= 3,001 TO 5,000 PPM </li></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1 –
  17. 17. <ul><li>Chemical reaction that occurs when certain materials are heated </li></ul><ul><li>Considered unstable under high temps </li></ul><ul><li>@ 50 listed chemicals with the potential </li></ul><ul><li>Identified with a “P” i.e. 1959 </li></ul>POLYMERIZATION 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  18. 18. <ul><li>Approach the scene cautiously from upwind </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain help </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on site entry </li></ul><ul><li>Respond carefully-avoid tunnel vision, identify all hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Above all - do not walk in the material, touch the material, or inhale the material </li></ul>Safety Precautions for Emergency Responders 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  19. 19. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  20. 20. Emergency Response Guidebook <ul><li>Placard information </li></ul><ul><li>Information about how to proceed at an incident where the only information available in a placard </li></ul><ul><li>Guide for explosives </li></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1–
  21. 21. Generic Guide Pages for Rail Transportation <ul><li>Pictures and identification for rail containers can be used when no specific information is available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Guide 131 for low pressure rail car and 117 for a high pressure car </li></ul></ul>1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  22. 22. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  23. 23. <ul><li>Pictures and identification for highway containers can be used when no specific information is available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Guide 131 would be used for a non-pressure liquid tank that would carry light oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide 117 would be used for a tube trailer or cryogenic tank </li></ul></ul>Generic Pages for Highway Transportation 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  24. 24. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  25. 25. <ul><li>Numerical listing by DOT identification number. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used when placard is visible. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighted numbers – turn to orange and green sections. </li></ul>Yellow Section 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  26. 26. The ERG ID Number Index is marked by yellow pages. 3 – (Continued)
  27. 27. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  28. 28. <ul><li>Alphabetical listing by chemical shipping name. </li></ul><ul><li>For reference with shipping papers. </li></ul><ul><li>High lightened numbers – turn to orange and green sections. </li></ul>Blue Section 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  29. 29. The ERG Material Name Index is marked by blue pages. 3 –
  30. 30. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  31. 31. Obtaining the Appropriate Guide Page <ul><li>Once a material is found in the blue or yellow bordered page the appropriate guide page will be identified: Example: Acetylene - Guide Page 116 </li></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1 –
  32. 32. <ul><li>Actual guide pages for more than 4,000 chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty-one total response guides. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-digit number. </li></ul><ul><li>Two pages per guide, divided into three sections. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency response </li></ul></ul></ul>Orange Section 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  33. 33. 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  34. 34. ERG Initial Action Guides are marked by orange pages. 3 –
  35. 35. The left page has safety related information. 3 – (Continued)
  36. 36. The right page has response information. 3 – (Continued)
  37. 37. The potential hazards section should be consulted first. 3 – (Continued)
  38. 38. The public safety section provides more detail. 3 – (Continued)
  39. 39. Initial isolation distance is provided below public safety section. 3 – (Continued)
  40. 40. How to determine the evacuation zone. 3 – (Continued)
  41. 41. CAUTION <ul><li>First responders must be properly trained to conduct the actions recommended by the ERG before attempting to perform them. They must also have the proper equipment to do so. </li></ul>3 –
  42. 42. The emergency response section has three parts. 3 – (Continued)
  43. 43. WARNING <ul><li>Awareness-Level personnel should not handle or touch contaminated or potentially contaminated victims! </li></ul>3 –
  44. 44. Isolation Guide <ul><li>Some materials are highlighted in yellow and blue which represents an unique hazard and indicates the material will be listed in the isolation table </li></ul>Haz Mat for First Responders 1 –
  45. 45. <ul><li>Table of initial isolation and protective action distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small and large spills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day or night </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evacuation distances. </li></ul><ul><li>List of dangerous water-reactive materials. </li></ul>Green Section 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  46. 46. <ul><li>Determine isolation/protection distances </li></ul><ul><li>Protective follow up actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in-place sheltering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementing Isolation area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of spill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>techniques </li></ul></ul>Isolation / Protection Actions 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  47. 47. The Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances is marked by green pages. 3 – (Continued)
  48. 48. How to calculate Protective Action Distances. 3 –
  49. 49. Emergency Response Centers are found in the white pages. 3 –
  50. 50. <ul><li>Caller’s name, callback telephone number, and FAX number </li></ul><ul><li>Location and nature of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Name and ID number of material </li></ul><ul><li>Shipper/consignee/point of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier name, railcar reporting marks, or truck number </li></ul>Before calling gather specific information. 3 – (Continued)
  51. 51. <ul><li>Container type and size </li></ul><ul><li>Material quantity transported/released </li></ul><ul><li>Local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Injuries, exposures, current conditions involving spills, leaks, fires, explosions, and vapor clouds, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Local emergency services that have been notified </li></ul>Before calling gather specific information. 3 –
  52. 52. <ul><li>Newest hazard for responders </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information on indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead animals/birds/fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of insect life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexplained odors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual numbers of dying or sick people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern of causalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blisters or rashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others listed in DOT/ERG </li></ul></ul>Criminal/Terrorist use of Chemical/Biological Agents 1 – Haz Mat for First Responders
  53. 53. Isolation and Denial of Entry <ul><li>To ensure safety </li></ul><ul><li>For entry and exit </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents contamination </li></ul>3 –
  54. 54. The concept of isolation works to secure the emergency scene. 3 – (Continued) Courtesy of U.S. Air Force
  55. 55. The isolation perimeter establishes a boundary. 3 –
  56. 56. Terrorist Incidents 3 –
  57. 57. Terrorist incidents require unique actions. 3 – Courtesy of August Vernon
  58. 58. Awareness and Operations duties at terrorist incidents. 3 –
  59. 59. Summary <ul><li>Responsibilities of Awareness-Level personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand predetermined procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to use ERG and sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be familiar with safety procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of responsibilities at terrorist or criminal activities </li></ul></ul>3 –

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