Chapter 14


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Chapter 14

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 14 Emergency Operations
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the role of the fire department at various types of emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>List limitations of the fire department in certain emergency types </li></ul><ul><li>List important safety considerations when operating at different types of emergencies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Two general areas of emergency functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of resources towards mitigation of incidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aids the front line personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Personnel <ul><li>Variety of emergency responders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire Department may or may not be in charge of all incidents that they respond to </li></ul>
  6. 6. Life Safety Initiatives <ul><li>Duty and responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make every day a training day so everyone goes home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighter maintenance program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive regular medical checkups, get regular exercise, and eat healthy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehab guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop before you drop, stay hydrated, and monitor vital signs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Life Safety Initiatives (con’t.) <ul><li>Passengers responding to incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear full PPE, get in the apparatus, sit down, fasten your seatbelt, and ride with drivers that will get you there in one piece </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers responding to incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not a race, safe is more important than fast, stop at all red lights and stop signs, and if others do not pull over – don’t run them over </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Life Safety Initiatives (con’t.) <ul><li>Interior firefighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work as a team, stay together, stay oriented, manage your air supply, take the proper tools with you for any interior operation, every member should have a radio, provide constant updates and constantly assess for risk versus benefit </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Rapid Intervention Teams <ul><li>Assigned at incident scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Have proper equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue trapped firefighters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RITs not used for trapped occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If using more than one entrance or numerous firefighters are inside, may need more than one RIT </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Two In, Two Out <ul><li>OSHA regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Operating in areas that require SCBA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must maintain buddy system in IDLH environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must maintain minimum of two person rescue team outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must maintain direct contact with personnel inside/outside </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Two In, Two Out (con’t.) <ul><li>Only exception to two in, two out is “imminent rescue” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to be sufficient reason to believe a life can be saved to violate the regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If making an exception, announce it over the radio and give your reasons </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structure Firefighting <ul><li>Basic fire department responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Most departments spend the bulk of their time and money on this one function (see Figure 14-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure fires present many hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backdraft and flashover </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Structure Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Key safety points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA will not protect you from skin contact hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay away from windows due to backdraft potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always leave yourself a second way out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not freelance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up before raising ladders </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Structure Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Key safety points (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off the electrical power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use lights when appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a Rapid Intervention Team whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the buddy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay focused on the “big picture” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fire Department Operations at Sprinklered Occupancies <ul><li>Three main causes of unsatisfactory sprinkler performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed valve in system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of inadequate water supply to system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy changes that render the installed system unsuitable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish SOP for operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boost supply to system </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fire Department Operations at Sprinklered Occupancies (con’t.) <ul><li>Establish SOP for operations (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure valves are open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance hoselines to seat of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only turn off necessary areas for salvage and overhaul operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place system back into service ASAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If unable to restore, notify responsible party </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Electrical Installations <ul><li>Key safety points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not enter without power company personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some equipment may contain carcinogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water may be the wrong extinguishing agent to use </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Wildland Firefighting <ul><li>Basic methods of extinguishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply water or fire retardant to fire edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a fire break or control line around the perimeter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May use the following tools/techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumpers, dozers, hand tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a backfire </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>The Ten Standard Firefighting Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F ight fire aggressively, but provide for safety first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I nitiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ecognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E nsure instructions are given and understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O btain current information on fire status </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>The Ten Standard Firefighting Orders (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R emain in communication with crew members, your supervisor, and adjoining forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D etermine safety zones and escape routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E stablish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R etain control of yourself/your crew at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S tay alert, keep calm, think clearly, and act decisively </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>18 Situations That Shout Watch Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fire is not scouted or sized up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are in country not seen in daylight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety zones and escape routes are not identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are unfamiliar with the weather and local factors influencing fire behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions and assignments are not clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have no communications link with crew members/supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are constructing a line without a safe anchor point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are constructing a line downhill with fire below </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are attempting frontal assault on a fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is unburned fuel between you and the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You cannot see the main fire, and you’re not in contact with someone who can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are on a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The weather is getting hotter and drier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wind increases or changes direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are frequent spot fires across the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You feel like taking a nap near the fire line </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Two condensed safety messages have been adopted as a general reminder of the previous rules </li></ul><ul><li>LCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lookouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety zones </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Wildland Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Look three ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These safety messages apply to every type of firefighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus is to stay alert </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting <ul><li>Structures in path of wildland fires </li></ul><ul><li>Often assigned to engine companies </li></ul><ul><li>May be in front of advancing fire </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has caused injuries, lost lives and equipment </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>TRIAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T ake time to evaluate water needs and availability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R econ safety zones and escape routes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I s the structure defendable based on construction type, topography and anticipated fire behavior? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>TRIAGE (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A re flammable vegetation and debris cleared within a reasonable distance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G ive a fair evaluation of the values at stake versus resources available, and do not waste time on the losers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuate the safety risk to the crew and the equipment </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P ark engines backed in so a rapid exit can be made, if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R emember to maintain communication with your crew and adjoining forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O n occasions when you are overrun by fire, use apparatus or structures as a refuge </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>PROTECTION (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T ank water should not get below 50 gallons in case it is needed for crew protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E ngines should keep headlights on, windows closed, and outside speakers turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C oil a charged 1 ½-inch hose at the engine for protection crew and equipment </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>PROTECTION (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T ry not to lay hose longer than 150 feet from your engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I t is important to keep apparatus mobile for maximum effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O nly use water as needed and refrain from wetting ahead of the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N ever sacrifice crew safety to save property </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Oil Firefighting <ul><li>Three main problems in crude oil tank fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boil over: occurs when hot oil contacts subsurface water in tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slop over: occurs when oil is forced over tank edge by direction of hose streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Froth over: occurs when hose streams stir up surface of hot oil </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Oil Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Extinguishment Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsurface injection of foam through a manifold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct application of foam to burning surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose streams directed to cool exposed tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating roof tank seal may be extinguished with fire extinguisher or foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shut off plumbing and let material burn itself out </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Gasoline Spills <ul><li>Use foam to seal off vapors </li></ul><ul><li>Water may just spread spill </li></ul><ul><li>Never walk in the spill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May disturb foam blanket and spill will reignite around you </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) <ul><li>Stored in cylindrical tanks </li></ul><ul><li>When exposed to fire, pressure rises </li></ul><ul><li>Relief valve may fail </li></ul><ul><li>BLEVE can occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Container pieces can fly one-half mile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control ignition sources and dissipate vapors with water fog </li></ul>
  37. 37. Natural Gas <ul><li>Poses little hazard when released because lighter than air </li></ul><ul><li>Collects in structures where leaks occur </li></ul><ul><li>Static electricity can cause ignition </li></ul><ul><li>Any gas smell call should be treated as life-threatening situation </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) <ul><li>Approximately 2,000 new chemicals are produced each year </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials may be present in almost any type of incident </li></ul><ul><li>Every incident requires a precautionary approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwind, uphill, and upstream </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.) <ul><li>Federal law requires establishment of an incident command system on every hazmat incident </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Department’s primary objectives are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny entry </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.) <ul><li>Back equipment in for quick exit </li></ul><ul><li>Set up perimeters </li></ul><ul><li>Information on chemicals available from various sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHEMTREC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOT Emergency Response Guidebook </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire department actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actions can only be performed safely if proper level of PPE is available </li></ul>
  42. 42. Weapons of Mass Destruction <ul><li>Acts of terrorism are a very real threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oklahoma City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Trade Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentagon, and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to take human lives </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons may be chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear and/or explosive (CBRNE) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Weapons of Mass Destruction (con’t.) <ul><li>Different from hazmat incidents in many ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major interaction with federal, state and local law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scene communication overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelmed resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary devices designed to kill responders </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Weapons of Mass Destruction (con’t.) <ul><li>Different from hazmat incidents in many ways (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preincident indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super-toxic material that is difficult to identify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass casualties with many fatalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass decontamination required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual risks to emergency responders and civilians </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Emergency Medical Service Operations (EMS) <ul><li>Proper PPE must be worn every time </li></ul><ul><li>Treat everyone as though they are infectious </li></ul><ul><li>Turnouts are not the best protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary if sharp edges or fire are involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never carry contamination from the scene </li></ul>
  46. 46. Vehicle Accidents <ul><li>Dangers from spilled fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers from passing traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers from hydraulic rescue tools </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in dangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LPG vehicles </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Vehicle Fires <ul><li>Approach from front quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid exploding tires and five-mile-an-hour bumpers </li></ul><ul><li>Always use full PPE including SCBA </li></ul><ul><li>Seams of gas tank may let go and spill burning fuel </li></ul>
  48. 48. Aircraft Firefighting <ul><li>There are many on-board hazards in large aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military aircraft may carry live ordinance (broken arrow) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Aircraft Firefighting (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire department operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear a path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft <ul><li>Special precautions with helicopters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach and depart from the side or front in a crouching position in view of the pilot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach and depart from the downhill side to avoid the main rotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach and depart in the pilot’s view; stay clear of the tail rotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a chin strap or secure your helmet when working under the main rotor </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.) <ul><li>Special precautions with helicopters (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry tools horizontally, beneath waist level to avoid contact with the main rotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasten your seat belt when you enter the helicopter and refasten it when you leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the door latches as instructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use caution around plexiglass, antennas, and any moving parts </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.) <ul><li>Special precautions with helicopters (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When entering or exiting the helicopter, step on the skid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any time you ride in a helicopter in a wildland fire situation, you are required to wear full PPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not throw objects from the helicopter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact with any moving part of an aircraft is often fatal </li></ul>
  53. 53. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.) <ul><li>Wildland firefighting with helicopters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotor wash can fan flames or knock limbs out of trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping water can knock you down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit the drop area whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay out from under helicopters with sling loads </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.) <ul><li>Wildland firefighting with fixed wing aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,000 gallons of retardant at over nine pounds per gallon may drop at 130 mph from 200 feet above the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing tip vortices can fan flames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drops can knock limbs from trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drops can roll rocks </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.) <ul><li>If a drop is to be made: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie face down, head toward approaching aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay tool aside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep hard hat on and cover head with arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retardant is slippery; watch your footing when you get up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash retardant off vehicles as soon as possible </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Every situation has its own set of hazards </li></ul><ul><li>The worst hazard is often one that is unrecognized </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter’s responsibility to provide personal safety and safety of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate situations as they arise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate situations that can be harmful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain constantly vigilant at incident scene </li></ul></ul>Summary