Rapid intervention teams 1 08


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Rapid intervention teams 1 08

  1. 1. Rapid Intervention Team Structure & Exterior Operations
  2. 2. Session Objectives <ul><li>Define what a Rapid Intervention Team is  </li></ul><ul><li>Examine why Rapid Intervention Teams are needed  </li></ul><ul><li>Show what a properly equipped Rapid Intervention Team is  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe how a Rapid Intervention Team functions outside the hazard zone at a structure fire  </li></ul><ul><li>Describe typical Mayday procedures  </li></ul><ul><li>Show what happens when a Mayday is declared </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Excluding Sept. 11, 2001, the annual average for firefighter fatalities in U.S. structure fires is 30, according to NFPA. One of the major causes of these fatalities was the absence of an effective rescue plan BEFORE firefighters became trapped. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction cont. <ul><li>Rapid Intervention is a means of rescuing firefighters in distress. </li></ul><ul><li>In this course, you will learn why RITs are needed, how they are structured, and how they function outside of burning buildings </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other Names for RIT <ul><li>Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Assist and Search Team (FAST) </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Response Team (IRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Assist Team (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Rescue Available Team (FRAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Deployment Unit (RDU) </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Assist Team (FAT) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Applicable Codes and Standards <ul><li>OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA </li></ul><ul><li>NIOSH </li></ul>
  8. 8. OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) <ul><ul><li>At least two properly equipped and trained firefighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioned outside of the IDLH atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who can account for the interior team and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain capable of rapid rescue of the interior team </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Properly Equipped (29 CFR 1910.134) Every Rapid Intervention Team member must be… “ ...trained and equipped to at least the same level as the firefighters they would seek to rescue.”    
  10. 10. NFPA <ul><li>Rapid Intervention concepts are discussed in NFPA Standards 1500, 1561, 1710, 1720, and others. </li></ul>
  11. 11. NFPA 1500 <ul><ul><ul><li>Every Rapid Intervention Team must have...  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...at least two members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>available for rescue of </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a member or a team if </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the need arises.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Standard for Number of Team Members <ul><li>The standards do not limit a RIT to two members. The IC can adjust the numbers to fit the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>As few as two rescuers may be sufficient to locate a lost or disoriented firefighter </li></ul>
  13. 13. Standard for Number of Team Members However, as many as a dozen may be required to rescue a firefighter in distress.
  14. 14. NIOSH <ul><li>Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US Department of Health and Human Services </li></ul><ul><li>Not a code-making body </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts research/makes recommendations for prevention of work-related disease and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Approves safety equipment such as respirators </li></ul><ul><li>Makes recommendations to OSHA to develop standards </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1998 – conducts the Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program — to prevent line-of-duty fatalities and disseminate firefighter casualty information </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Most Common Reasons Firefighters Need to be Rescued Handout #3
  16. 16. Three Most Common Reasons Firefighters Need to be Rescued <ul><li>Inadequate fire experience </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate survival training </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate fireground organization </li></ul>
  17. 17. Inadequate Fire Experience <ul><ul><ul><li>Number of fire calls dropping every year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many departments respond to more EMS calls than fire calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention efforts more successful, resulting in fewer fires </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Inadequate Survival Training <ul><li>Failure to recognize deteriorating fire conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to appreciate need for safety equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to realize importance of carrying forcible entry tool </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and training are customer-focused </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sudden Unexpected Events <ul><li>Lost/trapped/unaccounted for firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>Flashover </li></ul><ul><li>Back draft </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid fire increase </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac emergency </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lost/Trapped/Unaccounted for Firefighter <ul><li>Firefighter confirmed missing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually still in radio contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighter confirmed trapped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location known – unable to escape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually still in radio contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighter unaccounted for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No radio contact </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Flashover <ul><li>Occurs rapidly — heat/smoke “bank down” just prior to occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>May engulf firefighters operating inside the building </li></ul><ul><li>Only seconds available to escape </li></ul><ul><li>Surviving firefighters, if any, likely to be burned and disoriented </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy combustible loading likely to result in continuing serious fire conditions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Back Draft <ul><li>Occurs rapidly – sudden inrush of oxygen to smoldering fire causes “smoke explosion” or back draft – no time to escape </li></ul><ul><li>Is violent – causes damage due to pressure waves </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters possibly thrown, trapped, and traumatically injured </li></ul><ul><li>Potential structural damage/collapse </li></ul>
  23. 23. Rapid Fire Increase <ul><li>May occur due to flashover or back draft </li></ul><ul><li>May occur due to storage/use of flammable liquids, gases, or other materials in the fire building </li></ul><ul><li>May occur due to vertical openings/voids within the building </li></ul><ul><li>Can trap firefighters above the fire </li></ul><ul><li>May disorient firefighters, but more likely they will be oriented and searching for means of egress </li></ul><ul><li>Fire will continue to grow if action is not taken </li></ul>
  24. 24. Explosion <ul><li>Occurs rapidly and without warning – no time to escape </li></ul><ul><li>May result from the presence of a flammable liquid, gas, or other hazardous material </li></ul><ul><li>Similar conditions as in a back draft </li></ul><ul><li>Is violent – causing damage due to pressure waves </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters possibly thrown, trapped, and traumatically injured </li></ul><ul><li>Potential structural damage/collapse </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collapse <ul><li>Occurs rapidly and without warning – building collapses upon personnel or responders fall through collapsed floor/roof landing in a hazardous area </li></ul><ul><li>May trap personnel in/under debris </li></ul><ul><li>Likely jeopardizes multiple responders </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters likely to have traumatic injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Safety of area likely to be questionable </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cardiac Emergency <ul><li>Common cause of firefighter fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>Causes 40% or more of on-duty deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke, toxic gases, and the stress of the incident all contribute to this prospect </li></ul>
  27. 27. Inadequate Fireground Organization <ul><li>Creates communication problems, such as failure to hear emergency evacuation signal </li></ul><ul><li>Operational problems, such as loss of water supply, freelancing. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Other Basic Fireground Problems <ul><li>Failure to control doors </li></ul><ul><li>Opening doors/walls/ceiling/roof without a charged hose line </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to maintain an escape route </li></ul>
  29. 29. RIT Gear <ul><li>Equipment for a RIT can be divided into two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal gear to be carried by every RIT member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team resources that will be staged on-scene and ready to take into a burning building </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Personal Gear <ul><li>Must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full PPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A complete SCBA or a spare cylinder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable radio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rope bag </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong handlight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Team Equipment <ul><li>Spare SCBA cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Imaging Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Forcible entry tools </li></ul><ul><li>Power saws </li></ul><ul><li>Handlights with spare batteries </li></ul><ul><li>EMS equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy rescue equipment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Team Equipment Set out a tarp to indicate tools for RIT use only.
  33. 33. Why RITs are needed and how they function Quiz #1
  34. 34. Arrival and Set-Up <ul><li>RIT must be ready to deploy as quickly as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival and set-up procedures can be separated into three areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team member duties </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Arrival and Set-Up <ul><li>Perform a quick size-up </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT team’s size-up must focus on current and potential hazards and deployment situations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many firefighters or crews are inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are they assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish and maintain radio contact with firefighters in the hazard zone </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to commence search and rescue </li></ul>
  36. 36. Arrival and Set-Up (cont’d) <ul><li>Station one member near hazard zone entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a RIT staging area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to the hazard zone entrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside of the collapse zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and assemble the search and rescue tools and equipment </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Team Member Duties <ul><li>Remain close to hazard zone entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Able to commence rescue operations at a moment’s notice </li></ul><ul><li>Perform only non-critical jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain radio contact with crews in the hazard zone </li></ul>
  38. 38. Declaring a Mayday by Radio <ul><li>Transmit on all incident channels </li></ul><ul><li>Identify yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Use Clear Text or plain English </li></ul><ul><li>Include as much information as possible </li></ul>
  39. 39. Declaring Without Radio Contact <ul><li>Assume the position that offers the most safety </li></ul><ul><li>Activate your PASS device </li></ul><ul><li>If your PASS device fails, tap on a pipe or wall with tool or hard object </li></ul><ul><li>Shine your flashlight toward the ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Draw attention to your location! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Mayday Procedures <ul><li>“ Emergency Traffic” is declared </li></ul><ul><li>Cease all unrelated radio traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Known details are announced </li></ul><ul><li>All units cease activity and listen </li></ul><ul><li>RIT is deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for order to resume radio traffic/activities </li></ul>
  41. 41. Exterior Rescue Evolutions Breaching Wooden Walls 1. Locate access point — look for pre-existing openings such as windows. If no openings exist, cut a probe hole. 2. Make primary cuts with a power saw. 3. Use hooks to clear debris and make second cuts as needed.
  42. 42. Exterior Rescue Evolutions <ul><li>Breaching Masonry Walls </li></ul><ul><li>1. Look for existing openings to enlarge. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use a sledge hammer to enlarge openings. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use a battering ram or large sledge to begin an opening if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use diamond-shaped holes for greater stability. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Exterior Rescue Evolutions <ul><li>Breaching Metal Walls and Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Use a rotary saw with metal-cutting blade. </li></ul><ul><li>To cut doors or walls at grade, make two diagonal cuts down from a single point and then fold the metal flap onto the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>To cut a rectangular hole in a metal wall, make four cuts and then carefully remove the metal section and insulation and place them aside. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Exterior Rescue Evolutions <ul><li>Breaching Plasterboard Walls </li></ul><ul><li>1. Use a Haligan bar or other appropriate tool to make a probe hole to determine location of breach. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Break open the wall with the adze end of the Haligan bar — twist the bar to remove chunks of wallboard. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Move team members and the victim through the hole using appropriate techniques — enlarge the hole with a saw if necessary. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Rapid Intervention <ul><li>Interior Operations </li></ul>
  46. 46. Session Objectives 1. Show how a RIT functions inside the hazard zone 2. Desribe how RITs locate firefighters in distress 3. Show how to perform an initial assessment of a downed firefighter
  47. 47. Session Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>4. Describe air-supply considerations for trapped firefighters </li></ul><ul><li>5. Show a variety of rescue techniques </li></ul>
  48. 48. Entering Hazard Zone Before entering, first • Confirm what is known and not known about the situation
  49. 49. Entering Hazard Zone (cont’d) <ul><li>Second, quickly check each other’s PPE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All gear is on properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA is functioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PASS devices are turned on </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Entering Hazard Zone (cont’d) <ul><li>Upon entering, function as a team </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stay in voice or visual contact with each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stay in radio contact with those outside the hazard zone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Tag Lines <ul><li>A tag line can make finding your way out of the hazard zone easier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One end should be tied to a solid object at the entrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rope should be paid out as the team progresses into the hazard zone </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Locating a Firefighter in Distress Location Known <ul><li>Abandon normal search patterns and go directly to the firefighter. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Locating a Firefighter in Distress Location Unknown <ul><li>Follow tag or hose line left by first entry team </li></ul><ul><li>Stop and listen </li></ul><ul><li>At times cease all activity </li></ul><ul><li>Look for discarded tools and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Check the ceiling for beams of light </li></ul><ul><li>Use a thermal imaging camera </li></ul>
  54. 54. Interior Functions and Locating a Firefighter in distress Quiz #2
  55. 55. Initial Assessment Notify Chain of Command <ul><li>Number of firefighters found </li></ul><ul><li>General condition/situation </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility status </li></ul>
  56. 56. Lost or Disoriented Firefighter <ul><li>If the firefighter is merely lost or disoriented, simply lead them out of the hazard zone. Once outside: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their physical, psychological, and emotional condition should be assessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their fitness for reassignment should be evaluated </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Initial Assessment Safety Considerations <ul><li>Assess your environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancing fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entanglement hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the location is dangerous and mitigating measures are not available, you may have to risk further injury and immediately extricate the firefighter </li></ul>
  58. 58. Initial Assessment Conscious Firefighter <ul><li>First consideration—air supply </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure—you will get them out </li></ul><ul><li>Control PASS </li></ul><ul><li>Call for rescue resources </li></ul><ul><li>Continue assessment while waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Head-to-toe check </li></ul>
  59. 59. Initial Assessment Unconscious Firefighter <ul><li>Control PASS </li></ul><ul><li>Place your ear over the victim’s regulator and listen for air exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Check air supply </li></ul><ul><li>Head-to-toe check </li></ul>
  60. 60. Securing an Air Supply <ul><li>Transfill from spare SCBA cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Spare SCBA cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Complete new SCBA </li></ul><ul><li>S.A.R. </li></ul>NIOSH and NFPA recommend against “buddy breathing.” There are various ways to supply air.
  61. 61. Determining Action <ul><li>Stay or go? </li></ul><ul><li>Method of least harm </li></ul><ul><li>Report to command: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next action </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Assessing and extricating a Firefighter in Distress Quiz #3
  63. 63. Drags and Carries <ul><li>SCBA Harness </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Undo and loosen the firefighter’s waist straps. </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Pass one strap between the victim’s legs and connect it to the other strap. </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Tighten all SCBA straps. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Drags and Carries SCBA-Strap Drag 1. Convert the victim’s SCBA to a harness if time permits. 2. Loosen the victim’s SCBA shoulder straps. 3. Grasp the shoulder straps and drag to the nearest point of egress.
  65. 65. Drags and Carries <ul><li>Webbing/Sling-Assisted Drag </li></ul><ul><li>1. Loosen the victim’s SCBA shoulder straps. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Slide the working end of the sling or webbing under the SCBA straps. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use the sling ends as handles for dragging. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Drags and Carries Webbing/Rope Drag 1. Obtain a 20 –25-foot length of webbing or rope. 2. Create a loop using the water knot (webbing) or square knot (rope). 3. Pass the working end of the webbing under the victim’s SCBA shoulder straps and then back through the standing part of the loop.
  67. 67. Drags and Carries <ul><li>Webbing/Rope Drag </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pull the working loop all the way through the standing loop until the webbing tightens around the SCBA harness. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Place the hauling end of the loop over a rescuer’s shoulder and remove the victim. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Drags and Carries Push-Pull Drag 1. One rescuer moves to the victim’s head and the other to the victim’s feet. 2. Rescuer at the head turns the victim on his side and grasps one SCBA strap. 3. Rescuer at the feet positions his shoulder under the victim’s knee and thigh. 4. When the rescuer at the head says, “Push!” they push and pull together.
  69. 69. Drags and Carries <ul><li>Blanket Drag </li></ul><ul><li>1. Two rescuers roll the victim onto his side. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A blanket is laid behind the victim and the excess is pushed against the victim’s back. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The victim is rolled onto the blanket and the excess is distributed on the rescuers’ side of the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The corners of the blanket nearest the victim's head are used to pull. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Drags and Carries <ul><li>Fireman’s Carry </li></ul><ul><li>One rescuer stands over the victim and pulls him to a standing position. </li></ul><ul><li>A second rescuer </li></ul><ul><li>(if available), assists </li></ul><ul><li>the first rescuer in hoisting the victim </li></ul><ul><li>onto his shoulders. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Stairs <ul><li>Two-Firefighter Technique </li></ul><ul><li>1. Move the victim to the base of the stairwell. </li></ul><ul><li>2. One rescuer moves onto the stairs behind the victim and grasps the victim’s SCBA straps. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Stairs Two-Firefighter Technique 3. The second rescuer places the victim’s legs over his shoulders and gets as far under the victim’s hips as possible. 4. The rescuer at the head says “Lift!” as he pulls up on the SCBA straps to clear the first stair. The second rescuer pushes up with his legs when he hears “Lift!”
  73. 73. Stairs <ul><li>Two-Team Rope Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary team follows steps for previous evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second team deploys to top of stairs and provides rope. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Primary team attaches rope and then lifts while second team pulls on rope. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Stairs Litter-Assisted Rescue 1. Call for the second team to bring the Stokes/litter as soon as possible. 2. The primary team moves the victim to the bottom of the stairs. 3. The second team arrives with the basket and attaches a hauling line to it. 4. The second team lowers the basket down stairs and the victim is placed inside.
  75. 75. Stairs <ul><li>Litter-Assisted Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>5. The second team pulls the basket while the primary team pushes. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The victim is carried or slid in the basket to exit. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Stairs Moving a Firefighter Down Stairs 1. One rescuer clears the stairs and then positions a few stairs below the top. 2. The other rescuer pulls on the victim’s SCBA harness to drag him down the stairs. 3. The first rescuer guides and steadies the second rescuer.
  77. 77. Below-Grade Rescue <ul><li>Two-Rope Method </li></ul><ul><li>Primary team calls for second </li></ul><ul><li>team to enter with two 50-foot </li></ul><ul><li>ropes, an attic ladder, a prying </li></ul><ul><li>tool, and a saw. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Primary team assesses floor/roof area through which victim fell, directs protective streams as needed, and attempts to contact victim. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Second team enlarges the hole if necessary, while first team prepares ropes and secures the opening with ladders/doors as needed. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Below-Grade Rescue Two-Rope Method 4. One crew member enters the hole using a ladder or rope and assesses the victim. 5. Crew on top ties handcuff knots in the center of each rope and then lowers them to rescuer below. 6. The rescuer below attaches the knot from one rope to the victim’s feet and the other to his wrists. 7. The rescuers on top pull the victim up while the rescuer below guides the victim.
  79. 79. Below-Grade Rescue <ul><li>One-Rope Method </li></ul><ul><li>1. Follow steps 1–4 of the two-rope method. </li></ul><ul><li>2. From two to four rescuers position around the hole and grasp the rope while the rescuer in the hole changes the victim’s SCBA into a harness. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Below-Grade Rescue One-Rope Method 3. The carabiners are lowered into the hole and attached to the victim’s SCBA shoulder straps. 4. The rescuers above pull while the rescuer below pushes up on the victim’s feet.
  81. 81. Using A Hose Line <ul><li>Call for the line to be shut down </li></ul><ul><li>Lower nozzle down to firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter drains hose, forms loop at bottom, and places one foot in loop </li></ul><ul><li>Pull firefighter up </li></ul>
  82. 82. Moving a Firefighter into a Window Face-Up Method 1. Remove SCBA harness, if necessary. 2. Lie the victim perpendicular to the window sill with feet touching the wall.
  83. 83. Moving a Firefighter into a Window <ul><li>Face-Up Method </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lift the victim’s legs onto the window sill and slide his body until his buttocks touch the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Position one rescuer on each side of the victim and lift by cradling the victim under his lower back and arms (SCBA harness). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Turn the victim if SCBA is in place. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Moving a Firefighter into a Window Flip-Over Method 1. Drag the victim headfirst to the window. 2. Grasp the victim’s legs and pull them over his head to the window sill. 3. An outside rescuer grabs the victim’s feet as the two inside rescuers lift the victim by his SCBA.
  85. 85. Moving a Firefighter into a Window <ul><li>Face-Down Method </li></ul><ul><li>1. Lie the victim on his side, facing the window, feet toward the sill. </li></ul><ul><li>2. One RIT member removes his SCBA harness and lies face down on the floor, perpendicular to the window. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The other primary team member(s) roll(s) the victim onto the first rescuer, who then pushes up into a crawling position. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The remaining team members slide/lift the victim onto a ladder outside the window. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Accountability Accountability systems Accounting for other units on the scene Accounting for the RIT Procedures for “rescuing the rescuers” The bottom line
  87. 87. Accountability <ul><li>Only way to maintain control of personnel on the fire ground </li></ul><ul><li>Use varies widely </li></ul><ul><li>System needs to keep track of everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established as a system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established long before emergencies occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilized by all personnel who could operate on a scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practiced on all calls </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Accountability RIT must be familiar with the various accountability systems utilized in the areas where they may respond. Accountability must be a disciplined function. RIT may need to try to identify missing personnel at a glance.
  89. 89. Accountability <ul><li>The RIT is accountable to the Safety Officer or IC. </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT officer must maintain accountability for the RIT crew. </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT’s accountability system must fit into the overall incident management system. </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT typically will deploy immediately into a high risk situation. </li></ul>
  90. 90. Procedures for “Rescuing the Rescuers” <ul><li>Do not panic. </li></ul><ul><li>Admit you are lost and call for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Activate your PASS device. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your company together. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow hose or lifeline. </li></ul><ul><li>Search for any opening. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve your air supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Shine your light upward to attract attention and position your PASS for maximum effectiveness. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Conclusion <ul><li>The RIT must be familiar with the units working on the fire ground and their assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT must have an accountability system that integrates seamlessly with the system utilized on the incident scene. </li></ul><ul><li>The RIT must be able to react to, as well as request, a Mayday signal </li></ul>
  92. 92. Conclusion <ul><li>Firefighters assigned to RIT functions must be aware of the importance of this role and not take it lightly. </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Commanders must be familiar with the capabilities and training of RITs and consider various uses for the team to provide proactive safety duties at incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Commanders must be aware of the risks if they assign RITs to other duties. </li></ul><ul><li>For further information on rehab, see USFA procedure booklet “Emergency Incident Rehabilitation” available at no charge from: www.usfa.fema.gov/usfapubs . </li></ul>
  93. 93. Questions ? Test on ?