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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 10 Fire Prevention
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the importance of fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the activities a fire prevention bureau performs </li></ul><ul><li>List methods of public education as it relates to fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the authority to enforce fire prevention regulations is derived </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe a typical fire prevention bureau organization </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of fire information reporting </li></ul><ul><li>List the uses of fire-related statistics </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>U.S. has one of the highest fire death rates per capita in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of hostile fires is the key to reducing deaths </li></ul><ul><li>True measure of fire department effectiveness is reduction of the amount of loss </li></ul><ul><li>Fire prevention one of the most important and least recognized jobs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fire Prevention Bureau <ul><li>Prevention bureau personnel often used to inspect technical or high risk occupancies </li></ul><ul><li>Requires specialized training </li></ul><ul><li>Considered specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Often considered a staff function </li></ul>
  7. 7. Staff Function <ul><li>Fire prevention inspectors specially trained in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention inspection procedures/methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement of codes and ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining written records and reports </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Staff Function (con’t.) <ul><li>Requires advanced knowledge of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard recognition </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Staff Function (con’t.) <ul><li>Not only identifies hazards but works with occupant to correct deficiencies through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested correction method(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance through legal action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education and public relations are very important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be only contact occupant has with fire department </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operations Function <ul><li>Company level inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and education </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of codes required </li></ul><ul><li>Must not overlook hazards </li></ul>
  11. 11. Personnel <ul><li>In larger departments, chief of prevention is fire marshal </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention bureau often a mixture of uniformed and civilian personnel </li></ul><ul><li>All personnel must be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and apply codes and ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain composure in stressful situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell fire prevention with a positive attitude </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fire Prevention Chief <ul><li>In large departments, rank of chief due to complexity of operation </li></ul><ul><li>In small department, may be a company officer </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian position in some departments </li></ul><ul><li>Requires political savvy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Inspection Officers and Inspectors <ul><li>Inspection Officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work directly for prevention chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In charge of major subdivisions and subfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be company officers or firefighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More training than regular firefighter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make annual inspections </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Civilians <ul><li>Hired for particular expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specialists (water engineers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans check specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not receive same pay/benefits as firefighters </li></ul>
  15. 15. Professional Standards <ul><li>Specified in NFPA 1301 </li></ul><ul><li>Training available on national, state, and local levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Fire Marshal programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accompanying inspectors on inspections </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Professional Standards (con’t.) <ul><li>Prevention officer professional organizations offer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magazines and other publications provide latest techniques and methods </li></ul>
  17. 17. Purpose of Fire Prevention Activities <ul><li>Prevent loss of life and property due to fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent hostile fires from starting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for life safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the spread of fire from one area to another </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fire Prevention Activities <ul><li>Four areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three E’s: education, enforcement, engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation/cause determination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design fire-safe assemblies and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review plans before buildings are built or remodeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect installation of fire safety equipment and devices </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Fire Prevention Activities (con’t.) <ul><li>Primary activities (con’t.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect to keep devices in working order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce codes and ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate public in the methods and benefits of fire prevention and fire safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate the legislative body about the need for fire safety-related legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate to determine fire cause and prosecute arson when applicable </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fire Prevention Activities (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire prevention takes place everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Overall goal is to keep people and property safe </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective programs gain voluntary compliance through education </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fire Prevention Terms <ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a systematic and thorough examination of a premise or process to ensure compliance with fire codes and ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that can cause harm to people, property, or the environment </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fire Prevention Terms (con’t.) <ul><li>Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The activities undertaken in relation to the hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use or intended use of a building, floor, or other part of a building </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of Fire Prevention <ul><li>During design process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning and relation to property lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply for firefighters (fire flow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight construction </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hazard Evaluation and Control <ul><li>Identify possible accidents and estimate their frequency and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the initiating event </li></ul><ul><li>Response of operators and equipment dictates subsequent events </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hazard Evaluation and Control (con’t.) <ul><li>Evaluation and control through adherence to good practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe rules, regulations, and policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use accepted standards (NFPA, OSHA, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow accepted procedures and practices </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hazard Evaluation and Control (con’t.) <ul><li>Deviation identified through checklists and safety reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive hazard evaluation for analyzing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Hazard Evaluation and Control (con’t.) <ul><li>When adherence to good practice may not be adequate, first step is to identify hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate in terms of risk to people and property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate events that could be associated with the hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use various evaluation methods </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Public Education <ul><li>Deliver the prevention message to as many people as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters cannot be everywhere at once </li></ul><ul><li>People must ensure their own safety </li></ul><ul><li>Reach more people in less time </li></ul><ul><li>Ask elected officials for help in changing legislation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Public Education (con’t.) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public service announcements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health/safety fairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School programs (see Figure 10-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations at service clubs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 10-6 Fire safety message on billboard.
  31. 31. Organization <ul><li>State fire marshal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, investigation, training, and prevention services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports local efforts and acts in their absence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department prevention bureau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs the more technical inspections </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Company level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General business inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preplanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locates highest value in occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard reduction/weed abatement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies special hazards in first-in district </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Fire Prevention Inspection <ul><li>Before entering occupancy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review past inspections for problem areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify special hazards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review special protection devices and systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather proper tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must have legal authority to enforce codes and ordinances </li></ul>
  34. 34. Fire Prevention Inspection (con’t.) <ul><li>Codes allow entry when suspected hazards exist and may require inspection warrant </li></ul><ul><li>Entry is welcomed in most situations </li></ul><ul><li>Approach inspection in a consistent manner </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize hazards and violations </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety issues are to be corrected immediately </li></ul>
  35. 35. Fire Prevention Inspection (con’t.) <ul><li>Give reasonable abatement period for minor violations </li></ul><ul><li>Record all violations </li></ul><ul><li>Leave copy with owner/manager </li></ul><ul><li>Thank owner for time and cooperation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Fire Prevention Inspection (con’t.) <ul><li>For a long list of violations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop specific plan of correction with timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make re-inspection at end of allotted time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If no compliance, write a citation </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement between inspector and owner/ manager over code specifics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May go to board of appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May use alternate materials and methods </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Determination of Fire Cause <ul><li>Chief is charged with responsibility to determine cause of all fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegated to subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for prevention reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May identify where to target efforts in education, engineering, and enforcement </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Determination of Fire Cause (con’t.) <ul><li>In structure fires, note the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color of smoke and flames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of doors/windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of locks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty of extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In wildland fires, note the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General area where fire is currently burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles leaving the area </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Determination of Fire Cause (con’t.) <ul><li>In structure and wildland fires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice area of origin and people leaving scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not disturb origin if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess total overhaul possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not touch any probable evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not make statements to the press or anyone else </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Determination of Fire Cause (con’t.) <ul><li>Next step is reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach with no preconceived ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start from area of least damage to origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview witnesses, including firefighters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel and heat source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act or omission that brought them together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions </li></ul>
  41. 41. Determination of Fire Cause (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of investigations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic: cause is obvious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: more in depth (may require taking evidence to crime lab) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incendiary: a crime has been committed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arson unit may also investigate fire death/ serious burn injury incidents or assist company officer </li></ul>
  42. 42. Fire Information Reporting <ul><li>Specifications in NFPA 901 </li></ul><ul><li>Fire reports used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of faulty equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code change justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New safety procedures/devices identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting of all firefighter and civilian casualties </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Aggressive fire prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces life and property loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is cost-effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is more successful than simply stopping fires when they start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire prevention consists of four areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering, education, enforcement, and cause determination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire prevention systems consists of persons of all ranks and duties </li></ul>Summary

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