Chapter 01


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Chapter 01

  1. 1. Hazardous Materials for First Responders 4th EditionChapter 1 — Introduction to Hazardous Materials
  2. 2. What is a Haz Mat ? Any material that possesses an unreasonable risk tothe health and safety of persons and/or environment ifnot properly controlled duringhandling, storage, manufacturing, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transport.When used as weapons – WMDMillions of tons produced, stored and transported yearly 1–1
  3. 3. What makes a hazardous materials incident different? Clickimage to play 1–2
  4. 4. REVIEW QUESTION How are hazardous materials incidents different from other types of emergencies? 1–3
  5. 5. First Responder Roles 1–4
  6. 6. There are six levels of training according to NFPA® standards. Haz Mat Haz Mat Private Haz MatAwareness Operations Branch Incident Sector Technician Officer Commander Specialist 1–5
  7. 7. There are five levels of trainingaccording to OSHA standards. Haz Mat On Scene Haz Mat Awareness Operations Branch Incident Technician Officer Commander 1–6
  8. 8. First responder roles vary by training level. Click fornext slide 1–7
  9. 9. Health Hazards• Chemicals can affect – One or more organs – An entire body system, such as the central nervous system 1–8
  10. 10. There are two main definitionsof hazardous exposure.Acute Chronic Acute Chronic health health effects effects 1–9
  11. 11. TRACEM• Thermal• Radiological• Asphyxiation• Chemical• Etiological• Mechanical Haz Mat for First Responders 1–10
  12. 12. Thermal• Temperature Extremes low temp. Elevated temp. Haz Mat for First Responders 1–11
  13. 13. Cold temperatures can presentunique dangers when working withcryogenic and liquefied gases.Liquefied Cryogen gas Instantly freeze materials (Continued) 1–12
  14. 14. Cryogenic and liquefied gasescan boil into a much largervapor cloud. Courtesy of Steve Irby, Owasso Fire Department 1–14
  15. 15. WARNING! Any clothing saturated with a cryogenic material may be removed immediately. This actions is particularly important if the vapors are flammable or oxidizers. A first responder could not escape flames from clothing-trapped vapors if they were to ignite. 1–15
  16. 16. Elevated temperature materialscan ignite flammable andcombustible materials. Require Increase Examples extreme heat caution effects 1–16
  17. 17. The U.S. DOT definition of elevated-temperature material. Click fornext slide 1–17
  18. 18. Radiological Hazards
  19. 19. Radiological Hazards exist atspecific types of incidents. 1–19
  20. 20. Types of Ionizing Radiation• Alpha • Beta positive particle + or – electron lose energy rapidly from manufactured very harmful if and natural sourcesingested or inhaled less damaging than can be stopped by alpha over same dist.paper can be stopped by clothing Haz Mat 1–20
  21. 21. Types Gamma Neutron high energy photons ultra high energy no natural and industrial electrical chargesources fission reactions easily passes through the labs and nuclear powerhuman body plants no protection with ppe,needs 2ft of concrete, thickearth or 2inches of leadi.e x-ray Haz Mat for First Responders 1–21
  22. 22. Each type of ionizing radiation hasa different penetrating power. 1–22
  23. 23. Exposure or Contamination• Exposure • Contamination occurs while you are material remains onnear a radiological a person after comingsource and biological into contact withdamage occurs material – can be external, internal or both Haz Mat for First Responders 1–23
  24. 24. Radiation Health Effects• Acute dose • Chronic dose short term exposure small amounts over can be permissible time most no health the body is bettereffects equipped to handle others are deadly this type i.e. nuclear bomb can cause cancer Haz Mat for First Responders 1–24
  25. 25. Asphyxiation Hazards• Two Classes Simple – Gases that replace oxygen Chemical – substances that prohibit thebody from using oxygen 1–25
  26. 26. Chemical Hazards• Toxicity of chemical• Route of exposure• Nature of exposure• Other factors i.e. age, health Haz Mat for First Responders 1–26
  27. 27. Toxins• Local• Systemic Haz Mat for First Responders 1–27
  28. 28. Corrosives comprise the largestusage class in the industry. (Continued) 1–28
  29. 29. Irritant• Non-corrosive• Causes irritation – Eyes – Respiratory tract• Easily reversed by fresh air Haz Mat for First Responders 1–29
  30. 30. Convulsants• Causes involuntary muscle movement death occurs from asphyxiation orexhaustion Haz Mat for First Responders 1–30
  31. 31. Carcinogens• Refers to a material with cancer-causing potential.• Most commonly used category.• Two categories –Known –52 chemicals –Suspected (majority) –176 chemicals Haz Mat for First Responders 1–31
  32. 32. Sensitizer/Allergens• Causes an effect like an allergic reaction Haz Mat for First Responders 1–32
  33. 33. Etiological/Biological 1–34
  34. 34. Microorganisms that may cause severe, disabling disease or illness. Health Image LibraryCourtesy of CDC Public Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library Virus Bacteria Ricin 1–35
  35. 35. Etiological• Viruses - simplest microorganisms, can only replicate in a living host• Bacteria – single celled, most do not cause disease, the ones that do invade tissue or produce toxins• Rickettsia – specialized bacteria live in intestinal tracked of a host• Biological – produced by living organisms, usually not harmful , altered by man as a weapon Haz Mat for First Responders 1–36
  36. 36. Biological Hazards• Found at: Med. Labs, human carriers, crime scenes, terrorist incidents• Infectious diseases may or may not be contagious Haz Mat for First Responders 1–37
  37. 37. Biological Weapons• Ricin• Smallpox• Anthrax• Botulism Haz Mat for First Responders 1–38
  38. 38. Mechanical Hazards Haz Mat for First Responders 1–39
  39. 39. Courtesy of U.S. Department of Defense, Click for next slide photo by Ken Drylle, civilian hazards.1–40 Explosions present specific
  40. 40. Mechanical HazardFour Hazards• Shock Wave• Shrapnel Fragmentation• Seismic Effect• Incendiary Thermal Effect Haz Mat for First Responders 1–41
  41. 41. Routes of EntryCDC and NIOSHUse three routes of entry. 1–43
  42. 42. Inhalation 1–44
  43. 43. Ingestion 1–46
  44. 44. Skin Contact 1–47
  45. 45. Routes Of EntryNYS and Others In place of skin contact use: Injection Absorption 1–49
  46. 46. Injection• Body fluids.• Most common exposure.• Fluid pushed into skin by air. Haz Mat for First Responders 1–50
  47. 47. Absorption• Entry is via skin, the bodys largest organ.• Skin absorption is relatively low when wearing PPE.• Bunker gear slows absorption, but does not stop it. Haz Mat for First Responders 1–51
  48. 48. Haz Mat Regulations and Definitions
  49. 49. United States Haz-MatRegulations• Department of Transportation (DOT)• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)• Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)• Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Continued) 1–53
  50. 50. United States Haz-MatRegulations• Environmental Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)• Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)• Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)• Department of Labor (DOL) (Continued) 1–54
  51. 51. United States Haz-MatRegulations• Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)• Department of Homeland Security (DHS)• Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)• Department of Energy (DOE) (Continued) 1–56
  52. 52. United States Haz-MatRegulations• Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), Department of Defense (DoD)• Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), Department of Treasury• Department of Justice (DOJ) 1–57
  53. 53. Haz Mat Regulation Agencies• Four main DOT EPA DOL (OSHA) NRC Haz Mat for First Responders 1–59
  54. 54. DOT• Title 49 CFR – Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR)- Transportation Haz Mat for First Responders 1–60
  55. 55. EPA Haz Mat for First Responders 1–61
  56. 56. CERCLA (Superfund Act)• Requirements for closed and abandoned waste site• Liability of persons responsible for waste releases at these sites• Trust fund for cleanup when responsible parties go unidentified• Authorized 2 response actions 1. Quick removal when prompt action is required 2. long term actions to permanently remove orreduce hazard Haz Mat for First Responders 1–62
  57. 57. SARA• Stressed permanent remedies• New enforcement and settlement tools• Increased state involvement• Increased focus on human health problems• Encouraged citizen participation on site cleanup• Increased the size of trust fund Haz Mat for First Responders 1–63
  58. 58. EPCRA (Title III SARA)• State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) Emergency Planning Districts Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) Haz Mat for First Responders 1–64
  59. 59. Resource Conservation andRecovery Act (RCRA)• Gave the EPA authority to control hazardous waste and hold parties accountable for what they produce (cradle to grave) Haz Mat for First Responders 1–65
  60. 60. DOL• Created OSHA• Created Title 29 CFR – HAZWOPER regulations and others Haz Mat for First Responders 1–66
  61. 61. NRC• Regulates power plants as well as commercial and civilian use of nuclear material• Dose limits for workers• Monitoring and labeling of radioactive material• Requirements for theft or loss Haz Mat for First Responders 1–67
  62. 62. Other Agencies• DOE – nuclear research and defense• DHS – 3 missions; prevent terrorist attacks, reduce our vulnerability to attacks, minimize damage from potential attacks and natural disasters• Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)• Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), Department of Defense (DOD)• ATF, Dept. of Treasury• DOJ Haz Mat for First Responders 1–68
  63. 63. Canadian Regulations andDefinitions• Transport Canada (TC)• Environment Canada• Health Canada• Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) 1–69
  64. 64. Mexican Regulations andDefinitions• Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes (SCT)• Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT)• Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social (STPS) 1–70
  65. 65. Hazardous Materials IncidentStatistics 1–72
  66. 66. Hazardous materials incidents trends can be measured.(rt. click to play) Click fornext slide 1–73
  67. 67. DISCUSSION QUESTION Which mode of transportation is MOST likely to have a haz mat transportation incident? 1–74
  68. 68. Summary• First responders must understand their roles and limitations at haz mat emergencies.• Numerous government agencies and government regulations play important roles in how hazardous materials are manufactured, used, transported, and disposed of. (Continued) 1–75
  69. 69. Summary• Haz mat incidents typically involve certain types of materials, but first responders must be prepared to deal with any emergencies. 1–76