Chapter 13


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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 13 Emergency Incident Management
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the need for a plan at every incident </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between offensive, defensive, and transition modes of attack </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for organized thought processes in incident assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the strategic priorities at an incident </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the terms strategy, tactics, and tasks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Explain the need for size-up of an incident </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a size-up is performed and what information must be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the NIIMS Incident Command System </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for unified command on a multijurisdictional incident </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Every firefighter at a scene is responsible for assisting in the control of the incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size-up the incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply strategic priorities in proper order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist person in command </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident command system aids in effective management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents structures that are adaptable to all types of incidents </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Management Responsibility <ul><li>First-in officer initiates the plan </li></ul><ul><li>All firefighters at scene must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of the plan and the hazards present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Victims do not arrive at the scene in fire trucks” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Incident Planning <ul><li>Every incident must have a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Establish objectives first </li></ul><ul><li>Determine strategies to accomplish objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Plans must be flexible to address changes in the incident as it progresses </li></ul>
  8. 8. Incident Planning (con’t.) <ul><li>Operational modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive, direct attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting exposures, indirect attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using different modes on areas of incident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate to avoid conflicting tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires clear communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Strategic Priorities <ul><li>Seven areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confinement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT NECESSARILY PERFORMED IN THIS ORDER </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Strategic Priorities (con’t.) <ul><li>Rescue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is first strategic priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have to be delayed while hose lines are placed between victims and fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary, secondary searches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent fire from spreading to adjoining structures or improvements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Strategic Priorities (con’t.) <ul><li>Confinement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack from unburned toward burned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut off spread of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinguishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting fire out or stopping leak of hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for hidden fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure all fire is out </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Strategic Priorities (con’t.) <ul><li>Salvage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save contents of building from additional damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be concurrent with other operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have to happen before any of the other priorities are attempted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be performed at any time during operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of flashover/backdraft while increasing visibility and reducing heat </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Tactics <ul><li>Methods to accomplish objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laying supply lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancing hose lines to seat of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting holes in roof to release smoke and heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreading salvage covers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tasks <ul><li>Jobs completed in a specified amount of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don SCBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance hose lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise (throw) ladders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate equipment </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Size-Up <ul><li>Ongoing mental process that results in a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan of operation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Size-Up (con’t.) <ul><li>Continues as operations are carried out because situations change </li></ul><ul><li>Always critique incidents afterward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for what went right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for what went wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make the same mistakes twice </li></ul></ul>
  18. 33. Vegetation Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions <ul><li>Correct location – may need to direct units in </li></ul><ul><li>Size – best estimate in acres (currently) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel type – light fuels ( grass) heavy fuels ( brush/timber) </li></ul><ul><li>Slope and aspect – affects rate of spread, points of compass (south-lighter drier fuels , north heavier fuels) </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of spread – slow, moderate, or rapid </li></ul>
  19. 34. Vegetation Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions (con’t.) <ul><li>Exposures in path – number and type </li></ul><ul><li>Weather conditions - wind </li></ul><ul><li>Potential of the fire – quick work , long haul </li></ul><ul><li>Additional resources needed – best estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives – clearly stated plan </li></ul>
  20. 35. Structure Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions <ul><li>Correct location </li></ul><ul><li>Height/stories – height of structure , floor fire is on </li></ul><ul><li>Size and type of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Location and area involved </li></ul><ul><li>Level of involvement – is fire/smoke showing? </li></ul>
  21. 36. Structure Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions (con’t.) <ul><li>Exposures – number , type </li></ul><ul><li>Potential of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Additional resources needed – number and type </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives – state priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain an “all clear” </li></ul>
  22. 37. Incident Command System <ul><li>National Incident Management System (NIMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created under HSPD-5 ( Management of Domestic Incidents ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance of all federal agencies and departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from domestic incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  23. 38. Incident Command System (con’t.) <ul><li>National Incident Management System (NIMS) (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incident Command System (ICS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications and Information Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Information Systems (JIS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIMS Integration Center (NIC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 39. Incident Command System (con’t.) <ul><li>National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a common system for federal, state, and local levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has two components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Interagency Fire Qualification System (NIFQS) (1 st component) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualification, training, and certification of personnel, currently focused on wildland and wildland/urban interface fire protection problems </li></ul></ul>
  25. 40. Incident Command System (con’t.) <ul><li>ICS ( 2 nd component) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System based on “Principles of Command” (see Chapter 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic organizational structure for all types of emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large or small incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple or complex in nature </li></ul></ul>
  26. 41. <ul><li>Common terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For organizational functions, resource elements, and facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modular organization (see Figure 13-1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands and contracts in a logical manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses clear text (no codes) </li></ul></ul>Components of the ICS (8)
  27. 42. Components of the ICS (con’t.) <ul><li>Unified command structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of jurisdiction or function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident action plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manageable span of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 to 7 with 5 the optimum </li></ul></ul>
  28. 43. Components of the ICS (cont.) <ul><li>Designated Incident Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>- Incident command post (ICP) – established at every incident, all should be aware of location </li></ul><ul><li>- Staging area – where resources report </li></ul><ul><li>- Base – incident support activities take place </li></ul><ul><li>- Camp – logistical needs are met i.e. sleeping ,eating </li></ul>
  29. 44. Components of the ICS (con’t.) <ul><li>Comprehensive resource management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single resource ( indiv. app.), task force (combo of units with single mission), strike team (set number same kind and type) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned: in use at the incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available: able to respond in three minutes or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-service: not ready for immediate deployment; may be in base or camp </li></ul></ul>
  30. 45. Organization <ul><li>Five areas of ICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul>
  31. 46. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Command – responsible for overall management of the incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident commander and command staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liaison officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public information officer </li></ul></ul>
  32. 47. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Operations – responsible for direct management of all tactical activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations chief and subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging area manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division: based on geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group: functional in nature, may cross divisional boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  33. 48. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Planning Section – collects , evaluates, and disseminates tactical information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans chief and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demobilization unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specialists </li></ul></ul>
  34. 49. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Logistics – provides all service and support functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply branch </li></ul></ul>
  35. 50. Organization (con’t.) <ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation/claims unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident type sections </li></ul></ul>
  36. 51. Incident Command System (con’t.) <ul><li>Advantages of ICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All positions are identified before incident happens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel that staff positions are ready to assume positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams can be brought in from different locations because of standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptable to any type of incident </li></ul></ul>
  37. 52. <ul><li>At any incident, ask three questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your plan? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective management requires a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes strategies, tactics, and size-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident command system is a method of placing a plan into operation </li></ul>Summary