Image: Courtesy of 1st Lt. Toni Tones/U.S. Air Force
Image: Courtesy of Journalist 3rd Class Ryan C. McGinley/U.S. Navy
Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Image: Courtesy of MIEMSS.
Image: Courtesy of Mass Communications Specialist 2nd Class Kirk Worley/U.S. Navy
12Mission-SpecificCompetencies: Victim Rescue and Recovery
12 Objectives (1 of 4)• Describe tactical considerations such as attempting to make a rescue without the proper PPE or without backup personnel, or deciding whether a rescue attempt has a good chance of success
12 Objectives (2 of 4)• Describe entry team and backup team responsibilities• Describe the difference between ambulatory and nonambulatory victims, and considerations for each
12 Objectives (3 of 4)• Describe the difference between rescue mode and recovery mode• Describe considerations in providing medical care and/or decontamination to victims during rescue mode or recovery mode
12 Objectives (4 of 4)• Describe the equipment needed for search, rescue and recovery operations• Describe the assists, lifts, and carries commonly used during rescue operations• Describe the benefits of sheltering-in- place• Describe the process of triage
12 Protecting Life (1 of 2)• Responder’s job is to protect life• Risk to responder may outweigh benefit• Decision based on – Sound information – Training – PPE and enough trained personnel
12 Protecting Life (2 of 2)• May have to attempt rescue without resources – Without adequate training – Without proper PPE (or any PPE)• Making a victim rescue is a choice – Choose wisely
12 Tactical Considerations (1 of 3)• First, ensure enough responders are on scene.• Do not attempt a rescue alone.• Take time to size up the scene and understand the hazards present before responding.
12 Tactical Considerations (2 of 3)• Generally at least five responders are needed. – Two on entry team – Two on backup team – One to staff emergency decontamination• Victim viability is an important factor.
12Tactical Considerations (3 of 3)You should not attempt to make a rescue alone.
12 Entry Team• Two or more appropriately trained responders• Proper level and type of PPE• Equipped with radio communications• With appropriate tools• Operating under direction of supervisor
12 Entry Team Responsibilities (1 of 4)• Reconnaissance• Mapping• Search and rescue• Triaging victims• Directing victims out of contaminated environment
12Entry Team Responsibilities (2 of 4) The START triage method.
12 Entry Team Responsibilities (3 of 4)• Non-line-of-sight situations – Require searching before rescue• Ambulatory victims (able to walk)• Nonambulatory victims (unable to walk)• Carrying adult victims is physically taxing• Decontamination necessary for all victims
12Entry Team Responsibilities (4 of 4) Decontamination is necessary for all victims when a chemical exposure is suspected or confirmed.
12 Triage (1 of 3)• Essential at all mass-casualty incidents• Rescue live victims with best chance of survival• Pointless to rescue the dead – Dead are recovered later• Follow AHJ-approved triage method
12 Triage (2 of 3)• START (Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment) system• Assesses: – Breathing rate – Pulse rate – Mental status
12 Triage (3 of 3)• Use color-coding system to classify victims• Shows priority for treatment and removal – Red-tagged victims are first priority – Yellow-tagged victims are second priority – Green- or black-tagged victims are lowest priority
12 Rescue Mode (1 of 2)• Victims are present• Victims determined to have good chance of survival• Rescue as quickly as possible• May transition to recovery mode
12 Rescue Mode (2 of 2)Victims with a good chance of survival are rescued as quickly as possible.
12 Recovery Mode• No chance remains of rescuing victims alive• Systematic search• Removal of bodies• Decontamination may still be necessary• Evidence collection
12 Medical Care• Generally not rendered during rescue mode• Decontamination required• Medical care outside the hot or warm zone• No absolutes—always exceptions
12 Backup Team (1 of 2)• One person for each entry team member• Dressed in same level of PPE• Staged at same access point• Ready to deploy in seconds
12 Backup Team (2 of 2)One backup entry team member should be provided for each entry team member.
12 Emergency Decontamination (1 of 2)• Rapidly removes bulk of contamination• Removal of clothing• Dousing of victim• Addressing contaminated runoff if there is time
12 Emergency Decontamination (2 of 2)Emergency decontamination involves the immediate removal of contaminated clothing.
12 Search, Rescue, and Recovery (1 of 2)• Time-consuming• Dangerous• Labor-intensive• Stressful• PPE causes physical problems
12 Search, Rescue, and Recovery (2 of 2)• “Work smarter, not harder.”• Primary team could pass on information to secondary team• Each incident has unique factors
12 Search, Rescue, and Recovery Equipment (1 of 3)• Wear full PPE, and SCBA if necessary• Carry proper rescue supplies and tools – Portable radio – Hand light or flashlight – Forcible-entry (-exit) tools – Thermal imaging devices (if available)
12 Search, Rescue, and Recovery Equipment (2 of 3) – Long rope(s) in some cases – Tubular webbing or short rope (16–24 feet)• For victims: – Rescue sleds (see next slide), stretchers – Evacuation chairs, spine boards – Wheeled carts
12Search, Rescue, and Recovery Equipment (3 of 3)Responders using a rescue sled to extricate a victim.
12 Search, Rescue, and Recovery Safety Tips• Work from a single plan• Maintain radio contact with IC• Monitor environmental conditions• Adhere to personal accountability system of AHJ• Stay with a partner
12 Rescue Methods• Assists, carries, drags – Should be practiced ahead of time• Direct or remove victim to safe area• Use safest means of egress
12 Sheltering-in-Place• Sometimes safer to shelter than remove• Conscious victim• Located in adequately protected part of building• When not feasible, rescue is required
12 Emergency Drags (2 of 2)• Fire fighter drag• Emergency drag from a vehicle• Long backboard rescue
12 Summary (1 of 2)• Rescue feasibility is not exact science• Rescue attempts should be based on sound information, good training, adequate PPE, and enough available personnel• Reasonable expectation of a positive outcome is important
12 Summary (2 of 2)• Team of five trained responders (not including supervisor) is recommended• Use assists, carries, drags to aid victims• All on scene should know when incident switches from rescue to recovery mode• A decontamination plan must be in place