Chapter 9 fire fighter

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Chapter 9 for Fire Fighter Academy

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Chapter 9 fire fighter

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 9 — Structural Search, Victim Removal, and Firefighter Survival
  2. 2. Summarize the impact of building construction and floor plans on structural search techniques. Learning Objective 1 9–2
  3. 3. Explain size-up and situational awareness considerations during structural searches. Learning Objective 2 9–3
  4. 4. Firefighters must know how building construction affects fire development. 9–4
  5. 5. Firefighters must know layout or floor plan to search structure effectively. 9–5
  6. 6. Firefighters should take every opportunity to observe building layout. 9–6
  7. 7. REVIEW QUESTION How do building construction and floor plans impact structural search techniques? 9–7
  8. 8. Size-up is a matter of safety for all personnel at an emergency incident. 9–8
  9. 9. Use situational awareness at all times to keep all firefighters safe. 9–9 CourtesyofBobEsposito
  10. 10. Use your senses after entering a structure to increase your situational awareness. 9–10
  11. 11. Be aware of key indicators of structural instability. 9–11
  12. 12. REVIEW QUESTION What information can size-up and situational awareness provide during structural searches? 9–12
  13. 13. Summarize safety guidelines for structural search and rescue. Learning Objective 3 9–13
  14. 14. Follow these general safety guidelines for structural search and rescue. 9–14 (Cont.)
  15. 15. Follow these general safety guidelines for structural search and rescue. 9–15 (Cont.)
  16. 16. Follow these general safety guidelines for structural search and rescue. 9–16 (Cont.)
  17. 17. Follow these general safety guidelines for structural search and rescue. 9–17
  18. 18. Firefighters must be prepared before entering any area immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). 9–18
  19. 19. REVIEW QUESTION What are five safety guidelines that should be followed during structural search and rescue? 9–19
  20. 20. Differentiate between primary and secondary search techniques. Learning Objective 4 9–20
  21. 21. Recognize basic search methods. Learning Objective 5 9–21
  22. 22. Witnesses can provide information about occupants still inside structure. 9–22 Are there witnesses, escaped occupants? Yes No Assume structure is occupied until searched Are there witnesses, escaped occupants? Are there witnesses, escaped occupants? Question witnesses , escaped occupants Question witnesses , escaped occupants Relay info to IC and incoming units Relay info to IC and incoming units Verify information if possible Verify information if possible
  23. 23. Fire attack and ventilation improves conditions when done simultaneously with search. 9–23
  24. 24. The decision of when to begin search procedures will depend on the circumstances. 9–24
  25. 25. Structural search and rescue has two main objectives. 9–25
  26. 26. Primary searches are conducted in the most critical areas first. 9–26
  27. 27. Secondary searches are conducted after initial suppression and ventilation. 9–27
  28. 28. REVIEW QUESTION What are the main differences between primary and secondary search techniques? 9–28
  29. 29. General methods for primary and secondary searches follow a systematic pattern. 9–29
  30. 30. Once on fire floor, start the search as close to the fire as possible. 9–30 Click image to play
  31. 31. Use oriented-search method for rooms that extend from hallway. 9–31
  32. 32. Perform a quick survey by getting low to the ground. 9–32
  33. 33. How firefighters move during search depends on conditions. 9–33
  34. 34. Victims may seek shelter from fire or be found in paths of egress. 9–34
  35. 35. Search the perimeter and check where occupants may be overcome with smoke while attempting escape. 9–35 Floor below windowsUnder beds and furnitureBehind doors On top of beds and furniture
  36. 36. Place a tool against the wall and extend with arm or leg to search the middle of the room. 9–36
  37. 37. Take the following actions if visibility is limited during a primary search. 9–37
  38. 38. Remember the following actions while conducting structural searches. 9–38
  39. 39. REVIEW QUESTION What is the general search method used during structural search? 9–39
  40. 40. Use the oriented-search method when working in teams. 9–40
  41. 41. Use the wide-area-search method for large or complex areas filled with smoke. 9–41
  42. 42. Knots tied after each ring indicate distance and direction. 9–42
  43. 43. Rings provide anchor points for lateral tethers used for searching areas perpendicular to search line. 9–43
  44. 44. Communication is essential when using search lines and tethers. 9–44
  45. 45. Thermal imagers help firefighters see through darkness and thick smoke, but also have disadvantages. 9–45
  46. 46. REVIEW QUESTION When is the appropriate time to use the oriented-search method, wide- area-search method, and thermal- imager-search method? 9–46
  47. 47. Consistent marking systems help firefighters conduct effective searches. 9–47
  48. 48. Some departments use Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Urban Search and Rescue System. 9–48
  49. 49. Additional marks can be made to add important information. 9–49
  50. 50. Describe victim removal methods. Learning Objective 6 9–50
  51. 51. Many occupants can evacuate with little or no assistance from firefighters. 9–51
  52. 52. Use shelter-in-place method only in certain circumstances. 9–52
  53. 53. When rescue efforts are required, firefighters may have to take specific actions. 9–53
  54. 54. Improper lifting techniques can result in both victim and firefighter injury. 9–54
  55. 55. Use the drag or lift/carry technique appropriate to the situation. 9–55
  56. 56. REVIEW QUESTION What are the main differences in the three types of victim removal methods? 9–56
  57. 57. Explain firefighter survival methods. Learning Objective 7 9–57
  58. 58. The lives of all firefighters depend on survival skills. 9–58
  59. 59. Prevention-based survival is the most important survival technique. 9–59 (Cont.)
  60. 60. Prevention-based survival is the most important survival technique. 9–60
  61. 61. Follow these other important guidelines before and during interiors operations. 9–61 Always have plan and a backup plan
  62. 62. Remember the following guidelines when practicing survival preparation. 9–62
  63. 63. REVIEW QUESTION What are the three behaviors firefighters must learn and follow to ensure their own survival and that of fellow firefighters? 9–63
  64. 64. Recognizing MAYDAY situations is vital to firefighter survival. 9–64 (Cont.) CourtesyofIowaState FireTrainingBureau
  65. 65. Recognizing MAYDAY situations is the next step in firefighter survival. 9–65 CourtesyofRhettStrain/OSU-FST
  66. 66. Immediate communication increases the chance of survival. 9–66
  67. 67. Use the acronym LUNARS to remember what information to communicate. 9–67 Location Unit Name Assignment Resources needed Situation
  68. 68. Take the following actions whenever a MAYDAY is broadcast. 9–68
  69. 69. Listen closely to radio transmissions being made. 9–69
  70. 70. Proper air management allows firefighters to exit IDLH areas safely. 9–70
  71. 71. Check air gauge regularly and know your point of no return. 9–71
  72. 72. Individual firefighters can decide to leave only under special circumstances. 9–72
  73. 73. Knowing how to react in an air emergency is essential. 9–73
  74. 74. Explain what survival actions firefighters can take when needed. Learning Objective 8 9–74
  75. 75. Describe the actions of a rapid intervention crew or team (RIC/RIT) when locating a downed firefighter. Learning Objective 9 9–75
  76. 76. To survive a MAYDAY event, monitor your surroundings and use situational awareness. 9–76
  77. 77. When remaining in place, stay calm, breath slowly, and stay low. 9–77
  78. 78. Seeking safe shelter means taking action to improve the situation or buying time for escape. 9–78
  79. 79. Escape is the best survival option in the following circumstances. 9–79
  80. 80. Escape requires teamwork and practice to know roles and responsibilities. 9–80
  81. 81. Follow these general safety guidelines when escaping a structure. 9–81 (Cont.)
  82. 82. Follow these general safety guidelines when escaping a structure. 9–82
  83. 83. Use duck walk or low profile maneuver in thick, dense smoke. 9–83
  84. 84. Follow these steps to search for an exit. 9–84 1. Locate wall, crawl1. Locate wall, crawl 2. Sweep floor with one hand 2. Sweep floor with one hand 3. Sweep wall with other hand for window 3. Sweep wall with other hand for window 4. Determine if window allows exit 4. Determine if window allows exit 5. Notify Command, ask about conditions 5. Notify Command, ask about conditions
  85. 85. If on the ground floor, follow these steps to exit a window. 9–85 1. Open window or break with tool 2. Clear shards 3. Climb through, feet first to ground
  86. 86. If on an upper story, follow these steps to exit a window. 9–86 CourtesyofChrisMickal/DistrictChief,New Orleans(LA)FDPhotoUnit 1. Find out if aerial or ground ladder is nearby 2. If not, report location and need for egress 3. Escape rope system if trained
  87. 87. Breaching an interior wall may provide an exit route, but should be used only as a last resort. 9–87
  88. 88. Always broadcast MAYDAY before attempting to disentangle yourself. 9–88 CourtesyofIowaStateFireTrainingBureau
  89. 89. REVIEW QUESTION How does a firefighter decide on the best survival action to take if a MAYDAY event does occur? 9–89
  90. 90. A rapid intervention team or crew (RIT/RIC) is required by NFPA® 1500 and OSHA at any hazard zone. 9–90
  91. 91. CAUTION! Do not underestimate the time and personnel required to rescue a downed firefighter. Carrying one unconscious firefighter can require four rescuers, and fully removing the firefighter from the hazard zone can require up to twelve rescuers. This process can take as long as 20 minutes to complete. 9–91
  92. 92. Mandatory equipment for RIC/RIT is described by AWARE acronym. 9–92 Air Water A Extrication Radio
  93. 93. RIC/RIT carry a variety of tools with them. 9–93
  94. 94. RIC/RIT follow these steps after a MAYDAY transmission has been received. 9–94
  95. 95. Digital radio transceivers can help locate disoriented or lost firefighters. 9–95
  96. 96. After locating a downed firefighter, RIC/RIT take the following actions. 9–96
  97. 97. RIC/RIT then notifies Command of the location and status of downed firefighter. 9–97
  98. 98. Exiting IDLH area usually takes priority over stabilizing injuries. 9–98
  99. 99. Make sure that SCBA is functioning or remove firefighter from hazardous atmosphere. 9–99
  100. 100. WARNING! Never remove your facepiece or compromise the proper operation of your SCBA to share your air supply— not even with another firefighter. 9–100
  101. 101. REVIEW QUESTION When does a rapid intervention crew or team (RIC/RIT) begin work on an incident scene? 9–101
  102. 102. • The first priority at any structural fire is that of survival, both for the individual and of fellow firefighters. • In order to meet this goal firefighters must learn to size up a situation, practice situational awareness, manage air supply, and remove victims to safety. Summary 9–102 (Cont.)
  103. 103. • Firefighters also must know MAYDAY procedures, master self-rescue techniques, and be able to locate and rescue downed firefighters as part of a rapid intervention crew or team. Summary 9–103
  104. 104. Demonstrate the procedure for conducting a primary search. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-1. Learning Objective 10 9–104
  105. 105. Demonstrate the procedure for conducting a secondary search. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-2. Learning Objective 11 9–105
  106. 106. Demonstrate the incline drag. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-3. Learning Objective 12 9–106
  107. 107. Demonstrate the webbing drag. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-4. Learning Objective 13 9–107
  108. 108. Demonstrate the cradle-in-arms lift/carry — One-rescuer method. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-5. Learning Objective 14 9–108
  109. 109. Demonstrate the seat lift/carry — Two- rescuer method. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-6. Learning Objective 15 9–109
  110. 110. Demonstrate the extremities lift/carry — Two-rescuer method. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-7. Learning Objective 16 9–110
  111. 111. Demonstrate the actions required for transmitting a MAYDAY report. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-8. Learning Objective 17 9–111
  112. 112. Demonstrate the proper procedures for an SCBA air emergency. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-9. Learning Objective 18 9–112
  113. 113. Demonstrate the actions required for withdrawing from a hostile environment with a hoseline. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-10. Learning Objective 19 9–113
  114. 114. Demonstrate the side technique for low profile maneuvers without removing SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-11. Learning Objective 20 9–114
  115. 115. Perform the SCBA-first technique for low profile maneuvers without removing SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-12. Learning Objective 21 9–115
  116. 116. Demonstrate the method for breaching an interior wall. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-13. Learning Objective 22 9–116
  117. 117. Demonstrate the steps for disentangling from debris or wires. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 9-I-14. Learning Objective 23 9–117

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