What is a Project? It is a group of unique, inter-related activities that are planned and executed in a certain sequence to create a unique product and services within a specific time frame, scope and budget. The Project Management Institute (U.S.A.) has defined project as, ‘’a combination of human and non - human resources, pooled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specific purpose’’.
What is Project Management?• Project management is a system of procedures, practices, technologies and know-how that enables the planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling necessary to successfully manage a project.• The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints.• Typical constraints are scope, time and budget. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and integrate the inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.
Project Manager:• A project manager is the person responsible for supervising a systems project from initiation to conclusion.
Project characteristics: Objective Unique activities Attainment of specific goal Specified time Interrelated activities Life-cycle Sequences of activities
Functions of Project Management:• Scoping – setting the boundaries of the project• Planning – identifying the tasks required to complete the project• Estimating – identifying resources required to complete the project• Scheduling – developing a plan to complete the project• Organizing – making sure members understand their roles and responsibilities
Functions of Project Management:• Directing – coordinating the project• Controlling – monitoring progress• Closing – assessing success and failure
Measures of project success: The resulting information system is acceptable to the customers (e.g. users, managers). The system was delivered ‚on time.‛ The system was delivered ‚within budget.‛
Measures of project failure: Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the project Lack of organization’s commitment to the methodology Taking shortcuts through or around the methodology Poor Project management: Feature creep Scope creep
What is Project Life Cycle?• The attention that a project receives isn’t uniformly distributed throughout its life span but varies from phase to phase.• Most projects pass through the following five phases, which tend to overlap at times: Conceptio Definition Planning Implementatio Clean up n n
Significance of Project Life Cycle:It defines:The phases of the project (time)The work performed in each phase (work)The input and output of each phase (result)The milestone of each phase (end sign)
Conception/Initiation Phase:• Conception is the phase during which the project idea finds genesis and germinates, out of: the need to solve a problem, the observance of one’s environment, the drive to innovate something new.• This phase is essential and if flawed, it may lead to defective and dysfunctional projects.• A well conceived project goes a long way towards successful implementation and operation.
Definition Phase:• The definition phase of the project involves developing the idea generated during Conception phase.• It produces a document describing the project in sufficient detail, covering all necessary aspects like the manpower, materials, machinery, layout, utilities and feasibility.• It clears most of the ambiguities and uncertainties about the formation made in the previous phase.
Planning Phase:• This phase starts almost immediately after the conception phase and overlaps with both definition and implementation phases.• This phase involves the preparation for the project to take – off smoothly and effects many decisions related to the ‘project basics’.• It involves both Core planning and facilitating planning.
Core Planning: Scope Definition Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Project Plan Development
Implementation Phase:• This phase is a period of ‘’hectic activity’’. During this period, the idea starts materializing physically and tangibly and for the first time, the project can be seen off the paper.• Usually, 80-85 percent of the project work is done in this phase using all techniques of project management.• The various sub – phases of this phase, which often overlap, are as following: Commissioni Engineering Procurement Construction ng
Implementation Phase: (Contd) Project Plan Execution Complete Work Packages Information Distribution Scope Verification Quality Assurance Team Development Progress Meetings Information Distribution Source Selection Contract Administration
Controlling:• Controls are performed to regularly measure project performance, to adjust project plans and take preventive actions in anticipation of possible problems.
Clean – up/Termination Phase:• This is the transition phase in which the project is handed over to the operators and/or agencies responsible for maintaining it.• This phase is a clean – up task in which all project accounts are closed, Outstanding payments are settled and dues are collected.• All previous phases involve compartmentalized disposition of the project personnel and that task is winded - down in this phase.
Clean – up Phase: (Contd)• Administrative Closure – generating necessary information to formally recognize phase or project completion.• Contract Close-out – completion and delivery of project deliverables and resolving open issues. It includes: Purchase Audits Product Verification Formal Acceptance Lessons Learnt Update of Records Archives of Records Releasing the Project Team