Words And Word Formation

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Word formation processes in the English language.

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Words And Word Formation

  1. 1. Words and word formation Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico Facilitator
  2. 2.  etymology: studies of the history of words, their origin, and how their form and meaning changed over time  coinage, borrowing, compounding, clipping, blending, backformation, conversion, acronyms, calque, onomatopoeia, derivation **Note: The words and word formation processes here use the English language as an example. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  3. 3.  Guido (Guy) Fawkes, the leader of a plot to blow up the English Houses of Parliament in 1605 > a person of grotesque appearance – after the burning of Fawkes’ effigy > 20th century, general reference for a man > replaced "fellow," "bloke," "chap" and other such words throughout the English-speaking world > both genders : “I like being with you guys!” (refers to a group of men and women). PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  4. 4. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  5. 5.  neologism; invention of new terms --happens in rapidly changing cultures; speedy dissemination of information --mass media, internet, etc. Ex: robotics (1941), genocide (1943), black hole (1968) blog, internet, google emoticon PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  6. 6.  e-stalk -to stalk someone using internet searches and email.  flame war - rude and angry exchange of email messages  mailbomb -to intentionally disrupt a computer system by bombarding it with email  e-cruitment - online recruitment of employees; online submission of resumes and cover letters PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  7. 7.  snail mail - standard system of delivering mail which is very slow in contrast to electronic mail.  tweet - send short messages via Twitter  netbook –small laptop computer which weighs less than 3 pounds and has a 7 to 10 inch screen  hotspot –places where wireless internet access is available like airports, hotels, train stations, etc.  notspot -an area where there is slow internet access or no connection at all. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  8. 8.  slumdog -very poor, underprivileged person who lives in an overcrowded a slum  viral marketing -marketing strategy that encourages people to pass along information to friends, family and colleagues through e-mail messages, blogs, video-sharing, etc., so that the marketing message spreads like a virus.  freemale -a woman who prefers to stay single and independent to do things she wants when she wants PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  9. 9.  noughties- the years between 2000 and 2009 which contain a 'nought' (zero), as other decades are called the 'thirties', 'sixties', etc .  road rage -aggressive habits often resulting in violence against other drivers  sandwich generation - generation of people who care for the needs of their children as well as those of their own elderly parents  meritocracy - the idea that merit and individual effort determine one’s success rather than wealth or birth. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  10. 10. --new words based on names of persons/place  sandwich [the Earl of sandwich]  jeans [from Genoa, Italy where the cloth was first made Genoa (ˈdʒɛnəʊə) ]  fahrenheit [Gabriel Farenheit, German scientist]  volt [ Alessandro Volta, Italian]  watt [James Watt, Scot scientist]  boycott [Charles Boycott, Irish] PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  11. 11.  Latin: interim, memorandum, agenda, p.m. and a.m., sponsor, etc.  Greek : pneumonia, panorama, psychoanalysis, psychology, python  French: bureau, café, chauffeur, coup d'état, abattoir, attaché, á la carte  Sanskrit : chakra, cashmere, mahatma, nirvana, musk PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  12. 12.  sago, kapok, gong, orang-utan, gutta-percha, sarong, batik  kampong (trading stations) > compound  amuk > amok or amuck  kati (container for tea) > caddy  padi (Malay, harvested rice) > paddy Source: World Wide Words, Michael Quinion, 1996–2009 http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/malay.htm PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  13. 13.  boondocks -rural or back country  cogon -type of grass used for thatching; from Tagalog kugon  abaca -hemp fiber made from abaká, a plant in the banana family  jeepney  manila paper -light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  14. 14.  Turkish- yogurt; Bantu- zebra  Tahitian –tattoo; Japanese-tycoon  Hindi -avatar, bungalow, jungle, karma, pajamas, verandah, sentry, shampoo yoga, pundit, bangle, cheetah  Tamil: cash, catamaran, curry PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  15. 15.  combining two words to create a single word  compounds –independent words that can occur by themselves. -handbag; wallpaper, fingerprint, sunburn, photograph, buzzword PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  16. 16. –shortening of a poly-syllabic word  facsimile > fax  fanatic > fan  gasoline > gas  influenza > flu  condominium > condo  gym, lab, exam, math, prof, typo PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  17. 17. – combining the initial part of one word and the final part of another  brunch < breakfast+ lunch  spam < spice + ham  motel < motor + hotel  smog < smoke + fog  transistor < transfer + resistor  emoticon < emotion and icon  webinar < web + seminar PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  18. 18.  smirt <smoke + flirt; smirting- smokers getting to know each  burkini or burquini <burqa + bikini; swimsuit which covers the whole body, hair and neck  sitcom < situation + comedy; television series based on humorous everyday situations  netiquette <network + etiquette  netizen < internet + citizen PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  19. 19. -- nouns > verbs: reduction of nouns to form verbs  television > televise  donation > donate  option > opt  emotion > emote  enthusiasm > enthuse  editor > edit PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  20. 20. - changing the category of words  zero derivation – no affixes are added nouns > verbs: bottle, butter, chair, vacation verbs > nouns: guess, spy, print out > printout verbs > adjectives : see through adjectives > verbs: empty, dirty adjectives > nouns: the poor; the weak PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  21. 21.  shift of stress: verb > noun: presént – présent subjéct - súbject contést - cóntest PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  22. 22. – word from initials of a set of words  scuba -Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus  radar - RAdio Detection And Ranging  laser – Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation  PIN - Personal Identification Number PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  23. 23.  Captcha : Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell Computers and Humans Apart - distorted image of letters and numbers used to ensure that a response is not generated by a computer, in order to prevent spamming. Source: http://www.learn-english-today.com/New-words/new-words-in-english.html PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  24. 24. Onomatopoeia : creating words from the sounds they represent buzz, hiss, sizzle, cuckoo, crash, bang, hush, ticktack, etc. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  25. 25. word-for-word translation of a phrase borrowed from another language  Spanish from English perros calientes – dog hot > hot dog  Bahasa Malay from English pasar malam – market night > night market nasi ayam – rice chicken > chicken rice PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  26. 26. - word formation by affixes  prefixes: un-usual mis-pronounce/demeanor; mis-lead pre-departure dis-respect  suffixes : care-less, child-ish marx-ism, faith-ful, red-ness  prefix and suffix: dis-loyal-ty un-erring-ly PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico
  27. 27. O'Grady, W.D., Archibald, J., [eds.] (2009). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6th edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada. Yule G. 2006. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP. Online: A Sampling of new words and senses from the new 2006 update of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Retrieved 12 August 2010 from www.merriam-webster.com/info/new_words.htm English words of Indian Origin. Retrieved 12 August 2010 from http://www.ratnasagar.co.in/language/71English_words_of_Indian_Origin.doc New words in English. Retrieved 12 August 2010 from http://www.learn-english-today.com/New-words/new-words-in-english.html PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico

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