ties and connections within texts cohesive ties -maintain reference to the same people or things
cohesive ties : show how writers structure what they want to say crucial factor in judging well-written works A little girl went for a walk in the park. While there, she saw a rabbit. Since it was injured, she took it home. Source: O’Grady and Archibald, 2009:p220
marks the relationship of what follows to what comes before My father once bought a Lincoln convertible. He did it by saving every penny he could. That car would be worth a fortune nowadays. However, he sold it to pay for my college education. Sometimes, I think I’d rather have the convertible. verb tense –past tense connects past events to the present Source: Yule, 2006:p.125
individual sentences include elements that can be interpreted by referring to the information in the preceding utterances old information : assumed by the speaker as available to the hearer new information: knowledge introduced into the discourse the first time ▪ A man is knocking at the door – new info ▪ The man is knocking at the door – old info
S1 Once upon a time there was a merchant with two sons. – new information S2 The older son wanted to be a teacher. topic: the older son S3 He spent his time reading and studying. he = the older son; old information S4 As for the younger son, he preferred to travel and see the world. new topic: the younger son transition/connector : “as for”Source: O’Grady & Archiblad, 2009: p220.
everything fits together exist in people, not in word structure make sense of what they hear and see - understood relative to what they perceive or experience in their world involved in interpretation of all discourse; in conversation where WHAT IS MEANT IS NOT PRESENT IN WHAT IS SAID.
A: Can you have dinner with me tonight? A makes a requestB: I have a date. B states the reason why she cannot oblige no cohesive ties? - how does A interpret the reply of B? language users know that conversation is not simply linguistic knowledge.
Conversations Debate Interviews Discussions Lectures variation in what people say and do in different circumstances
roles of speakers and hearers and their relationships - friends, strangers men, women young, old equals, status topic of conversation – what the discourse is about setting of conversation
1. conversation – an activity where two or more people take turn in speaking
how do conversations go? one person speaks at a time silence between speaking turns is avoided if two participants talk at the same time, one of them stop talking Culture - specific
participants wait until one speaker indicates that s/he is done by signaling COMPLETION POINT –marked by: a. asking questions b. pausing other participants can indicate their desire to take speaking turns: a. making short sounds while one is talking b. gestures indicating they have something to say
Turn-taking •participant cutsrudeness in on another speaker • participant waits silently forshyness opportunity to take a turn and none seem to occur
long-winded speakers politicians, professors avoid completion points occur together:1) keep the turn, don’t pause at the end of sentences - make run-on sentences by using connectors: -and, then, so, but2) place pauses at points where the message is clearly incomplete - fill the pauses with hesitation markers: er, uh, ah
contributes in keeping conversations going subtle indicators as ways of organizing turns and negotiating social interaction through language
sort of, kind of, as far as I know, correct me if I’m wrong, I’m not absolutely sure one is not really sure that what s/he is saying is sufficiently correct or complete
if the speaker reports something s/he THINKS or FEELS (NOT KNOW) is POSSIBLE or LIKELY (NOT CERTAIN) MAY or COULD (NOT MUST) happen
take away assertiveness in statements soften the impact of words or phrases > I was sort-of-wondering maybe if.... I think that....
I think it’s possible that she may have stolen the money. vs. She stole the money. I may be mistaken, but I thought I saw them kissing at the bar last night. vs. I saw them kissing at the bar last night.
deciding on what is implied in the conversation drawing inferences about what is meant but not actually said
A: Are you having dinner with me tonight?B: I’ve got an exam tomorrow. B is not answering A’s question. A takes B’s answer as No or Probably not implicature concerning tonight’s activities > study tonight means no going out tonight
additional conveyed meaning appeals to a background knowledge shared by the participants critical part of a discourse A and B shared a background knowledge about exams and partying
A. John was on his way to school last Friday He was really worried about the math lessons INFERENCE: information not stated in text Inf 1: John is probably a student Inf 2: on his way to school – walking/riding a bus to schoolSource: Yule, 2006:pp131-132
B. Last week he had been unable to control the class Inf 3: John is a teacher, that he’s not happy Inf 4: He is probably driving a car
C. It was unfair of the math teacher to leave him in charge.Inf 5: John reverts back to his student status > Inf 3 is abandoned
D. After all, it is not a normal part of a janitor’s duty. Interpretation of the text is based on the reader’s/hearer’s expectation of what normally happens (schema or script)
“Make your conversational contribution such as required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.” (Grice 1975:45)
assumption:participants are cooperating with each other in most conversations by making their appropriate contribution.
a. be relevant Would you like to go to a movie? I have to study for an exam. NO > RELEVANT Have you finished your term paper yet? It’s raining cats and dogs today, isn’t it? IRRELEVANT: speaker wants to change the subject
make your contribution one that is true (do not say things that are false or for which you lack adequate evidence) – FACTUAL BASIS What’s the weather like? It’s snowing suspension of the Maxim of Quality is justified: Politeness – avoid hurt feelings
make your contribution as informative as is required --no more, no less How was the test? Oh, just like any other test.
B has no opinion B does not think the test is worth talking about B does not want to discuss the topic any further
Where does the doctor live?1) In Damansara; in KL - for curiosity2) In T2-02 Internation House, Section 17 PJ -detailed answer for specific purpose, e.g. to visit)
avoid ambiguity -- be clear, brief, orderly The woman John lives with – the woman is not John’s wife
Youwill be fortunate indeed if you can get him to work for you > ambiguous You will be glad to have you on your staff It’s not easy to get him to do any work
O’Grady and Archibald. 2009. Contemporary linguistics. Canada: Pearson Canada, Inc.Yule G. 2006. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP.