English verb system

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A presentation on the 12 tenses of the English verb system. An abridged version of a PBET 1103 (Introduction to the Grammar of English) lecture to the TESL Programme students at the Faculty of Education, Universiti Malaya KL.

Published in: Education, Spiritual

English verb system

  1. 1. ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, PhD TESL PROGRAM University of Malaya 14 February 2011
  2. 2. verbs main auxdynamic/ static/state action of being be, do, have, modals cognition, perception, Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program emotion, relation Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  3. 3. TENSE TIME ASPECT PAST SIMPLE FUTURE PERFECT PRESENT CONTINUOUSRUBRICO, Jessie Grace/PBET 1103 2011
  4. 4. TIME FUTURE PRESENTPAST Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  5. 5. ASPECT SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUSDr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  6. 6. TENSES IN ENGLISH TIME ASPECT PAST PRESENT FUTURE SIMPLE Simple Past Simple Pres Simple Fut CONTINUOUS Past Cont Pres Cont Future Cont PERFECT Past Perf Pres Perf Future Perf PERFECT Past Perfect Pres Perf Future Perf CONTINUOUS Continuous Continuous Contunuous Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, PhDSource: Master, P. (1996), p.48. TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL
  7. 7. Inflections of verbs Ø -sSUFFIXES -ing -ed -enInflection: number (Subj-V agr); tense Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  8. 8. Simple Tenses•SIMPLE PRESENT•SIMPLE PAST•SIMPLE FUTURE Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  9. 9. Simple Present TenseUsage• habitual action; recurring actionStructure: Verbbase -S -Ø> adverbs of frequency: often, always, frequently, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, etc. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  10. 10. Simple FutureTense Usage: action/states in a future time Structure will + Verbbase be going to Simple Pres + future time expression: We leave for Kelantan tomorrow. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  11. 11. Will or Be going to?Making prediction• will : for general prediction > It will rain tomorrow• be going to: linking prediction to present circumstance > They are going to find it difficult to get tickets to Manila. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  12. 12. Will or Be going to?Making decisions• will: in the process of making > When will you get the ticket?• be going to: decisions are already made > I’m going to drive up North tomorrow. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  13. 13. Simple Past Tense Usage: actions that happened in the past that has no connection to the present Structure: Verbbase -ed (regular) -irregularSubject-Verb Agr > NIL, except for BE Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  14. 14. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  15. 15. Present Continuous Tense• STRUCTURE: – BE {am, is, are} + Verb-ing• USAGE: ongoing actions Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  16. 16. Past Continuous Tense• STRUCTURE: - BE {was, were} + Verb-ingUSAGE: V1 was happening when V2 happened V2 > simple past: reference time Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  17. 17. We came to Malaysia on 27 June 2009. Ourfriend was waiting for us when our planetouched down at KLIA. It was raining when wearrived but the sun was still up at 7PM. We werehungry, so we went to a restaurant near theHilton. While we were ordering, our friend calledmy boss to let him know that we were here. Aswe were leaving the restaurant, we saw a friendin a taxi but he did not see us. We were goingback to the Hilton when we met another friendand we went for coffee. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  18. 18. Notes: PCTPCT is generally NOT used in English unless there are TWO verbs present:  PAST CONTINUOUS  SIMPLE PAST - reference time Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  19. 19. Future Continuous Tense• STRUCTURE: WILL BE { is, am, are} going to + be Verb-ing• USAGE: X will be happening when Y takes place Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  20. 20. Kevin is very excited because next year he is going to beworking for the Peace Corps in Sudan. The plan is asfollows: When he arrives, he will be living in Khartoum fora short while until he becomes accustomed to the life andculture of this desert nation. After two weeks, he will bemoving into a house with other volunteers in a villagenear Juba. There they will be helping the local populationto learn new techniques of growing cotton. He will also beteaching an English class in the village school because hehas an MA degree in teaching English. Later he will betraining young adults to work in a food processing plant.Of course, while he is there he will be learning Arabic. Itwill be a difficult assignment, but he knows that he andhis colleagues are going to be experiencing a completelydifferent culture, and he knows the rewards will betremendous. (Source: Master, 1996; p65).
  21. 21. PERFECT TENSES : completed action• Present Perfect: Action is completed vis-à-vis the present. > I have read it.• Past Perfect: Action is completed vis-à-vis the past. > I had read it.• Future Perfect: Action is completed vis-à-vis the future. > I will have read it. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  22. 22. Present Perfect Tense Structure : {has/have} + Verben• actions that occurred sometime in the past but have relevance in the present• Verben - past participle of the verb Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  23. 23. USAGE -1. To talk about experiences.• Examples I have been to Spain. She has never visited us. Have you ever tried crabs?• never and ever -often used with the Present Perfect Tense to talk about experiences. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  24. 24. 2. To talk about an action which started in the past and continues up to now. Examples I have been a teacher for more than ten years. We havent seen the President since Friday. How long have you been in UM?• since and for - express how long the action has lasted. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  25. 25. 3. To talk about a past action that has an effect in the present. Examples• I have lost my card. > I dont have it now.• June has gone to London. > She isnt here now. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  26. 26. Present Perfect & Past Simple tensesPast Simple tense - definite finished time in the past. For example: yesterday, last week, when I was abroad, then, after etc.• Examples I finished college twenty years ago. Where did they first meet? I didnt study Mandarin then. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  27. 27. Present Perfect tense - time references that refer to the time up to now.For example: today, this week, this month, ever, never, already, recently, yet, etc.• Examples I havent seen Tom today. Have you ever smoked a cigar? I have never been abroad. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb2011
  28. 28. Past Perfect Tense Structure: had + Verben Usage: X had happened before Y happened Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  29. 29. When the professor finally showed up, the students hadwaited for more than twenty minutes. He apologized andtold them that he had misplaced his watch. He asked oneof the students for the time, but the student replied that hehad misplaced his watch, too. Another student announcedthat she had seen Big Ben the summer before if that wasany help. By the time the students had really settled down,it was almost a quarter to four. The professor proceeded toask the students some questions which he had prepared forthem. When he had finished, he asked them to turn in acomposition which he had assigned two weeks earlier. Afterhe had given them another assignment for the week, hedismissed the class right on time. Most of the students wereused to this because they had the same professor theprevious semester. Source: Master, P. (1996), p.73.
  30. 30. Future Perfect Tense Structure: will have + Verben Usage: V1 will have happened before V2 happens Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  31. 31. Going to a Conference in JapanBy the time they get to Tokyo, the doctors will have flown formore than 14 hours. They will have crossed six thousand miles ofocean and have eaten at least four meals. They will not havetaken a shower since they left Chicago, so they are bound tomake their presence known. Hopefully, before they attend theconference, they will have had time to bathe, to rest, and torecover from jetlag. They will also have met the hosts and will nodoubt have introduced themselves to the other members of theinternational panel, which is the highlight of the conference andtheir principal reason for coming to Japan. The leader of thisgroup says that, when it is over, this will have been the thirdconference he has participated in this year, although it is the firstone at which he will have presented a paper. The Japanese hostssay that, at the conclusion of this meeting, it will have been thesecond conference in as many years that has taken place inTokyo, and they hope to host many more such meetings in thefuture. (Master, 1996; p. 76)
  32. 32. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  33. 33. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS STRUCTURE have {has, have} + been + Verb-ing USAGE : X began happening and has continued until NOW Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  34. 34. Examples: Present Perfect Continuous• They have been waiting at the Café for over an hour.• I have been working here for two years.• She has not been reporting to work since Monday.• Peter and Nona have been quarreling over money lately. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  35. 35. Past Perfect Continuous Tense STRUCTURE had been + Verb-ing USAGE X (past perfect continuous) started happening and continued to happen before Y happened (simple past) Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  36. 36. Examples: Past Perfect Continuous• Joni and John had been discussing the problem for three hours before Cindy arrived.• They failed PBET 1103 because they had not been attending class.• The customers had been waiting for three months before their orders were finally shipped. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  37. 37. Future Perfect Continuous Tense STRUCTURE: will have been + Verb-ing USAGE: X will continue to happen until Y happens at a particular future time Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  38. 38. Examples: Future Perfect Cont• When you get to Kelantan, you will have been driving for over five hours.• By the time we finish the semester, we shall have been meeting continuously for 14 weeks.• If the runner finishes within the next five minutes, he will have been running for 2 hours. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011
  39. 39. References• Carter, R. Hughes, R. & McCarthy, M. 2002 (2007, 8th printing). Exploring Grammar in Context. NY: Cambridge University Press.• Master, P. 1996. Systems in English Grammar: An Introduction for Language Teachers. NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, TESL Program Universiti Malaya KL/feb 2011

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