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Word formation

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Word formation

  1. 1. WORD FORMATION Presented by
  2. 2. Word formation is the creation of a new word  It is s a branch of science of the language, which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words)  It’s a process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes.
  3. 3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORD FORMATION:  There are 2 ways of word formation: productive and non- productive ways.  Productive ways includes affixation, word composition, conversion, abbreviation.  Non-productive way includes sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blending, back formation.
  4. 4. PRODUCTIVE WAY. AFFIXATION.  It consists of adding an affix to the stem of a definit part of speech. The main function of suffixation is to form one part of speech from another.  The secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.  Affixation is devided into suffixation and prefixation.
  5. 5. PREFIXATION  A prefix is an affixation process that includes adding a morpheme at the beginning of the word. There are different types: negative prefixes(unfair, non-stop), pejorative prefixes(to misbehave), prefixes of place (Locative prefixes)(midway, transatlantic), prefixes of size, degree and status(micro-, macro- , mini-, co-, vice-), prefixes of time and order(ex-wife, midnight, preview), prefixes of number (mono-, poly-, semi-, tri-) and others.
  6. 6. SUFFIXATION  It is a formation of new words by adding suffixes to the stem.  There are 5 groups of suffixation: - Noun-forming –er, -dom, -ism - Adjective-forming –able, -less, -ous - Verb-forming -ize, -ify, -en - Adverb-forming –ly, -ward, -wise - Numeral-forming –teen, -ty, -fold
  7. 7. COMPOUNDING  It refers to the joining of two separate words to produce a single word. The two words don’t lose their individual sounds. • Bookcase • Fingerprint • Sunburn • Doorknob • Basketball
  8. 8. CONVERSION  This is the change of the function of the word. For example when a noun comes to be used as a verb. Bag – to bag Back – to back Bottle – to bottle
  9. 9. ABBREVIATION  Word groups can be shortened.  Examples: professor-prof. Fantasy-fancy.  Abbriviation can be graphical (a.m.- in the morning, i.e.- that is) and Initial (J.V.- joint venture, BBC, UK, UNESCO)  Abbreviation of words consists in clipping a part of a word.
  10. 10. CLIPPING Clipping a synonym of reduction. In this process a word that has more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form • Brassiere (bra) • Fanatic (fan) • Situation Comedy (sitcom)
  11. 11. NON-PRODUCTIVE WAY. BLENDING.  New words are formed from a word group or two synonyms by clipping the end of the first component and the beginning of the second component medical + care = medicare Spanish + English = Spanglish Modulator + demodulator = Modem
  12. 12. BACKFORMATION  or Negative derivation.  A complex word exists first, the non-affixed form is derived later, e.g. –baby-sitter to baby-sit –editor to edit
  13. 13. SOUND IMITATION  Other terms for sound imitation are onomatopoeia and echoism.  Words coined by this type of word building are made by imitating different kinds of sounds that may be produced by animals, birds, human beings and inanimate objects. Dogs – bark cocks – cock-a-doodle-doo ducks – quack cats – mew (miaow, meow) cows – moo (low).
  14. 14. STRESS INTERCHANGE  is one of the ways of word building, based on a shift of stress 'conduct – to con'duct 'present – to pre'sent 'frequent - to fre'quent

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