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  1. 1. Morphology: Study of Words
  2. 2. Section 1 W.W.W. Word Wide Web
  3. 3. What is a Word? Thecatsonthemat
  4. 4. What is a Word? “A single group of letters that are used together with a particular meaning.” (LDOCE)
  5. 5. One or Many Words? Fly fly Noun flies Fly fly Verb flying flies flew flown
  6. 6. What is a Word? Do you consider these as one or many different words? 1. help 2. helps 3. helped 4. helping
  7. 7. What is a Word? What about these? • helpful • helpline • help box • helping hand
  8. 8. What is a Word? happy likely desirable unhappy unlikely undesirable If we assume that the most basic unit of meaning is the word, what do we say about the parts of words like un-, which has a fixed meaning?
  9. 9. Word = A Single Piece of Meaning? • • • • • • ‘unfaithfulness’ ‘laptop’ ‘lap dog’ ‘seaside’ ‘sea shore’ ‘it’s raining cats and dogs’
  10. 10. Words – fixed meaning? Does the word ‘book’ have the same meaning in these sentences? • Reading books helps develop personality. • Please book a seat for me. • Is my booking confirmed? • My life is an open book.
  11. 11. Homophones Sound alike – Different Meanings
  12. 12. Homonyms Same Spelling – Different Meanings • Why are movie stars so cool? • Because they have so many fans! • Why did the teacher wear sunglasses? • Her students were too bright! • Why did the king draw straight lines? • Because he was the ruler!
  13. 13. Words – fixed meaning? • Okay. • Okay? • Okay! The meaning of a word may vary, depending on its immediate context. Meaning is also dependent on the tone or stress.
  14. 14. So, What is a Word? Linguists define words as “Language chunks which recur as self-contained units and have distinct syntactic behaviour.” • I fly home tomorrow / I flew back yesterday = same word • Birds fly / The fly buzzed = 2 different words • I offered her a seat / She seated herself. = same word
  15. 15. Knowing a Word • Knowing its sound (pronunciation) • Knowing its spelling (orthography) • Knowing its meaning [bear/bare - same sound but different meanings so different words] [sofa/couch - same meaning but different words]
  16. 16. Knowing a Word • Knowing its grammatical form (noun, pronoun, verb etc.) [I love you. / You are the love of my life.] • Knowing how to use a word. [Respected Sir / Dear Sir]
  17. 17. Implications for Teaching Work in groups of three and discuss the implication of these ideas in English language teaching.
  18. 18. Section 2 Morphology
  19. 19. What is Morphology? • Morphology is the level of linguistic study concerned with the internal structure of words and rules of word formation. • It is concerned with the study of rules governing the formation of words in human language. • A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.
  20. 20. Cats The word cats consists of two morphemes and one syllable: • cat, and -s, a plural marker for nouns. Note that a morpheme like "-s" can just be a single phoneme and does not have to be a whole syllable.
  21. 21. Unladylike The word unladylike consists of three morphemes and four syllables. Morpheme breaks: • un: 'not' • lady: '(well behaved) female adult human’ • like: 'having the characteristics of' None of these morphemes can be broken up any more without losing all sense of meaning. Lady cannot be broken up into "la" and "dy”, even though "la" and "dy" are separate syllables. Note that each syllable has no meaning on its own.
  22. 22. Technique The word technique consists of only one morpheme with two syllables. Even though the word has two syllables, it is a single morpheme because it cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful parts.
  23. 23. What is a Morpheme?  Count the number of morphemes in the sentence: Everyone enjoys teaching hard working students.
  24. 24. Morphemic Analysis of Words Every one enjoy s teach ing hard work ing student s I would like to thank every one of you
  25. 25. Content Words and Function Words Count the number of F’s in the following sentence. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.  One generally tends to note the ‘content’ words first.
  26. 26. Lexical Morphemes Lexical morphemes (or ‘content words’) are free morphemes that have independent dictionary meaning of their own. These are all the words listed in dictionary entries. • race • red • reed
  27. 27. Grammatical Morphemes Grammatical/Functional/Syntactic morphemes are free morphemes. Grammatical morphemes refers to words such as a/an, the, some, that, on, in ,at, or, but etc. which do not have an independent meaning of their own. These morphemes acquire a meaning only when used with other free morphemes.
  28. 28. Grammatical Morphemes are also collocations, fixed expressions or ‘chunks’ like these which do not have independent meaning: • • • • • • • However… Nevertheless … Despite… In spite of… In view of… Instead of… On the other hand…
  29. 29. Identify the Lexical and Function Words 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. reduced inside into beside besides an between trouble 9. together 10.where 12.from 13.enjoy 14.John 15.mother
  30. 30. Free and Bound Morphemes
  31. 31. Free Morphemes Free morphemes can stand on their own and have a meaning.
  32. 32. Free Morphemes • The following words are free morphemes: school, student, boy, girl, child, teach, lecture • Most free morphemes are content or lexical words as they usually carry meaning. However note the function words: is, has, on, does, been
  33. 33. Bound Morphemes Bound morphemes cannot stand on their own, and make meaning. They attach to a free morpheme to add meaning.
  34. 34. Bound Morphemes • The following are examples of ‘bound morphemes’: -ment, -en, -ing, -ed, -ness, -full, mis-, un-, -ly • Bound morphemes can also be called grammatical indicators because they can indicate or change the grammatical behaviour of a word. The word form with the correct bound morpheme must be used depending on the context and the position of the word. Example: *The lecturer glad praised God. × The lecturer gladly praised God. √
  35. 35. Inflectional Bound Morphemes Inflectional affixes perform grammatical functions. They are added at the end of a word to create new words. Generally, they indicate: Number: boy/boys Tense: work/ works/worked/working Comparison: hard/harder/hardest
  36. 36. Allomorphs • Just like phonemes, morphemes also have variants [different versions]. • Allomorphs are the variants of a morpheme. • Allomorphs are a set of ‘morphs’ which consist of different versions of the same morpheme. boy/boys, bus/buses, copy/copies, man/men kill/killed, beg/begged, go/went sing/singing, write/writing, run/running
  37. 37. Derivational Bound Morphemes A derivational morpheme is a type of bound morpheme which generates new words by changing the class of the word or forming new words.
  38. 38. Derivational Affixes These affixes can alter the meaning of the words to which they are attached. -hood (child / childhood) Shahrukh is my childhood friend. He is not a child anymore. -ex (wife / ex-wife) Shahrukh’s wife is Gauri. He does not have an ex-wife yet.
  39. 39. Derivational Affixes Some derivational affixes can change the function (or part of speech) of the word to which they are attached. entertain (V) entertainment (N) correct (V) correction (N) teach (V) teacher (N) sad (N) sadly (Adv) beauty (N) beautiful (Adj)
  40. 40. Use different forms of the word ‘entertain’ to complete the sentences. 1. My wife likes …………….. visitors at her house. 2. She is a good ………….. . 3. She …………. them to good food and …………. music. 4. Cyberjaya is not a place for good …………… .
  41. 41. Use different forms of the word ‘entertain’ to complete the sentences. 1. My wife likes to entertain visitors at her house. 2. She is a good entertainer. 3. She entertains them to good food and entertaining music. 4. Cyberjaya is not a place for good entertainment.
  42. 42. Derivational Bound Morphemes 1. Deriving Nouns from Verbs Verb Noun break breakage revive revival explore exploration govern government inform informant
  43. 43. Derivational Bound Morphemes 2. Adjectives from nouns Noun Adjective care careful fruit fruitless love lovable friend friendly Malaysia Malaysian
  44. 44. Derivational Bound Morphemes 3. Nouns from adjectives Adjective Noun kind kindness rapid rapidity fragrant fragrance hostile hostility
  45. 45. Derivational Bound Morphemes 4. Verbs from adjectives Adjective Verb weak weaken solid solidify
  46. 46. Derivational Bound Morphemes 5. Adjectives from verbs Verb Adjective wash washable digest digestive satisfy satisfactory 6. Verbs from nouns Noun Verb special specialise
  47. 47. Derivational Bound Morphemes • They change the meaning or word class e.g. govern + ment = government • They indicate semantic relations in words e.g. the morpheme –ful in hopeful and the morpheme –less in waterless. • The derivational bound morpheme operates in a closed circuit kind of relationship. For example, we cannot say *lookful or *milkless • The derivational bound morpheme comes before the inflectional morpheme. For example, teach-er-s, hope-ful-s
  48. 48. Free and Bound Morphemes • Identify the free and bound morphemes in these words: laptop seaside unfortunately saves raining cats mismatch projector • Think of at least ten words with the bound morphemes at the beginning or at the end of the words.
  49. 49. Word Formation
  50. 50. Affixation Affixation is a morphological process of attaching an affix to the root or base of a word. An affix is a type of ‘bound morpheme’ that is always attached to the root or base of a word.
  51. 51. Prefix A prefix is the type of affix that occurs before the root or base of a word. insensitive unkind impossible disable • In• Un• Semi• Im• Dis-
  52. 52. Suffix This is the type of affix that occurs after the base or the root of a word. teacher helpful boyish fatherhood -er -ful -less -ish -hood
  53. 53. What are Root / Stem Words? ‘Root’ or ‘Stem’ is another term used for describing free or bound morphemes. The root word cannot be sub-divided and is combined with ‘bound’ morphemes to form new words. improper (proper) uninterrupted (interrupt) permit/submit/admit (-mit) economy/economic/economics (econom-) Note: The ‘root’ does not always exist as a free morpheme. Example – receive, reduce, repeat
  54. 54. Compound Words A compound word consists of two or more free morphemes: textbook carry box lecture hall wooden spoon talking bird
  55. 55. Types of Compound Words  Closed compounds (Words written together) textbook flowerpot  Hyphenated compounds merry-go-round well-being  Open compounds (Words written separately) school bus decision making chocolate chip cookies
  56. 56. Compound- complex words A compound-complex word is that which consists of two or more free morphemes and one or more bound morphemes. • textbooks • overtaken • brother-in-law
  57. 57. Compound Words Explain the possible meaning of the compound words: • old-furniture salesman • old furniture salesman
  58. 58. Blending Blending: similar to compounding, but parts of the free morpheme involved are lost (Usually, 1st part of the 1st word + end of the 2nd word) • brunch (breakfast + lunch) • motel (motor + hotel) • smog (smoke + fog) • newscast (news + broadcast)
  59. 59. Blending Work in groups of three and think of some blends in English and Malay.  chexting, camcorder, emoticon, globish, infotainment, mopad, sitcom, telegenic cerpen, tadika ….
  60. 60. Clipping: Shortening of a longer free morpheme • • • • • • auto lab bike sub ad porn • • • • • • Prof Doc Kathy Liz Ron condo
  61. 61. Reduplication Reduplication: Full or partial repetition of a free morpheme; sometimes with a variation • so-so • bye-bye • dilly-dally • zigzag • mishmash
  62. 62. Word Coinage Completely New Words • aspirin, nylon, kleenex, teflon, zipper • google, pooch, facebook Extensions of existing words • hamburger: cheese burger, veggie burger, fish burger, tofu burger • broadcast: telecast, webcast • marathon: walkathon, talkathon, danceathon • alcoholic: workaholic • seminar: webinar
  63. 63. Word Borrowing A language may borrow from another language, words for which there are no equivalents in it. These may be words for objects, social, political, and cultural institutions and events or abstract concepts which are not found in the culture of that language.
  64. 64. Word Borrowing Historically, English has borrowed tremendously from other languages. - alcohol (Arabic) - boss (Dutch) - croissant (French) - lilac (Persian) - piano (Italian) - pretzel (German) - robot (Czech) - tycoon (Japanese) - yogurt (Turkish) - zebra (Bantu)
  65. 65. Loan Words Direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language. • English – technology • Malay – teknologi • English – computer • Malay – komputer • English – boyfriend • Chinese – nan pengyu • Malay – teman lelaki
  66. 66. Acronyms Acronyms abbreviate (shorten) a longer term by taking the initial letters. A. Follow pronunciation: NATO, TOFEL, AIDS, MUET, UNESCO B. If unpronounceable, say each letter: ATM, IQ, MRT, MTV, CD, UFO, SMS C. Sound out each letter to avoid confusion: WHO, UNO (Note – PIN number)