Semantics: Meanings of Language

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Semantics: Meanings of Language

  1. 1. Semantics:Meaning ofLanguage Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education University of Malay
  2. 2. SEMANTICSlexical semantics – word meaning and relationships words – containers of meaningphrasal/sentential semantics- meaning of syntactic units larger than wordsLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  3. 3. Conceptual and Associative conceptual : denotation  equate meaning of word to the thing/entity it refers (referent) associative : connotation  set of associations a word’s use can evoke
  4. 4. Lexical relations msynonymy- eantonymy t apolysemy p h homophonymetonymy o r collocation
  5. 5. Synonymy  conceal - hide  reply –answer No absolute synonyms  Answer the phone.  Reply to the phone.Linguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  6. 6. antonymygradable antonyms  set of words in a continuum- > tiny-small-medium-large-huge  negative does not imply opposite > my car is not old ≠ my car is new
  7. 7. antonymy non-gradable: complementary pairs> single – married; true – false  negation of one implies the other reversives enter- exit lengthen – shorten pack – unpack come–go
  8. 8. Hyponomy – inclusionSUPERORDINATE/ COLOR HYPERNYM BLUE GREEN YELLOW PURPLE HYPONYMSLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  9. 9. animals bird dog human hawk sparrow fowl quail turkey chickenLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  10. 10. homophony homophones > different form, same pronunciation bear – bare meat- meet to-too-two right – write
  11. 11. homonyms/homographs one form, different meanings light not heavy illumination bank financial institution small cliff at the river edge pen writing instrument cage race contest ethnic groupLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  12. 12. polysemy one form, multiple related meaning head – part of the body; top man in a company foot – of a person, of a bed, of a mountain date – point in time arranged meeting/social meeting a person one goes out withLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  13. 13. metonymy  whole-part relation car/wheels; house/roof  container – content relation bottle/wine; can/juice  representative – symbol relation -the Palace announced -answering the doorLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  14. 14. metaphor understanding the concept in terms of another extension beyond the primary sense  eye of the needle; see the point  buying time; budget time; spend time  borrowed time  peak of health  fell into depression Linguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  15. 15. collocationhammer – nailneedle –threadbutter – breadsalt –pepper
  16. 16. Semantic Features a. The table listens to the radio. b. The hamburger eats the boy. c. The horse reads the newspaper. Syntax: well-formed Semantics - oddLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  17. 17. Semantic features : ± table horse boy man girl womananimat - + + + + +ehumanfemaleadult Linguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  18. 18. Semantic Roles or Thematic Roles roles of NPs in a sentence a. The boy kicked the ball doer V entity affected by the action 1 2 Agent theme/patient thematic roles: Agent, PatientLinguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  19. 19. Semantic Roles or Thematic Rolesb. The boy hurt himself Agent themec. Johnny cut the rope Agent theme/patient 1 2 with a knife. instrument 3
  20. 20. Semantic Roles or Thematic Rolesd. The boy feels sad experiencer : one who sees, knows or 4 enjoys somethinge. Mary saw a fly on the wall experiencer theme location 5  location - the place of action
  21. 21. Semantic Roles or Thematic Rolesf. Mary borrowed a book from George Agent theme source 6 - starting point of movementg. She returned the book to George. goal 7 - end point of movement Linguistics for language teachers/Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
  22. 22. References OGrady, William D., Archibald, John, [eds.] (2009). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6th edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada. Yule G. 2006. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP.

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