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Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar


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LANE 333

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Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

  1. 1. LANE 333 - MORPHOLOGY 2012 – Term 1ALLOMORPHS 6 By: Shadia Y. Banjar 1 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  2. 2. Morphemes and Allomorphs PAST TENSE: called [d], talked [t], glided [ǝd] MORPHEME: [-d]ALLOMORPHS: /-d/ /-t/ /-ǝd/2 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  3. 3. Morphemes and Allomorphs Plural formation: desks [s], cars [z], buses [ǝz] MORPHEME: [-s]ALLOMORPHS: /-s/ /-z/ /-ǝz/3 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  4. 4. Morphemes and Allomorphs The negative [in-]: insane [in] , incomplete [iŋ], impossible [im], illegal [il], [in- [iŋ iŋ], [im im], [il il], [ir ir]. irrevocable [ir]. MORPHEME: [in-] /in-/ /iŋ-/ /im-/ /il-/ /ir-/ALLOMORPHS:4 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  5. 5. ALLOMORPHS:VARIATIONS OF MORPHEMESDEFINITION:An allomorph is ‘any of the different forms of amorpheme’. [Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 9]EXAMPLE: long, lengthMORPHEME FREE ALLOMORPH BOUND ALLOMORPH {long} /lƆŋ/ /lɛŋ-/ ɛŋ- ɛŋ NOTE: a morpheme may have more than one phonemic form. 5 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  6. 6. SELECTION OF ALLOMORPHS: •The past-tense ending , the morpheme {-D pt}, has three phonemic forms. {-D pt} •The choice depends on the preceding sound. ǝd/ •After an alveolar stop /t/ or /d/, the allomorph /-ǝd/ /-ǝd/ as in parted ǝd/ takes place as in parted /partǝd/. partǝd/ /partǝd/ partǝd/ •After a voiceless consonant other than /t/, the After ӕft/. allomorph /-t/takes place as in laughed/lӕft/. takes ӕst/ /-t/as in passed/pӕst/ •After a voiced consonant other than /d/, the After allomorph /-d/ takes place as in begged/bɛgd/.ɛ d /-d/ as in seemed /simd/ •The occurrence of one or another of them The depends on its phonological environment. environment. This •This pattern of occurrence is called complementary distribution. distribution.NOTE: These three phonemic forms of {-Dpt} are not interchangeable. They are positional variants. They are allomorphs belong to the same morpheme.6 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  7. 7. •It must be emphasized that many morphemes in English have only one phonemic form, that is, one allomorph – for example, the morpheme {boy} and {-hood} each has one allomorph - /bŦy/ and /-hUd/ - as in boyhood. •It is really not the morpheme but the allomorph that is free or bound. •For example the morpheme {louse} has two allomorphs: the free allomorph /laws/ as in the singular noun louse , and the bound allomorph /lawz-/ as in the adjective lousy.7 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  8. 8. TYPES OF ALLOMORPHS8 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  9. 9. 1. ADDITIVE ALLOMORPHS:To signify some difference in meaning, something is added to a word. For example, thepast tense form of most English verbs is formed by adding the suffix –ed which can ƽbe pronounced as either /–t/, /–d/ or /–ƽd/:ask + –ed = /a:sk/ + /–t/, liv(e) + –ed =/lΙv/ + /–d/, need + –ed =/ni:d/ + /–ƽd/.2. REPLACIVE ALLOMORPHS:To signify some difference in meaning, a sound is used to replace another sound in aword. For example, the /Ι/ in drink is replaced by the /æ/ in drank to signal the simplepast. This is symbolized as follows:/drænk/ = /drΙnk/ + / Ι > æ /.3. SUPPLETIVE ALLOMORPHS:To signify some difference in meaning, there is a complete change in the shape of a word.For example: go + the suppletive allomorph of {–D pt} = went; be + the suppletive allomorph of {–S 3d} = is; bad + the suppletive allomorph of {–ER cp} = worse; good + the suppletive allomorph of {–EST sp} = best.4. THE ZERO ALLOMORPH:There is no change in the shape of a word though some difference in meaning isidentified. For example, the past tense form of hurt is formed by adding the zeroallomorph of {–D pt} to this word. 9 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  10. 10. AllomorphPhonologically Lexically Morphologically SuppletionConditioned Conditioned e.g. Plurals Conditioned is an extreme form ofe.g. Plural forms in sheep, oxen allomorph in which two where the choice of theEnglish (each one has a completely different roots allomorphs -ceive- or - different form and cept- is systematically realize the same morpheme.|s| cats cannot be determined by the ǝ|ǝz| glasses predicted) morphemes added to Examples are|z| dogs them: go | went Be | is| was | were | am a. receiver, Good | better | best receivable; Bad | worse | worst deceiver, One | first deceivable; Two | second conceivable b. reception, receptive; deception; concept, conception, conceptual 10 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  11. 11. Sing /siŋ/ siŋ/ Walk Sang /wƆk/ Ɔk/ Ɔk /sӕŋ/ /sӕ [past] /d/ A schematic representation of the lexicon as the irregular allomorphs are stored as distinct lexical entries, while the regular past tense form is derived by combining the stored stem and the stored past tense morpheme according to the regular rule. (Linnaea C. Stockall, 1999).11 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  12. 12. Formula ƽ {-D pt} = /-ƽd/ ~ /-t/ ~ /-d/• Braces {} are used for morphemes;• Slants // for allomorphs;• a tilde ~ means “ phonological alternation”.12 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  13. 13. Formula {-S pl} = /-ƽz/ ~ /-z/ ~ /-s/ ∞ /-ƽn/ ∞ /ø/ ƽ ƽ• Braces {} are used for morphemes;• Slants // for allomorphs;• a tilde ~ means “ phonological alternation”.• ∞ means “ morphological alternation”. 13 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  14. 14. Formula {be}+{-D pt} = /wƽz/ ∞ / wƽr/ ƽ ƽ• Braces {} are used for morphemes;• Slants // for allomorphs;• a tilde ~ means “ in alternation with”.• ∞ means “ morphological alternation”. 14 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
  15. 15. THE EXERCISES OF ALLOMORPHSEXERCISE 1: Explain why ‘a’ and ‘an’ are twoallomorphs of the same morpheme.EXERCISE 2: Identify the allomorphs of theinflectional verb past simple morpheme{−Dpt} in the verb ‘be’. How are theyconditioned?15 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
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