PEDAGOGY: THE CASE OF “FIND”
University of Malaya
This paper is presented in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the course
General Linguistics for TESL
Faculty of Education
University of Malaya
Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico, Facilitator
PBGS 6304, Semester 2, AY 2009-2010
Definition: The study of
language in general and of Subfields: phonetics,
particular languages, their phonology, morphology,
structure, grammar and grammar, syntax, semantics
history (Longman and pragmatics
Is learnt to enrich
awareness of the
humankind as it is closely
related to human
Human COGNITIVE Rejected dominant
communication LINGUISTICS ideas
According to Matsumoto (2008), CL emerged in the 1970s due to the disapproval of the
mainstream ideas that language is not part of cognition. In CL, language lies heavily on
human cognition and it expands throughout human communication.
Cognitive Linguistics: Concepts
Structure The Status
2 most relevant CL concepts (1) The status of meaning: Language occurrences are propelled by the
necessity to convey meaning. The presence of all linguistics units are supported by meaning, not any is
semantically blank. (2) The Embodiment of meaning: Meaning is fixed in the shared human experience; acts
as a basis for understanding abundant concepts.
Cognitive Linguistics: Main Areas
of inquiry are
Cognitive semantics: The investigation of knowledge representation (conceptual structure) and meaning
construction (conceptualization). Language is employed as a channel through which cognitive phenomena
can be understood. Cognitive Grammar: The modeling of a language system (the mental grammar).
(Evans et al., 2007)
The mental grammar Form-meaning
An inventory of
Fluency symbolic units
According to Langacker (1987), knowledge of language (mental grammar) is stored in the
mind as symbolic units (form-meaning pairing). If they are applied constantly without
hesitation, it means they have become entrenched; they become a habit or routine and the
speaker is able to use them fluently.
(Evans et al., 2007)
Cognitive Grammar: A Mental Inventory
The storeroom of entrenched symbolic
The contents are not stored in a
The mental inventory is created upon the It is structured based on relationships
entrenchment. It is a major issue in 2nd between units
language acquisition. Due to CL, the
frequent occurrence of a certain linguistic Some units are subparts of other units
units facilitates the target language
construction that leads to the entrenchment.
(Matsumoto, 2008) E.g. morphemes make up words, words
make up phrases, phrases make up
These interlinking and overlapping
relationships among units are called
Cognitive Grammar: Pedagogy
THE COGNITIVE PROCESS IN 2ND LANGUAGE LEARNING
In Learning the
must be tuned
understanding Steadily the forms as well
The target to set apart
the symbolic target units as learning
units or the units clash obtains
meaning of the
linguistic with the independence
new units and conceptual
criterion of native ones from the
the meaning structures
the target native ones
of the (meaning)
Theory of Language:
The Innatist Model
An innate mental
Processed and produced
Language is rule-based capacity for language
and generative in nature (Language Acquisition
The language has a
‘The Critical Period
(Universal Grammar UG)
The Innatist Model of Chomsky (1955) and Lenneberg (1967) as cited in
Suharno (2009), is believed to be useful as a guiding principle in applying
cognitive grammar to language pedagogy.
Theory of Learning:
Stress on mental
What goes on
It is vital to
dynamically the learners’
construct the background
knowledge knowledge or
In developing the instructional design for cognitive grammar pedagogy, Cognitive
Constructivism Theory (as cited by Perry, 1999) is scrutinized further.
Cognitive Constructivism: Concerns
Knowledge Learning Motivation Instruction
According to Perry (1999), as knowledge is discovered by the learners themselves, the
teacher’s role is to assist the learning by supplying the essential resources. To succeed,
learners must possess intrinsic motivation and supported by appropriate instructional
methods that enable them to modify the new information based on their schemata.
To promote the learner’s insight into the
foreign language system
To make learners learn by thinking
about and trying to make sense of what
they see, feel and hear
To maximize communicative
competence and accuracy in language
Learning Techniques & Activities
Learners need to be involved with activities that make them think critically before coming
up with meaningful analysis. Thus, Suharno (2009) suggests these four techniques to be
associated with a cognitive theory of language learning.
The Case of “find”: Reasons
They are not
fully aware the Reasons of
verb find can
take various choosing
the verb find
types of “find”
The Case of “find”: Definitions
Get by searching Exist in a place
See by chance Experience In a court of law
Discover state of
Get by searching
• I can’t find the car keys.
• Can you find me my bag?
• The child was eventually found safe and well.
See by chance
• Look what I’ve found!
• I didn’t expect to come home and find this
Discover state of something /
• He tried the door and found it unlocked.
• She looked at her glass and was amazed to
find it was empty.
Do something without meaning to
• She woke up and found herself in a hospital
• He found he was shaking.
Learn something by study
• I managed to find a solution to the problem.
• His study found that married men and women
had similar spending patterns.
Think / feel
• Will Gary and Gail find happiness together?
• She finds it a strain to meet new people.
• We found the beds very comfortable.
• I found the people to be charming and very
Exist in a place
• You’ll find this style of architecture all over the
Get enough money / time etc
• He’s struggling to find the time, the support,
and the resource to do all this.
In a court of law (to make official
• The jury found him guilty of manslaughter.
Entrenchment of the
symbolic units (form- Learning the form
meaning pairing) and the conceptual
Theory of language
learning: Project based
Innatist Model &
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