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Word Formation Process
Assistant Lecturer
Talib Muhammad Sharif Omer
Email:
Talib.omerr@gmail.com
12 Feb 2015
Outline
 Compounding
 Characteristics of compounding
 Structures of compounding(combination)
 Categories of compoundin...
1- compounding
• A compound is a lexeme (word or words) that
consists of more than one word ( lexeme). For
example, Airstr...
Characteristics of compounding
words
The combination words
• N+N .lipstick, teapot
• A+N. fast food, soft drink
• V+ A. breakfast,
• N+ V. sunshine. Babysit
• ...
Activity
• Indicate the structure of compounding of the following
words.
1- roughneck
2-girlfriend
3-waterproof
4-alongsid...
Compounding can be classified into
two categories:
A-Endocentric.
B- Exocentric
•A – An endocentric compound consists of a
head with the basic meaning of the whole
compound and modifiers which restrict ...
B- Exocentric compounds do not have a head,
and their meaning cannot be clearly guessed
from its constituent's part. E.g. ...
Headedness
• Head plays a key role in word formation
process for compounding such as (verbal
phrase or Noun phrase).
• e,g...
Headedness
Compounds are considered in two features
1- as to whether..
2- if they have…
• Examples
• Bedroom
• Teapot
Identify the head of the each
compounds
1.overseas investor,
2- parks commission,
3- sales receipt.
4 arms merchant
5- tak...
Headless compounding
• Exocentric compounds: does not contain an
element that functions as the semantic head
which modify ...
• For example:
Football,
Bluebottle,
Butterfingers
Headless- copulative compounds
Some compounds are called copulative
compounds ( coupled semantically).
For example,
Boyfri...
Activity
Describe both the syntactic and semantic relationships between
the words that constituents.
Butterfingers
turncoa...
2-Clipping
• Clipping is a kind of word formation process in
which a word is abridged without changing
the original meanin...
Four types of clipping:
• Back clipping
• Fore clipping
• Middle clipping
• Complex clipping
Clipping
• Back clipping is taking away the end of a word as
in gas from gasoline.
• Fore-clipping is removing the beginni...
Activity 1
• Decide how to clip the following words:
• examination
• gymnasium
• laboratory
• mathematics
• memorandum
• p...
Activity -2
• What are the original words from which these
shortened words were created?
• Taxi….
• Disco….
• Bus…
• Van…
...
• Taxi…. Taxicab
• Disco…. Discotheque
• Bus… omnibus
• Van… caravan
• comsat…. Communication satellite
• Chute… parachute...
Ends
Thanks for having attention !
References
• Katamba,F. and Stonham(1993) Modern Linguistics: Morphology. New
castle. Newcastle University Press.
• Stageb...
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Compounding- Word Formation processes

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Students of the major classes need to have the awareness of the Word formation processes.

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Compounding- Word Formation processes

  1. 1. Word Formation Process Assistant Lecturer Talib Muhammad Sharif Omer Email: Talib.omerr@gmail.com 12 Feb 2015
  2. 2. Outline  Compounding  Characteristics of compounding  Structures of compounding(combination)  Categories of compounding  Headedness  Headless compounds  Clipping
  3. 3. 1- compounding • A compound is a lexeme (word or words) that consists of more than one word ( lexeme). For example, Airstrike, long-haired
  4. 4. Characteristics of compounding words
  5. 5. The combination words • N+N .lipstick, teapot • A+N. fast food, soft drink • V+ A. breakfast, • N+ V. sunshine. Babysit • N+A. waterproof
  6. 6. Activity • Indicate the structure of compounding of the following words. 1- roughneck 2-girlfriend 3-waterproof 4-alongside 5-Bitter- sweet 6-Babysit 7-overwhelming 8-upload 9-look through 10-short-lived
  7. 7. Compounding can be classified into two categories: A-Endocentric. B- Exocentric
  8. 8. •A – An endocentric compound consists of a head with the basic meaning of the whole compound and modifiers which restrict this meaning, for example, doghouse
  9. 9. B- Exocentric compounds do not have a head, and their meaning cannot be clearly guessed from its constituent's part. E.g. white- collar
  10. 10. Headedness • Head plays a key role in word formation process for compounding such as (verbal phrase or Noun phrase). • e,g New book. Go on
  11. 11. Headedness Compounds are considered in two features 1- as to whether.. 2- if they have…
  12. 12. • Examples • Bedroom • Teapot
  13. 13. Identify the head of the each compounds 1.overseas investor, 2- parks commission, 3- sales receipt. 4 arms merchant 5- take in, 6-melt down 6- brother- in law
  14. 14. Headless compounding • Exocentric compounds: does not contain an element that functions as the semantic head which modify by noun.
  15. 15. • For example: Football, Bluebottle, Butterfingers
  16. 16. Headless- copulative compounds Some compounds are called copulative compounds ( coupled semantically). For example, Boyfriend
  17. 17. Activity Describe both the syntactic and semantic relationships between the words that constituents. Butterfingers turncoat Blueprint Bluetooth Loudmouth Bluebell ladybird
  18. 18. 2-Clipping • Clipping is a kind of word formation process in which a word is abridged without changing the original meaning of the word.
  19. 19. Four types of clipping: • Back clipping • Fore clipping • Middle clipping • Complex clipping
  20. 20. Clipping • Back clipping is taking away the end of a word as in gas from gasoline. • Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in gator from alligator • Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in flu from influenza • Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in sitcom from situation comedy
  21. 21. Activity 1 • Decide how to clip the following words: • examination • gymnasium • laboratory • mathematics • memorandum • photograph • public house telephone • doctor • dormitory •
  22. 22. Activity -2 • What are the original words from which these shortened words were created? • Taxi…. • Disco…. • Bus… • Van… • comsat…. • Chute… • Prof… • Mike…
  23. 23. • Taxi…. Taxicab • Disco…. Discotheque • Bus… omnibus • Van… caravan • comsat…. Communication satellite • Chute… parachute • Prof… professor • Mike… microphone
  24. 24. Ends
  25. 25. Thanks for having attention !
  26. 26. References • Katamba,F. and Stonham(1993) Modern Linguistics: Morphology. New castle. Newcastle University Press. • Stageberg, N(1981) An introductory to English Grammar. USA. • • https://linguisticsforeducators.wikispaces.com/Module+2+Unit+2+Morphology+June+7- June+13 •

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